Phillip Sherwood Dunston

Phillip Sherwood Dunston
Purdue University | Purdue · School of Civil Engineering

Ph. D. Civil Engineering

About

91
Publications
17,236
Reads
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2,108
Citations
Citations since 2016
11 Research Items
1270 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Construction operations are typically spread across large areas and require remote collaboration between multiple disparate resources—characteristics that create logistical challenges for making and automating decisions on the worksite. This paper provides a framework for leveraging the growing ubiquity of devices that can be considered part of the...
Article
Four-dimensional (4D) building information modeling (BIM) (3D BIM plus time) is a powerful tool to visualize and communicate construction plans and milestones. A potential use of 4D BIM is to support daily construction operations and progress monitoring and tracking based on the premise that the latest version of the 4D model including daily constr...
Article
Transportation asset management (TAM) demands a data-driven decision-making process to proactively maintain, preserve, and extend the long-term service life of transportation assets. State highway agencies (SHAs) typically wait to inventory their assets according to their locations, dimensions, and material types and properties after they are const...
Article
Intelligent compaction (IC) technologies yield a large number of data useful for quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) in the construction of soil subgrade and embankments. A main challenge of using IC technologies for QC/QA is that the empirical relationships between IC data and in situ measurements are not clear, which prevents transporta...
Article
Enabling real-time and remote monitoring of construction operations is currently a very difficult task given the spread of the construction worksite and the complexity and diversity of processes involved. This situation persists despite the growing availability of instrumentation on construction equipment and other sensors on the construction works...
Article
Operation of heavy construction equipment is a cognitively demanding task, and training of operators is risky and costly. Advances in computer-based virtual training systems have emerged as a solution to limitations associated with use of actual equipment, effectively reducing risk and on-machine training time, and allowing flexibility in learning...
Conference Paper
Construction is typically spread across large areas and requires the remote collaboration of multiple resources, characteristics that create logistical challenges for obtaining a real time overview of operational status. This situation of limited perspective can lead to delayed and myopic decision making about the operation. We present a software p...
Conference Paper
In its current state of change, the U.S. healthcare industry is placing a focus on medical process efficiency, which contributes to architects’ motivation toward evidence-based design. Noting that computer simulation is gaining acceptance as a source of evidence, the authors have set out to develop a layout evaluation by simulation protocol to eval...
Conference Paper
Transportation infrastructure asset management is a data-driven process. Great efforts have been made by state highway agencies (SHAs) in asset management in recent years. To investigate the challenges that SHAs are still facing in current practice, a web-based survey was distributed across different functional divisions of SHAs through AASHTO’s St...
Conference Paper
It is logical to pursue cost and safety benefits by substituting practice on a training simulator for a portion of the training that traditionally occurs in the field on actual heavy construction equipment. However, more understanding is required to determine the most useful amount of simulator practice to maximize transfer of the desired skills to...
Article
Accurate and complete construction records and as-built data are key prerequisites to the effective management of transportation infrastructure assets throughout their life cycle. The construction phase is the best time to collect such data. Assets such as underground drainage and culverts are visible and physically accessible only during construct...
Article
Generating the structure of a simulation network is one of the most important steps in the process of modeling construction operations using discrete-event simulation (DES). It is, however, a complicated and time-consuming task that requires extensive expert knowledge and data pre-processing, which are needed to establish plausible assumptions to b...
Article
Recent advances in sensor technology have led to enhanced data acquisition capabilities in construction sites. A wealth of data are being collected from GPSequipped heavy vehicles for a wide range of monitoring, management, and analysis purposes. The availability of detailed GPS trajectory data has opened up new opportunities for modeling and simul...
Article
This paper proposes a framework for autonomous data-driven discrete-event simulation (DES) modeling process that transforms operation data to Activity Cycle Diagram (ACD)-based DES models without a priori model network. The proposed framework uses the idea of process mining to discover a real process by extracting knowledge from activity logs, whic...
