Phillip R Shaver

Phillip R Shaver
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

387
Publications
744,877
Reads
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68,073
Citations
Citations since 2016
55 Research Items
28539 Citations
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Introduction
I am retired from university positions but still working with colleagues around the world on various writing projects concerned with attachment theory.
Education
September 1966 - December 1970
University of Michigan
Field of study
  • Personality and Social Psychology
September 1962 - June 1966
Wesleyan University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (387)
Article
Full-text available
In molti contesti professionali, compreso quello del Tribunale per i minorenni, si fa riferimento alla teoria dell'attaccamento e alla relativa ricerca, con fraintendimenti ampiamente diffusi che spesso si traducono in applicazioni scorrette. La finalità di questa dichiarazione di consenso è, pertanto, quella di migliorarne la comprensione, contras...
Article
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Exposure to environmental cues reflecting potential threats to future survivability is associated with a stronger endorsement of short-term mating strategies. Less is known, however, about the effects of safety and security cues. In four studies, we examined the effects of attachment-related security cues compared to neutral cues on preferences for...
Article
The accuracy of children’s long‐term memory for distressing events is of theoretical and legal interest. In this longitudinal study, 3‐ to 5‐year‐olds and their main parental caretakers individually participated in a mildly distressing event, and one hour later the children’s memory/suggestibility was assessed (Time 1). Six to 7 years later (Time 2...
Article
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Previous research has linked people’s relational attachment orientations to emotional reactions and coping during crises, and to social trust and trust in societal institutions. The COVID-19 pandemic is a global crisis for which collective efforts, such as social distancing, are necessary to stop the spread of the virus. During previous pandemics,...
Article
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La théorie et les recherches sur l’attachement sont utilisées dans de nombreux cadres d’application, y compris dans les tribunaux compétents en matière familiale [1], mais les incompréhensions sont fréquentes et sources d’erreurs lorsqu’il s’agit de les mettre en pratique. L’objectif de cet article de consensus est donc d’accroître la compréhension...
Article
La teoría y la investigación sobre el apego se utilizan en muchos contextos aplicados, incluidos los juzgados de familia, pero hay malentendidos muy extendidos y que a veces dan lugar a aplicaciones erróneas. El objetivo de este documento de consenso es, por lo tanto, mejorar la comprensión, contrarrestar la desinformación y dirigir el uso de la te...
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Leadership styles in work contexts play a role in employees’ well-being, contributing to better health or, on the contrary, being a source of stress. In this study we propose that security providing leadership may be considered as a resource to prevent employees’ job burnout. First, we examine the relationship between employees’ perception of their...
Article
Parents’ attachment orientations predict children’s memory about distressing life events, such that parents who are less secure in close relationships tend to have children who are less accurate in their memory reports. This study examined whether socially supportive interviewing would reduce differences in children’s memory performance associated...
Article
According to attachment theory, the propensity of human beings to care for others is governed by an inborn caregiving behavioral system that aims to promote welfare and reduce the distress of other people through effective provision of care. However, some individuals may develop non-optimal caregiving strategies, such as anxious hyperactivation and...
Article
Attachment theory emphasizes both the importance of supportive relationship partners, beginning in infancy, for developing a sense of security, and the adaptive benefits of this sense. In this article, we consider bolstering the sense of attachment security as a means of reducing and overcoming prejudice, discrimination, and racism. We review basic...
Article
The present two-study investigation is the first to examine whether experimentally boosting attachment security (security priming) affects attitudes in the parenting domain for both parents and non-parents. Mothers (n = 72) and childless undergraduates (n = 82) were randomly assigned to a neutral or a secure prime condition and then completed measu...
Article
Full-text available
Attachment theory and research are drawn upon in many applied settings, including family courts, but misunderstandings are widespread and sometimes result in misapplications. The aim of this consensus statement is, therefore, to enhance understanding, counter misinformation, and steer family-court utilisation of attachment theory in a supportive, e...
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Attachment theory deals with the development and dynamics of interpersonal affectional bonds. It also provides a framework for understanding individuals’ relationship with God, which is central to religion. We review basic concepts of attachment theory and survey research that has examined religion both in terms of normative attachment processes an...
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Introduction: In two studies, we tested an anxiety-buffer disruption approach to depression, examining the effects of attachment insecurities, worldview threat, and death concerns on depression-related feelings. Method: In both studies, Israeli undergraduates reported on their attachment insecurities (anxiety, avoidance), were exposed to a worldvie...
Article
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Attachment theory emphasizes both the importance of the availability of caring, supportive relationship partners, beginning in infancy, for developing a sense of safety and security, and the beneficial effects of this sense of security on psychosocial functioning and physical and mental health. In this article, we briefly review basic concepts of a...
