Phillip Levin

Phillip Levin
University of Washington Seattle | UW · School of Environmental and Forest Sciences

About

242
Publications
79,235
Reads
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11,627
Citations
Citations since 2016
70 Research Items
6985 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
Additional affiliations
September 1999 - present
Northwest Fisheries Science Center
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (242)
Article
Full-text available
A huge proportion of the world’s population resides in urban areas along the coast. As cities expand, the ability of coastal ecosystems to provide the benefits people derive from nature, ranging from food from fisheries to coastal defense to maritime transportation and beyond, is in question. While it is well understood that coastal development cha...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is already impacting coastal communities, and ongoing and future shifts in fisheries species productivity from climate change have implications for the livelihoods and cultures of coastal communities. Harvested marine species in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem support U.S. West Coast communities economically, socially,...
Article
Full-text available
A major challenge in sustainability science is identifying targets that maximize ecosystem benefits to humanity while minimizing the risk of crossing critical system thresholds. One critical threshold is the biomass at which populations become so depleted that their population growth rates become negative—depensation. Here, we evaluate how the valu...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal communities are being impacted by climate change, affecting the livelihoods, food security, and wellbeing of residents. Human wellbeing is influenced by the heath of the environment through numerous pathways and is increasingly being included as a desired outcome in environmental management. However, the contributors to wellbeing can be sub...
Article
The State of Washington, USA, has set a goal to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, the year around which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recommended we must limit global warming to 1.5 °C above that of pre-industrial times or face catastrophic changes. We employed existing approaches to calculate the potential for...
Article
Full-text available
Every year, river floods disrupt millions of lives across the world, impacting individual livelihoods and testing the resilience of entire communities, with ripple effects through national economies. Not all households and communities are equally threatened by floods, but disparities in flood vulnerability within and between communities remain poor...
Chapter
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Molecular forensic techniques to trace DNA from surfaces and sediments have played important roles in conservation and species protection for decades, but their application in the field of ecology is not as well established. In the 1990s, forensic sequencing was applied to non-human samples, illuminating how DNA shed in the environment can be used...
Article
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Metals are among the pollutants of highest concern in urban areas due to their persistence, bioavailability and toxicity. High concentrations of metals threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and biodiversity, as well as human health. High-resolution estimates of pollutant sources are required to mitigate exposure to toxic compounds by identifying t...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization-driven landscape changes are harmful to many species. Negative effects can be mitigated through habitat preservation and restoration, but it is often difficult to prioritize these conservation actions. This is due, in part, to the scarcity of species response data, which limit the predictive accuracy of modeling to estimate critical th...
Article
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Despite their limited area relative to the global ocean, coastal zones—the regions where land meets the sea—play a disproportionately important role in generating ecosystem services. However, coastal ecosystems are under increasing pressure from human populations. In particular, urban stormwater is an increasingly important threat to the integrity...
Article
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Many organisms exhibit tremendous fluctuations in population abundance and experience unexpected collapse. Conservationists seeking to minimize region-wide variability in resources and reduce extinction risk often seek to preserve a metapopulation portfolio of spatially asynchronous subpopulations connected by dispersal. However, portfolio properti...
Article
As the global toll on human lives and ecosystems exacted by urban pollution grows, planning tools still lack the resolution to identify priority sites where toxic pollution can be most efficiently averted at a spatial scale that matches funding and management. Here we tackle this gap by demonstrating novel scalable methods to monitor and predict ur...
Article
Full-text available
In response to calls for marine ecosystem-based management (EBM), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developed a multidisciplinary science support framework called integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA). The IEA framework and a national NOAA program for implementing that framework were the culmination of many efforts in...
Article
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Conflict is a common feature in conservation and resource management. Environmental conflicts are frequently attributed to differences in values; however, variability in the perception of facts, rooted in social and cultural differences also underlies conflicts. Such differences in perception have been termed the Rashomon effect after the Kurosawa...
