Phillip Morris

Phillip Morris
IGER · Cell Biology

PhD

About

189
Publications
23,761
Reads
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3,304
Citations
Introduction
My main interests have been (and still are) in the use of transgenic approaches to gain a better understanding of the genetic control of crop compositional traits and in particular the role of secondary metabolites and their developmental accumulation and responses to biotic and abiotic stress NB: Citations on RG only refer to full text copies of e-papers within RG. For full list of citations see http://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?user=fGzNQ5EAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=ao
Additional affiliations
January 2003 - April 2008
Aberystwyth University
Position
  • Professor Plant Science
August 1986 - April 2008
Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research (IGER)
Position
  • Principle Research Scientist.
March 1979 - July 1986
University of Sheffield
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Education
October 1973 - October 1976
University of East Anglia
Field of study
  • Biological Sciences
October 1969 - June 1973
University of Liverpool
Field of study
  • Botany

Publications

Publications (189)
Article
Full-text available
An endo-xylanase from Trichoderma reesei (xyn2) has been expressed in tall fescue targeted to the vacuole, apoplast or Golgi, constitutively under the control of the rice actin promoter, and to the apoplast under the control of a senescence enhanced gene promoter. Constitutive xylanase expression in the vacuole, apoplast, and golgi, resulted in onl...
Article
Clonal plants of three genotypes of Lotus corniculatus (cv Leo) were grown in eight controlled environments under combinations of two temperature regimes, two CO2 concentrations and two watering regimes. Condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins), in-vitro digestibility, initial rates of gas evolution (as an indicator of the initial rates of fermentatio...
Article
In the cell walls of grasses, ferulic acid is esterified to arabinoxylans and undergoes oxidative reactions to form ferulates dimers, trimers and oligomers. Feruloylation of arabinoxylan is considered important not only because it leads to cross-linked xylans but also because ferulates may act as a nucleating site for the formation of lignin and he...
Article
Full-text available
Anthocyanins and condensed tannins are major flavonoid end‐products in higher plants. While the transactivation of anthocyanins by basic helix‐loop‐helix (bHLH) transcription factors is well documented, very little is known about the transregulation of the pathway to condensed tannins. The present study analyses the effect of over‐expressing an Sn...
Article
The color changes that occur during foliar senescence are directly related to the regulation of nutrient mobilization and resorption from leaf cells, often under conditions of biotic and abiotic stress. Chlorophyll is degraded through a metabolic pathway that becomes specifically activated in senescence. Chlorophyll catabolic enzymes and genes have...
Article
Full-text available
While many aspects of the growth of maize are well understood, the role of cell wall feruloylation particularly during internode elongation has not been firmly established, but results so far indicate that it has significant implications for both biofuel feedstock conversion and for crop yield. The growth of the cell wall is achieved by synthesis,...
Article
Full-text available
In the cell walls of grasses ferulic acid is esterified to arabinosyl residues in arabinoxylans that can then undergo oxidative coupling reactions to form ferulate dehydrodimers, trimers and oligomers which function to cross-link cell-wall polysaccharides, limiting cell wall degradability. Fungal ferulic acid esterase can release both esterified mo...
Research
Full-text available
A comparison in maize of the activity of maize and rice ubiquitin promoters using GUS as a marker.
Article
Main conclusion Improved post-harvest cell wall deconstruction of tall fescue leaves has been demonstrated by in-planta co-expression of a constitutively expressed ferulic acid esterase together with a senescence-induced β-1,4 endoxylanase. Tall fescue plants (Festuca arundinacea) constitutively expressing vacuole- or apoplast-targeted ferulic aci...
Article
Full-text available
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are agronomically important biopolymers in higher plants composed primarily of catechin and epicatechin units. The biosynthesis of these natural products is regulated by transcription factors including proteins of the R2R3MYB class. To gain insight into the genetic control of the catechin and epicatechin branches of the PA p...
Chapter
Full-text available
Biomass from forage and energy crops can provide a renewable source of meat, milk, and wool, or power, heat, transport fuels and platform chemicals, respectively. Whilst in forage grasses some improvements have been made, the potential of energy grasses is limited because plant varieties have not yet been selected for this purpose. There are distin...
Patent
Described herein are methods to enhance the production of more highly fermentable carbohydrates in plants, especially forage grasses. The invention provides for transgenic plants transformed with expression vectors containing a DNA sequence encoding ferulic acid esterase I from Aspergillus, preferably A. niger. The expression vectors may optionally...