Chapter
Attachment theory emphasizes the importance to human beings of socio-emotional bonds with available, sensitive, and supportive others for effective emotion regulation, mental health, and psychosocial functioning. Originally, the theory focused on the quality of the infant–parent relationship, but it was extended to friendships and romantic relation...
Article
According to attachment theory, a sense of attachment security provides a foundation for mental health, social adjustment, and psychological thriving. In this article, we review what has been learned from laboratory experiments on the causal effects of contextually boosting a person’s sense of attachment security. We begin with a brief account of a...
Article
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In three studies we examined, from an attachment perspective, the utility and the validity of a scale assessing followers’ perceptions of leaders as security providers (LSPS). Based on the literature, we designed a 15-item scale tapping the five functions of a security-enhancing attachment figure (secure base, safe haven, proximity seeking, emotion...
Chapter
According to attachment theory (Bowlby in Attachment and loss: vol. 1. Attachment. Basic Books, New York, 1982), parenting is governed by two behavioral systems—attachment and caregiving. Our goal in this chapter is to summarize what we have learned about the link between the attachment and caregiving systems and the ways in which attachment securi...
Article
In this study, we examined the utility of attachment theory for explaining individual differences in dream experiences. Seventy-six Israeli undergraduates completed a measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance and participated in a daily diary study for 15 consecutive days. Each evening, they rated their daily sense of attachment security. Each mo...
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The goal of this study was to examine the contribution of teachers’ attachment orientations to the teacher–child relationship and to children’s adjustment to school during first grade. We sampled 539 first-grade children and their homeroom teachers ( N = 58), measured teachers’ attachment orientations and children’s attachment to mother at the begi...
Article
Objectives: The main goal of these studies is to provide an experimental test of a core hypothesis based on attachment theory: Working models of mother are active in adults' minds and can bias their views of self and romantic partners. Method: In two studies, we conducted clinical interviews to identify positive and negative core traits that par...
Article
We report 2 preliminary studies examining attachment-related individual differences in the ways in which contextual reactivation of oedipal issues in adulthood affects men's sexual attraction to women. In these studies, we measured male participants' attachment orientations, subliminally primed oedipal or neutral issues, and examined the effects of...
Article
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In 8 studies, we examined the terror management function of self-sacrifice and the moderating role of attachment orientations. Studies 1-5 focused on readiness to self-sacrifice for a cause, whereas Studies 6-8 focused on self-sacrifice to save a relationship partner's life. In Studies 1-3 and 6, we examined whether mortality salience increases rea...
Article
Full-text available
Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - The New Psychology of Love - edited by Robert J. Sternberg
Article
In four studies, a behavioral system approach was adopted to understand prosocial behavior, and the contribution of caregiving orientations (hyperactivation, deactivation) to various aspects of volunteerism was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, conducted in Italy, engagement in volunteer activities and motives for volunteering were assessed. In Studies...
Article
We studied attachment-related variations in the process of apostasy (abandonment of religion) and compared these variations to those occurring in religious conversion. A sample of 280 Israeli Jews who had undergone religious change (apostasy or conversion) completed scales assessing attachment orientations, themes/motives and other characteristics...
Article
According to attachment theory, a sense of attachment security (confidence that others will be available and supportive when needed) facilitates the functioning of the caregiving behavioral system and the empathic provision of care to suffering others. In this article we review what has been learned during the last decade about attachment-related i...
Article
The first months after becoming a new parent are a unique and important period in human development. Despite substantial research on the many social and biological changes that occur during the first months of parenthood, little is known about changes in mothers’ attachment. The present study examines developmental stability and change in first-tim...
Article
Research indicates that dispositional attachment security fosters empathy, and that short-term increases in security ("security priming") increase empathy and willingness to help others. In two experiments, we examined effects of recalling one's own vulnerability ( feeling hurt by a relationship partner) and security priming on empathy for a recipi...
Article
This study tested predictions from Bowlby's attachment theory about children's memory and suggestibility. Young children (3-5years old, N=88; 76% Caucasians) and their parents took part in the Strange Situation Procedure, a moderately distressing event and "gold standard" for assessing children's attachment quality. The children were then interview...
Article
According to attachment theory, the main goal of the caregiving behavioral system is to relieve others’ distress and promote their health and welfare. This is accomplished through a set of caregiving behaviors that are the primary strategy of this system. However, some individuals develop nonoptimal or secondary strategies (hyperactivation or deact...
Article
The purpose of this research is to examine the association between attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and both subjective well-being (positive and negative affect and life satisfaction) and relationship satisfaction. 174 Spanish heterosexual couples with a mean length of relationship of 13.9 years participated in the study. The hypothe...
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Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...