Article
Full-text available
A prior study addressed whether practicing on both an excavator and a loader result in poorer learning of excavator operation than practicing solely on the excavator. Performance of a controls familiarization task, requiring selection of a control action in response to a stimulus, showed no cost or benefit from inserting practice on a simulated loa...
Conference Paper
Despite the benefits offered by the simulation and visualization of construction processes, this class of technologies has yet to be adopted on a large scale in the industry. Reasons include: (1) the time and effort required for data collection and preparation of Discrete Event Simulation (DES) models and (2) the requirement to consider additional...
Conference Paper
The level of automation in the construction industry stands in stark contrast to other engineering industries such as automobile manufacturing wherein most of the tasks are done by machines with minimal oversight from human operators. This disparity can be attributed to the distinctive nature of construction vis-a-vis manufacturing: customized proj...
Article
Few robots are found on the worksite today and the construction process has remained unchanged since pre-industrial times, the only major advancement being the replacement of human and animal power with motors, despite research efforts in construction automation. Contrarily, the planning stages of projects have benefited from advances in simulation...
Article
Full-text available
Background The design review process is often expensive due to the need for face-to-face meetings between the involved parties. Distributed design collaboration is made possible by advances in networking techniques. A tangible Mixed Reality (MR)-based virtual design prototype was created as a distributed virtual environment (DVE) for the purpose of...
Article
We conducted research on transfer of skills using basic stimulus-response compatibility tasks and applied tasks requiring control of a hydraulic excavator simulator. The basic tasks show rapid acquisition of practiced spatial mappings, for which transfer is specific to the procedures used in training. The applied tasks show transfer across alternat...
Article
Virtual Training Systems have emerged as alternative tools for construction equipment operator training that may reduce costs, avoid risks, and provide flexible environments for various training purposes. However, principles for determining training-schedule design for efficient utilization of these systems are not well established. The present res...
Article
We examined whether part-task training produces better learning and retention than whole-task training of a trench-and-load task performed on a hydraulic excavator simulator. For complex perceptual-motor tasks that involve several components and require spatial awareness of the environment, part-task training will be effective if the benefit of bei...
Article
A skilled operator of construction equipment needs to become proficient in the use and control of various classes or types of machines. It is thus important to establish effective training methods across these machine types and to determine the extent to which skills operating one machine transfer to another. An issue of concern is whether learning...
Chapter
Off-site and on-the-job training programs constitute the prevalent methods for training construction equipment operators in construction industry. Being time intensive, expensive, and potentially hazardous, these methods give novices a limited opportunity to experience real working conditions. Virtual technologies are envisaged to meet above string...
Article
Full-text available
We previously conducted a preliminary analysis of the tasks performed by operators of hydraulic excavators, where the excavator is stationary and the implement is controlled by joysticks operated with the left and right hands. In the present paper, we put forward a detailed comparative analysis of the tasks for a hydraulic excavator and those for a...
Conference Paper
The experiences of hospital facility managers and consideration of the existing doctrines for commissioning building facilities have prompted the development of a new commissioning doctrine specifically conceived for health facilities by a special committee of the American Society for Healthcare Engineering. The new Health Facility Commissioning Gu...
Article
Based on a case study of the city transformation of Kiruna we concluded that the information about the urban planning processes; (1) was scattered and hard to understand and (2) not communicated properly for the public to be able to participate. Here public participation geographical systems (PPGIS) and modeling of a project delivery timeline, also...
Article
Approaches for construction equipment operator training include several Virtual Reality-based simulators that are being promoted by construction equipment manufacturers. Systems range in their fidelity to real-world conditions, with a trainee seated in front of a monitor displaying a 3D-modelled training scenario, variously incorporating mock-ups o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents two mixed-reality (MR) environments that provide alternative mediums that allow groups of people to share the same work and communication space in face-to-face and remote manners. Two experiments were executed to test the capabilities of the two MR systems in realistic environment and collaborative tasks against prevalent method...
Article
Compared to the attention given to Virtual Reality, the relatedemerging technology of Mixed Reality (MR) has been little explored, until recently, for its applications in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) arena. Observations of the limited lab-based MR applications for AEC highlight the need for a structured methodology that can...