Article
Edwards. J. E., Morris, P., Robbins, M. P., Kim, E. J., Kingston-Smith, A. H. (2009). Bacterial colonisation of the tanniferous forage lotus corniculatus in the bovine rumen. Microbial Ecology. Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Gastrointestinal Function, Chicago, USA, April 20-22 2009, 57, (3), 569-570. Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Gas...
Chapter
Full-text available
Robbins, M. P., Bryant, D. N., Gill, S., Morris, P., Bailey, P., Welham, T., Martin, C., Wang, T. L., Kaneko, T., Sato, S., Tabata, S., Paolocci, F. (2009). Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in forage legumes with especial reference to the regulatory role of R2R3MYB transcription factors and their analysis in Lotus japonicus. Pages 125-131 in: Yamada,...
Article
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity has been reported in orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata); however, to date, no endogenous substrates have been identified. In the present study, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of PPO substrates in this species. The free phenol fraction was extracted, separated by reverse-phase chromatography and...
Article
Levels of lignin and hydroxycinnamic acid wall components in three genera of forage grasses (Lolium,Festuca and Dactylis) have been accurately predicted by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy using partial least squares models correlated to analytical measurements. Different models were derived that predicted the concentrations of acid detergen...
Article
Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) is a common perennial grass that is frequently found in woodland edges, rough grassland, meadows and permanent pastures. In the UK and continental Europe, orchard grass, together with other native species, including fescues, occupies around 30% of pastoral land. Polyphenol oxidases are enzymes that cause enzymatic...
Article
Full-text available
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in leaf extracts of wild type (WT) red clover and a mutant line expressing greatly reduced levels of PPO (LP red clover) has been characterized. Both latent and active forms of PPO were present, with the latent being the predominant form. PPO enzyme and substrate (phaselic acid) levels fluctuated over a growing sea...
Article
In the cell walls of forage grasses, ferulic acid is esterified to arabinoxylans and participates with lignin monomers in oxidative coupling pathways to generate ferulate-polysaccharide-lignin complexes that cross-link the cell wall. Such cross-links hinder cell wall degradation by ruminant microbes, reducing plant digestibility. In this study, gen...
Article
Lotus corniculatus and Lotus uliginosus are agronomically important forage crops used in ruminant livestock production. The condensed tannin (CT) content, dry matter (DM) production, and persistence of these species are key characteristics of interest for future exploitation of these crops. Here we present field data on 19 varieties of L. cornicula...
Article
A rapid method for the analysis of biomass feedstocks was established to identify the quality of the pyrolysis products likely to impact on bio-oil production. A total of 15 Lolium and Festuca grasses known to exhibit a range of Klason lignin contents were analysed by pyroprobe–GC/MS (Py–GC/MS) to determine the composition of the thermal degradatio...
Conference Paper
Adams, J. M. M., Bryant, D., Robson, G. D., Morris, P., Fish, N., Donnison, I. S. (2007). Preparation and partial enzymic hydrolysation of single maize kernels for use in laboratory scale analysis. Pages 741-743 in: From Research to Market Deployment. Proceedings of the 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, ICC Berlin, 7-11 May 2007.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The activity of a maize ubiquitin and an enhanced rice ubiquitin promoter have been compared in Hi-II maize using the marker gene uidA (gus) in co-transformations with bar (bialophos resistance).Immature embryo cultures were co-transformed by particle bombardment, plants regenerated under selection and their GUS (β-glucuronidase) activity analysed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The potential of grasses for energy is limited because plant varieties have not been selected for this purpose. There are distinct challenges to determine and improve quality traits to increase ultimate energy yields. Perennial grasses offer the potential to be utilised through either thermal or biological conversion methods to generate heat, elect...
Article
Flavonoids are a diverse class of polyphenolic compounds that are produced as a result of plant secondary metabolism. They are known to play a multifunctional role in rhizospheric plant-microbe and plant-plant communication. Most familiar is their function as a signal in initiation of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis, but, flavonoids may also be signa...
Patent
Described herein are methods to enhance the production of more highly fermentable carbohydrates in plants, especially forage grasses. The invention provides for transgenic plants transformed with expression vectors containing a DNA sequence encoding ferulic acid esterase I from Aspergillus, preferably A. niger. The expression vectors may optionall...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A range of temperate grasses species including orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), timothy (Phleum pratense), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), meadow fescue (Festuca pratense), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and hybrid ryegrass were tested for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Levels of PPO activity we...