Article
According to attachment theory, the availability of caring, supportive relationship partners, beginning in infancy, is important to developing a sense of attachment security, which in turn fosters the development of stable self-esteem, constructive coping strategies, maintenance of mental health, and formation of mutually satisfying relationships t...
Article
Few studies have examined stability and change in attachment during adolescence. This 5-year longitudinal study (a) examined whether prototype or revisionist developmental dynamics better characterized patterns of stability and change in adolescent attachment (at T1, N = 176; Mage = 14.0 years, SD = 0.9), (b) tested potential moderators of prototyp...
Chapter
Full-text available
Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980) is, at its core, a theory of prosocial behavior. It explains how, in early childhood, interactions with mindful, caring, and supportive parental figures (“attachment figures”) create and solidify children’s positive mental representations of others (as competent, dependable, and well intentioned), t...
Chapter
How can we get the most out of our close relationships? Research in the area of personal relationships continues to grow, but most prior work has emphasized how to overcome negative aspects. This volume demonstrates that a good relationship is more than simply the absence of a bad relationship, and that establishing and maintaining optimal relation...
Article
In this research, we examined actors' and partners' perceptions of each other's attachment insecurities and the associations of these perceptions with relationship satisfaction. A sample of 148 heterosexual couples completed measures of self and partner attachment insecurities and relationship satisfaction. Results indicate that partners agree in t...
Article
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Research on emotional bonding, or ‘attachment,’ in close relationships, beginning with the infant–caregiver relationship, burgeoned following the publication of Bowlby’s (1973, 1980, 1982) three-volume analysis of attachment, separation, and loss. In recent years, research by personality/social psychologists has focused on attachment processes in a...
Article
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Prior research has documented a relationship between narcissism and aggression but has focused only on dispositional narcissism without considering situational factors that may increase narcissism temporarily. This study explored the possibility that an increase in state narcissism would foster aggressive responding by increasing anger and hostile...
Article
Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases...
Article
This study examines the validity and reliability of the Italian adaptation of the Caregiving System Scale (CSS), a recently developed tool designed to tap individual differences in the functioning of the caregiving system. A group of 259 participants took part in the study. Based on confirmatory factor analyses, the original two-factor structure of...
Article
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Meditation practices purportedly help people develop focused and sustained attention, cultivate feelings of compassionate concern for self and others, and strengthen motivation to help others who are in need. We examined the impact of 3 months of intensive meditative training on emotional responses to scenes of human suffering. Sixty participants w...
Article
According to attachment theory, a sense of attachment security (confidence that others will be responsive and supportive when needed) is a resilience resource in times of need and a building block of mental health and social adjustment. In this article we review what has been learned during the last decade about the causal effects of contextually a...
Article
Research suggests that the defensive strategy used by people who score high on attachment-related avoidance when they encounter interpersonal threats involves two stages: automatic vigilance followed by effortful avoidance. In two studies we varied stimulus exposure times and cognitive load to determine how attention is regulated by avoidant indivi...
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Five studies were conducted to develop a short form of the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire with optimal psychometric properties. Study 1 involved Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses of the responses of 2,066 adults, resulting in a 12-item form of the ECR containing the most discriminating items. The psychometric properties of...
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Attachment theory (Bowlby, Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books, 1973; Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books, 1980; Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books, 1982) is one of the most fruitful contemporary frameworks for understanding em...
Article
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In the present research, we examined the hypothesis that low avoidance enables the activation of the caregiving system, and therefore, among people low in avoidance, caregiving would affect relationship satisfaction, whereas among people high in avoidance, caregiving would not affect relationship satisfaction. One-hundred seventy-nine Israeli adult...
Article
We examined the effects of social exclusion and attachment insecurities (anxiety, avoidance) on physical pain sensitivity, hypothesizing that anxiety would predict greater physical pain sensitivity only following social exclusion. Participants were either included in or excluded from a computer-based ball-tossing game and then completed a coldpress...
Article
We examined the association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and a woman's own and perceived-partner extradyadic involvement (EDI). The association was examined both directly and as potentially mediated by attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in a sample of 807 French Canadian women. In line with our hypotheses, we found that a pers...
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This study examined the association between men's experience of childhood sexual abuse and later perpetration of intimate partner violence, considering the roles of attachment insecurity and poor anger regulation. The sample was 302 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties or aggression. They completed questionnaires assessi...
Article
For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents' adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mi...
Article
We recently showed that security priming facilitates safe haven support and overrides the detrimental effects of mental depletion (Mikulincer, Shaver, Sahdra, & Bar-On, 2013, Can security-enhancing interventions overcome psychological barriers to responsiveness in couple relationships? Attachment & Human Development, 15, 246-260.). Here, we extend...