Article
Mixed Reality (MR) technology can create an environment where objects from the digital and real worlds can be combined together in a real time manner. The practical contribution of this paper is a structured and iterative methodology developed for mapping appropriate Mixed Reality technology to a specific architecture, engineering, and construction...
Chapter
Full-text available
Full scale physical mock-ups of specific hospital units such as patient rooms are routinely utilized to serve the multiple purposes of constructors, designers, and owner stakeholders for healthcare facility projects. The shortcoming with this practice is that the mock-up is constructed during the construction phase and is of limited use for making...
Article
Mixed Reality (MR), or more specifically Augmented Reality (AR) technology, is frequently mentioned as a solution to human performance problems of degraded perception and cognition. There have been few attempts to develop lab-based MR prototypes for architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) operations and thus no commercial MR applications...
Article
Virtual Reality (VR) technology can facilitate training in construction equipment operations, as the cost for virtual training is lower and the practical hazard is eliminated. This paper presents a virtual training system (VTS) for construction excavator operators based on a game engine tool. The focus of this paper is not to present a simulator th...
Article
In the wake of building information modelling, virtual reality is receiving attention for visualizing design details by means of virtual prototypes or virtual mock-ups. Examples for courthouse design review have prompted application to healthcare facilities. To facilitate perspective for patient-centred and evidence-based design, highly interactive...
Article
To reduce traffic congestion in the United States, roadway maintenance and construction operations are widely performed during nighttime hours. This makes visibility a critical issue as workers need to be visible to oncoming traffic and heavy equipment operators in order to ensure their safety. A variety of high-visibility safety garments are avail...
Conference Paper
Due to the costs and hazards of field training on heavy construction equipment, a market has emerged for computer-based simulators that eliminate such risks involved in construction-equipment operator training. Systems endorsed and utilized by equipment manufacturers are also being adopted by independent equipment operator training schools. Althoug...
Article
The adoption of Augmented Reality (AR) in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry will be facilitated by quantifiably demonstrating the benefits of AR in tasks with AR prototypes. Having identified inspection as one of the promising AR application areas in industrial construction in a previous study on the suitability of AR t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents two mixed reality (MR) environments that provide alternative mediums that allow groups of people to share the same work and communications space in face-to-face and remote manners. Two experiments were executed to test the capabilities of the two MR systems in realistic environment and collaborative tasks against prevalent metho...
Article
Examples of Augmented Reality (AR) applications in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry remain in the early research and development stage. The adoption of AR in AEC will be facilitated by quantifiably demonstrating the benefits of AR in tasks with AR prototypes. In this study, an experiment was conducted in order to evalu...
Chapter
In this chapter, the potential application areas for AR to support construction phase activities are explored. As a medium for accessing information to support site operations and tasks, AR can benefit three primary categories of activities that occur routinely in the construction phase: (1) building and inspecting, (2) coordination, and (3) interp...
Article
Computers are becoming essential tools for integrating design, planning, fabrication, and construction. Computer-controlled construction equipment is poised to receive information from data generated in the design phase. The robotic execution of construction operations, however, depends on complex models for autonomous and intelligent control. This...
Article
Research studies in the application of Augmented Reality (AR) in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry have suggested its feasibility. However, realization of the use of AR in AEC requires not only demonstration of feasibility but also validation of its suitability. This paper comprehensively identifies AR application areas...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate calibration methods are critical to achieving accurate registration in Augmented Reality (AR) systems. Most calibration methods developed so far focus on achieving the accurate registration within certain view distance ranges. Examination of work tasks in construction, however, indicates that the AR system registration accuracy may not sat...
Article
Mixed Reality (MR) technologies create an environment where virtual objects and real objects can be presented together on a single display. An MR-based face-to-face design review prototype was created for the purpose of improving design review collaboration. The work presented in this paper investigated how users experienced virtual models in the M...