Article
Full-text available
Polyphenols in plants can protect proteins from degradation and improve the efficiency of conversion of plant protein to animal protein (meat and milk), but can this be achieved in a way that is environmentally sustainable, profitable to the livestock farmer and is consistent with aspirations for improved livestock nutrition, health, welfare and pr...
Article
A study was conducted to assess the effect of condensed tannins on the activity of fibrolytic enzymes from the anaerobic rumen fungus, Neocallimastix hurleyensis and a recombinant ferulic acid esterase (FAE) from the aerobic fungus Aspergillus niger. Condensed tannins were extracted from the tropical legumes Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia macroph...
Article
In grass cell walls, ferulic acid esters linked to arabinosyl residues in arabinoxylans play a key role in crosslinking hemicellulose. Although such crosslinks have a number of important roles in the cell wall, they also hinder the rate and extent of cell wall degradation by ruminant microbes and by fungal glycohydrolyase enzymes. Ferulic acid este...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution of the activity of the rice actin 1 promoter (Act1) in different cells, tissues and organs of oat during plant development, was studied in detail by histochemical and fluorometrical assays in plants co-transformed with an Act1-gus construct (pACT1-F) and the bar gene. Irregular patterns of expression were observed in leaves of some...
Article
This review considers the current status and future opportunities for biotechnology in the improvement of forages. It concentrates on temperate forages, although potential applications extend across the full range of livestock systems. The review summarizes progress in genome analysis, mapping, marker-assisted selection, introgression and transform...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Different commonly used constitutive promoters improve transformation frequencies when selecting for different marker genes, suggesting the relative differences in expression are important for different selection regimes. However, over all seven grass species the use of the ubi-nptII construct generally doubled the mean number of successful bombard...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of nylon mesh to immobilise calli improves transformation by allowing large numbers of targets to be prepared, and by simplifying manipulations it allows treatments to be timed more precisely. Nylon mesh also improves transformation in some cell suspensions. The technique was generally applicable but has proved particularly useful for the t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This book provides an up-to-date account of the progress and potential in the genetic improvement of grassland to meet all needs. It encompasses work on a wide range of temperate and tropical grassland species, including grasses, clovers and other forage legumes. It demonstrates how recent advances in molecular techniques are being used to develop...
Conference Paper
R2R3-MYB plant transcription factors are sequence–specific DNA-binding proteins, which regulate the expression of specific gene(s) following the R2R3 DNA-binding domain interacting with the corresponding promoter sequence(s). The biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of anthocyanins has been demonstrated to be under MYB transcriptional reg...
Data
Full-text available
XX International Grassland Congress, Dublin, July 2005
Article
Full-text available
Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on the Molecular Breeding of Forage and Turf. XXth International Grassland Congress, July 2005, Aberystwyth, Wales. Grassland covers 26% of the world's total land area. It produces feed for livestock; maintains soil fertility; protects and conserves soil and water resources; creates a habitat for wildl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Winters, A. L., Minchin, F. R., Morris, P. (2005). Substrate-dependent activation of polyphenol oxidase in red clover. In: O'Mara, F.P.; Wilkins, R.J.; 't Mannetje, L.; Lovett, D.K.; Rogers, P.A.M.; Boland, T.M. (ed.). International Grassland Congress, XX Offered papers, Dublin, 26 June - 1 July 2005, 49, p. 241.
Article
This book contains a compilation of offered papers presented at the main congress of the XX International Grassland Congress held in University College Dublin, Ireland from 26 June to 1 July, 2005. It is complemented by six other books arising from the XX IGC as listed on the back cover: the book of invited papers from the main congress and five bo...
Article
A full-length sense Antirrhinum majus dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) sequence was introduced into birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) in experiments aimed at modifying condensed tannin content and polymer hydroxylation in a predictable manner. Analysis of transgenic plants indicated lines that showed enhanced tannin content in leaf and stem...
Chapter
Phenolic compounds make up one of the major families of secondary metabolites in plants, and they represent a diverse group of compounds. Phenolics can be broadly divided into non-soluble compounds such as condensed tannins, lignins, and cell-wall bound hydroxycinammic acids, and soluble phenolics such as phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoid...
Chapter
Lotus japonicus makes a good model legume species for the study of induced isoflavonoid phytoalexin biosynthesis. As part of its defence response against pathogens, Lotus leaves have been reported to produce a number of isoflavans, a specific class of isoflavonoids. Model systems for Lotus elicitation have been set up using the thiol reagent reduce...