Article
Background: The use of a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) was examined for different clinical indications in the critically ill. Objectives: To describe a single center experience with HFNC in post-extubation critical care patients by using clinical indices. Methods: In this single center study, the authors retrospectively evaluated the outcome...
Article
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Structured, systematic processes for decision-making can facilitate implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM). In U.S. fisheries management, existing Fishery Ecosystem Plans (FEPs) are primarily descriptive documents – not action-oriented planning processes. “Next-generation” FEPs extend existing FEPs by translating ecosystem pr...
Article
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Identifying feeding patterns of large-bodied predators is necessary for predicting their potential effects on food web dynamics. However, diet information from stomach contents can be impractical to obtain because required sample sizes can be prohibitively large. In contrast, diet estimates obtained using Bayesian stable isotope mixing models requi...
Article
Although health, development, and environment challenges are interconnected, evidence remains fractured across sectors due to methodological and conceptual differences in research and practice. Aligned methods are needed to support Sustainable Development Goal advances and similar agendas. The Bridge Collaborative, an emergent research-practice col...
Article
Balancing trade‐offs amongst social–ecological objectives is a central aim of natural resource management. However, objectives and resources often have spatial dimensions, which are usually ignored in trade‐off analyses. We examine how simultaneously integrating social–ecological benefits and their spatial complexities can improve trade‐off analysi...
Article
Full-text available
With the anticipated boom in the 'blue economy' and associated increases in industrialization across the world's oceans, new and complex risks are being introduced to ocean ecosystems. As a result, conservation and resource management increasingly look to factor in potential interactions among the social, ecological and economic components of these...
Article
Full-text available
Although health, development, and environment challenges are interconnected, evidence remains fractured across sectors due to methodological and conceptual differences in research and practice. Aligned methods are needed to support Sustainable Development Goal advances and similar agendas. The Bridge Collaborative, an emergent research-practice col...
Article
Full-text available
Although health, development, and environment challenges are interconnected, evidence remains fractured across sectors due to methodological and conceptual differences in research and practice. Aligned methods are needed to support Sustainable Development Goal advances and similar agendas. The Bridge Collaborative, an emergent research-practice col...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of empirical evidence is revealing the value of nature experience for mental health. With rapid urbanization and declines in human contact with nature globally, crucial decisions must be made about how to preserve and enhance opportunities for nature experience. Here, we first provide points of consensus across the natural, social, a...
Article
Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is a routine, evidence-based treatment in the ICU. Due to its ease of application, non- evidence-based use of HFNC has spread to non-ICU wards. This study reports on the experience with HFNC outside the ICU. Methods: This is an observational study of HFNC prescribed by treating physicians...
Article
We explore a "Go With the Older Fish" (GWOF) mechanism of learned migration behaviour for exploited fish populations, where recruits learn a viable migration path by randomly joining a school of older fish. We develop a non-age-structured biomass model of spatially independent spawning sites with local density dependence, based on Pacific herring (...
Article
The appetite for ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) approaches has grown, but the perception persists that implementation is slow. Here, we synthesize progress toward implementing EBFM in the United States through one potential avenue: expanding fish stock assessments to include ecosystem considerations and interactions between species, fl...
Article
Full-text available
The sustainable use of global marine resources depends upon science-based decision processes and systems. Informing decisions with science is challenging for many reasons, including the nature of science and science-based institutions. The complexity of ecosystem-based management often requires the use of models, and model-based advice can be espec...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, environmental disasters impact billions of people and cost trillions of dollars in damage, and their impacts are often felt most acutely by minority and poor communities. Wildfires in the U.S. have similarly outsized impacts on vulnerable communities, though the ethnic and geographic distribution of those communities may be different than...