Chapter
Constructability is one of many project properties that reflect the characteristics of a construction project. Along with other properties such as operability, maintainability, recommissionability, and decommissionability, constructability is considered in the project development process and can be used as an indicator of success in achieving maxim...
Article
This paper provides information on Augmented Reality (AR) and their potential applications in heavy construction equipment operator training. Augmented Reality involves the use of special display and tracking technology that are capable of seamlessly merging digital (virtual) contents into real environments. Augmented Reality technology has been ap...
Article
Proponents of advanced technologies for the delivery of constructed facilities assert that information and automation technologies can significantly reduce construction costs. However, technology transfer has been greatly limited as practitioners are reluctant to adopt new technologies for myriad reasons including concerns over expertise requiremen...
Chapter
While proponents of conducting constructability reviews are generally confident of quantitative and qualitative rewards of implementing this element as part of the project development process, an accepted model for evaluating the benefits versus costs is lacking. Anecdotal reports suggest the benefits are quite high compared to the costs, sometimes...
Article
Based upon technical feasibility and interest in Augmented Reality as a flexible framework for the development of visualization tools and human-machine interfaces for the architecture, engineering, and construction industry, a prototype for augmented reality computer aided drawing (AR CAD) is being developed as a first example and test bed for esta...
Article
Full-text available
While human factors have been well researched in virtual environments, it has not received commensurate consideration in Mixed Reality (MR) research. This paper (1) analyzes the feasibility of augmenting human abilities via MR applications in construction tasks from the perspective of cognitive engineering, (2) acknowledges the ergonomics features...
Conference Paper
Conventional teleoperation systems have been developed as an efficient solution to explore unstructured environments where hazardous materials have been accidently spilled or released. Due to inevitable restrictions in the field of view of the remote camera(s) and in the quality of the visual displays fed back from the remote worksite, the operator...
Conference Paper
Formal usability evaluation of mixed reality (MR) environments to date has received very little attention in MR literature and research. While awareness of the need for usability evaluation of MR appears to be on the rise, the techniques needed to perform efficient, meaningful usability evaluation of these environments are not yet available. This p...
Article
Full-text available
Construction projects generate large amounts of data and information that must be accessed by numerous parties, from numerous locations, and under varied conditions. Currently, a field crew's project information retrieval, information manipulation, and collaborative decision-making are predominantly limited to paper-based media. As the industry mov...
Article
Full-text available
Varied computing devices and automated sensors will enable new human-computer interface paradigms for interacting with digitally managed project information. The writers therefore propose the development of Mixed Reality (MR)-based computer interfaces, and especially Augmented Reality systems, for the architecture, engineering, and construction ind...
Conference Paper
Off-site and on-the-job training programs constitute current methods to train construction equipment operators. Being time-intensive, expensive, and potentially hazardous, these methods give novices only limited opportunity to experience real working conditions. Computer modeling technologies—Augmented Reality, Augmented Virtuality, Virtual Reality...
Conference Paper
Mixed Reality (MR) denotes the blending of computer-generated content with real world environments in a single display, and it offers new options for interactions both with computer-based design information and with project collaborators over the entire life cycle of the engineered facility. A thorough observation of the mostly lab-based MR prototy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mechanical contractors acknowledge that the efficiency of current design review practices might be substantially improved by using 3D visualization techniques to amplify the effectiveness of the design review team. To reach this goal, the concept of a Mixed Reality-based collaborative virtual environment (MRCVE), has been formulated, which aims to...
Conference Paper
An integration of CAD and Augmented Reality (AR) was previously implemented in a prototype system, Augmented Reality Computer-Aided-Drawing (AR CAD). The algorithm adopted for the real-time transfer of data between CAD and the AR viewer requires downloading the 3D solid model description at the client side via networking socket codes and supports o...
Article
Although guidance is available for state transportation agencies to establish constructability review processes (CRPs), nationwide implementation has been slow due, in part, to a lack of clarity regarding related costs and benefits and a perception that CRPs are resource intensive. This study funded by the National Cooperative Highway Research Prog...