Chapter
Full-text available
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was analysed in crude protein extracts of red clover (cv. milvus) and perennial ryegrass (cv. abersilo). PPOs from both species showed high rates of activity with caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechol and methylcatechol, although the activity of red clover PPO was approximately 2 to 10 higher on a protein basis....
Article
A study was designed to examine the relationships between protein, condensed tannin and cell wall carbohydrate content and composition and the nutritional quality of seven tropical legumes (Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala, L pallida, L macrophylla, Calliandra calothyrsus and Clitoria fairchildiana). Among the leg...
Article
Two oat varieties, Melys (spring variety) and Bulwark (winter variety) were transformed by particle bombardment of primary embryogenic callus using either a ubi-bar-ubi-gus co-integration vector or co-transformed (Melys) with a ubi-bar plasmid together with one of three plasmids containing the beta-glucuronidase (gus) gene under the control of eith...
Article
Full-text available
Eleven Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk) plants were regenerated from embryogenic callus co-transformed with two plasmids encoding either the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) or the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA). Analysis of these putative transformants showed that three plants were transformed with the hph gene, showed the presence of...
Article
Full-text available
Proteins from forage legumes are often poorly utilized by ruminants. Indeed, they are too rapidly degraded in the rumen to be efficiently absorbed in the intestine. However, the condensed tannins, secondary metabolites produced by some species such as bird’s-foot trefoil, reduce protein degradation. This study consisted in the assessment of the add...
Article
Full-text available
Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying plasmid pTOK233 encoding the hygromycin resistance (hph) and beta-glucuronidase (uidA) genes has been used to transform two agronomic grass species: tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). Embryogenic cell suspension colonies or young embryogenic calli were co-cu...
Article
Full-text available
Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus (uliginosis) are agronomically important forage crops used in ruminant livestock production, with the condensed tannin content of these species playing a crucial role in animal nutrition. Through the use of environmental and genomic approaches, levels of these polyphenolic end products have been manipulated...
Article
Full-text available
Winters, A. L., Minchin, F. R., Morris, P. (2003). Effect of PPO on protein quality in fresh and conserved forage. Proceedings 7th British Grassland Society (BGS) Research Conference, Aberystwyth, 1-3 September 2003, 9-10
Conference Paper
Full-text available
(2002) The role of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase in controlling flux into the flavonoid pathway. Polyphenols Communications.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Transgenic plants of Festuca arundinacea and Lolium multiflorum were produced expressing a ferulic acid esterase (FAE) gene isolated from Aspergillus niger, following microprojectile bombardment of cell cultures. The level of FAE activity measured from different vectors targeting FAE to the vacuole, ER and apoplast under constitutive promoters show...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We have chosen to focus on identifying some of the underlying factors that regulate the phenolic content of herbage crops. For grasses, work has focused on cell wall-bound phenolics. These end products decrease initial rates of ruminal digestion and decrease the overall nutritive value of forage grasses. We have examined a range of transgenic strat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Proteins of fresh forage of the main legume species (lucerne and white clover) are extensively degraded in the rumen, and consequently poorly valorized by the ruminants. Lotus genus species (birdsfoot trefoil) are forage legume species that produce condensed tannins, that limit ruminal protein degradation. We studied the effect of adding either Lot...
Article
We have been using the classical model long-day (LD) plant Lolium temulentum Ceres, which can flower after a single inductive LD treatment, to study the floral transition in grasses. Plants of L. temulentum have been grown in short days (SD), transferred to LD and apices isolated after SD and a number of LD treatments, before being examined by SEM....
Article
Full-text available
Forty-six independent transformed plants were regenerated under hygromycin selection from cell-suspension derived protoplasts of Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.) after PEG-mediated transformation. Protoplasts were co-transformed with varying molar gene ratios (0.7:1–6:1) of a marker -glucuronidase (uidA) gene and a selective hygromycin (hpt) resistanc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We have expressed a bacterial enzyme, hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase / lyase (HCHL), to re-route secondary metabolism away from lignin and potentially reduce hydroxycinammic acid (HCA) cell wall cross-linking in Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue). In young leaves of transgenic lines changes were detected in...
Article
Full-text available
Cell walls play important roles in the life of plants. Moreover, as a major sink for photosynthates they factor heavily in the nutrition of farm animals and - potentially - in the future replacement of petroleum with a renewable, domestic source of fuel for transportation needs. Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-metoxy-cinnamic acid) is the most abundant h...