Data
Race/Ethnicity vs. adaptive capacity for census tracts with moderate to very high WHP. (PDF)
Data
Correlation between race/ethnicity in census tracts and adaptive capacity. (DOCX)
Data
Data used for the analysis. (ZIP)
Data
Slope (β) and standard error (SE) of quantile regression coefficients at 5th and 95th quantiles. A greater β at the 0.5 vulnerability quantile indicates that increases in the share of Hispanics, Blacks, Native Americans, and Other races is associated with a greater increase in vulnerability for the least vulnerable census tracts than for the most v...
Data
Federal Indian reservations and moderate to very high WHP. Pictured here is the original WHP raster, not the census tract average used in the analysis of the paper. (PDF)
Data
Adaptive capacity index variables. Variables adapted from the Social Vulnerability Index using data from the American Community Survey 2000–2014 5-year estimates. (DOCX)
Data
Correlation between race/ethnicity in census tracts and WHP. (DOCX)
Data
Census tracts divided into vulnerability quadrants. High fire potential–high low adaptive capacity (A), high fire potential–high adaptive capacity (B), moderate fire potential–low adaptive capacity (C), and moderate fire potential–high adaptive capacity (D). (PDF)
Data
Race/Ethnicity vs. WHP for census tracts with moderate to very high WHP. (PDF)
Article
Improving fisheries management is a key challenge in addressing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 2 (Zero Hunger) and support Goals 1 (No Poverty) and 14 (Life Below Water). However, sustaining the ocean's living resources has important dimensions beyond food security, such as cultural values, which might be of equal importance in som...
Article
A simulation-estimation approach is used to evaluate the efficacy of stock assessment methods that incorporate various levels of spatial complexity. The evaluated methods estimate historical and future biomass for a situation that roughly mimics Pacific herring Clupea pallasii at Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada. The baseline operating model t...
Article
Full-text available
U.S. fisheries management has made tremendous strides under the current management framework, which centers on single stocks rather than ecosystems. However, conventional management focuses on one fishing sector at a time, considers a narrow range of issues, and is separated into individual fishery management plans often leaving little opportunity...
Preprint
Full-text available
Unanticipated declines among exploited species frequently occur despite harvests that appear sustainable. This is common in the oceans, where spatial scales of management can be mismatched with spatially dynamic metapopulations. We explore causes, consequences and potential solutions for spatial mismatches in metapopulations of an important forage...
Article
Full-text available
We develop a multi-model approach to explore how abundance of a forage fish (Pacific sardine Sardinops sagax) impacts the ecosystem and predators in the California Current, a region where sardine and anchovy Engraulis mordax have recently declined to less than 10% of contemporary peak abundances. We developed or improved applications of three ecosy...
Chapter
Full-text available
The stakes are high for both people and nature in this time of unprecedented changes in the Anthropocene ocean. Varied exposures, risks, and responses call for new and diverse knowledge and modes of action to ensure possible future resilience. Uncertain, unprecedented, and uneven threats will require new sorts of collaborations and participation in...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Interrelated social and ecological challenges demand an understanding of how environmental change and management decisions affect human well-being. This paper outlines a framework for measuring human well-being for ecosystem-based management (EBM). We present a prototype that can be adapted and developed for various scales and context...
Article
Modern approaches to Ecosystem-Based Management and sustainable use of marine resources must account for the myriad of pressures (interspecies, human and environmental) affecting marine ecosystems. The network of feeding interactions between co-existing species and populations (food webs) are an important aspect of all marine ecosystems and biodive...
Article
Full-text available
Background: At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. Objectives: We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal d...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing recognition of the human dimensions of natural resource management issues, and of social and ecological sustainability and resilience as being inter-related, highlights the importance of applying social science to natural resource management decision-making. Moreover, a number of laws and regulations require natural resource management a...
Article
Full-text available
Resource managers and policy makers have long recognized the importance of considering fisheries in the context of ecosystems; yet, movement towards widespread Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management (EBFM) has been slow. A conceptual reframing of fisheries management is occurring globally, which envisions fisheries as systems with interacting biophys...
Article
Full-text available
Marine fisheries science is a broad field that is fundamentally concerned with sustainability across ecological, economic, and social dimensions. Ensuring the delivery of food, security, equity, and well-being while sustaining ecosystems in the face of rapid change is, by far, the main challenge facing marine fisheries. A tighter integration of mod...
Article
Full-text available
One of the twenty-first century's greatest environmental challenges is to recover and restore species, habitats and ecosystems. The decision about how to initiate restoration is best-informed by an understanding of the linkages between ecosystem components and, given these linkages, an appreciation of the consequences of choosing to recover one eco...
Article
Targets and limits for long-term management are used in fisheries advice to operationalize the way management reflects societal priorities on ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects. This study reflects on the available published literature as well as new research presented at the international ICES/Myfish symposium on targets and li...
Article
Environmental regulation invariably requires making decisions in the face of scientific uncertainty. However, making decisions in the near-absence of evidence-essentially, the most extreme uncertainty-is a special case because it most plainly exposes the defaults and preferences of those making the decisions, and because it may inspire creative way...
Book
Conservation for the Anthropocene Ocean: Interdisciplinary Science in Support of Nature and People emphasizes strategies to better connect the practice of marine conservation with the needs and priorities of a growing global human population. It conceptualizes nature and people as part of shared ecosystems, with interdisciplinary methodologies and...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter highlights conflicts created by fishing at levels generally thought to be sustainable. Sustainable seafood has been defined as providing food today without affecting the ability of future generations to obtain food. But this straightforward definition belies the complexity of sustainability. Models suggest that even under low levels of...
Article
The traditional disciplines of natural resource management are rooted in university departments, each with their own traditions, theories, approaches, and professional journals. While individual fields have contributed a great deal to our body of knowledge, the time has come to tear down the walls among them. Here we examine some of the characteris...
Article
Full-text available
Coasts and estuaries contain among the most productive and ecologically important habitats in the world and face intense pressure from current and projected human activities, including coastal development. Seagrasses are a key habitat feature in many estuaries perceived to be in widespread decline owing to human actions. We use spatio-temporal mode...
Article
Understanding the patterns of development of fisheries across trophic levels and their effects on ecosystems is essential for sustainable harvests. We develop an age-structured food web model to explore some of the bioeconomic causes and consequences of fishing patterns. We illustrate some of the model behaviors using a food chain ecosystem, parame...
Article
An ecosystem approach to forage fish management is required because forage fish support large fisheries, are prey for many valued species in marine food webs, and provide important social and cultural benefits to humans. Complex ecosystem models are often used to evaluate potential ecosystem consequences of forage fish fisheries, but there is seldo...
Article
Full-text available
Improved understanding and management of social-ecological systems (SES) requires collaboration between biophysical and social scientists; however, issues related to research philosophy and approaches, the nature of data, and language hinder interdisciplinary science. Here, we discuss how we used conceptual models to promote interdisciplinary dialo...
Article
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Human populations are concentrated along coastal regions worldwide, placing a disproportionate stress on coastal marine ecosystems. Ironically, biogenic habitats may be adversely affected by human activities though they serve to attenuate the impacts of global change on coastal cities. Surprisingly, simple, coastwide indicators of anthropogenic inf...
Article
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Habitat loss, overexploitation, and numerous other stressors have caused global declines in apex predators. This “trophic downgrading” has generated widespread concern because of the fundamental role that apex predators can play in ecosystem functioning, disease regulation, and biodiversity maintenance. In attempts to combat declines, managers have...
Article
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MSY principles for marine fisheries management reflect a focus on obtaining continued high catches to provide food and livelihoods for humanity, while not compromising ecosystems. However, maintaining healthy stocks to provide the maximum sustainable yield on a single-species basis does not ensure that broader ecosystem, economic, and social object...