Article
A prototype augmented reality computer-aided-drawing (AR CAD) prototype aimed at supporting a design detailing and review process has been developed. Utilizing head-mounted displays, AR CAD supports users in manipulating design models with two possible view change mechanisms---observer movement around the virtual object (model) or rotation of the v...
Article
While human factors have been well researched in the development and use of virtual environments, it has not received commensurate consideration in Mixed Reality (MR) research much beyond the immediately relevant issues of fatigue and discomfort. In this paper, we (1) analyze the feasibility of augmenting human abilities via MR applications in task...
Conference Paper
Over the course of its lifecycle, a project passes through various phases. The lifecycle properties associated with each phase, namely designability, constructability, operability, maintainability, recommissionability (reconstructability), and decommissionability (deconstructability), are attributes that represent the success with which the design...
Conference Paper
This paper highlights an approach to Mixed Reality-based enhancement of design detailing and collaboration for the communication and shared perception of designs, essential to meaningful design development and review and construction planning. The approach is based upon a prototype Augmented Reality Computer Aided Drawing (AR CAD) system, which use...
Article
Full-text available
Design visualization is key to the communication and shared perception of designs and is essential for meaningful design development and collaborations. The initial development of an Augmented Reality Computer Aided Drawing (AR CAD) system for enhancing visualization of models created in standard CAD was presented at the 17th ISARC. AR CAD features...
Article
This paper presents an initial step in seeking to understand just how the adoption of advanced machine guidance technology, especially global positioning systems, leads to improvements in performance by the earthwork contractor. Two grading scenarios and one dozing scenario are examined based upon site observations and interviews with field personn...
Article
Construction of asphalt overlays for urban highways is generally restricted to off-peak hours, often exclusively nighttime hours, and to partial closures to minimize public inconvenience. Such constraints are thought to adversely affect production and quality. In August 1997, the Washington State Department of Transportation implemented a pilot pro...
Article
Rebar fabrication is a labor intensive operation that uses scrap or "trash" steel For raw materials and therefore can benefit greatly from improvements in safety, productivity, and quality. Shared control through a human-machine interface may be the best alternative for achieving highest quality standards and improving worker performance in safety...
Article
Full-text available
3D CAD visualization tools provide a limited sense of the merging between design and real space and are still constrained by flat media. Furthermore, new computer interface metaphors will emerge that the construction industry should prepare to embrace. An outside-the-computer paradigm is the next step in visualization. Virtual reality and positioni...
Article
Ordinarily, minimum design costs are associated with all construction projects regardless of their size or complexity. Consequently, the design costs are a higher percentage of the overall costs for small projects. This paper presents an analysis of the effectiveness of the Small Projects Team Initiative (SPTI) developed and implemented by the Seat...
Article
Widening and staged construction of steel bridges are becoming more frequent with today's heavy traffic demands, right-of-way restrictions, and environmental constraints. Both construction practices require the addition of new girders to an existing structure. When new girders are added to an existing structure, inherent constructibility problems a...
Article
Full-text available
Life cycle cost or total cost analysis of a facility begins with the initial design concept and ends with the decommissioning of the facility. Decisions made during the design and construction phases routinely consider only the construction costs when analyzing the constructability of the project. Often the impacts of such decisions on the maintena...
Article
The traffic- and business-related impact of a weekend closure of a major urban freeway is evaluated. Data were gathered from a 9-km section of I-405 in Seattle that was closed to traffic in a single direction for two consecutive weekends, August 15-17 and August 22-24, 1997, for repaving operations. In evaluating this approach to highway reconstruc...
Article
Automating the process of cold-bending steel reinforcing bars for concrete structures can save time, prevent serious injuries, and increase productivity. Neural network models can play a key role in the adaptive control of this process
Article
An accurate and conservative method for predicting the lateral pressures exerted by fresh concrete is necessary for the safe and economically efficient design of concrete wall formwork. The relationship between concrete pressure and depth can vary from a complete hydrostatic head to some lesser pressure envelope. From the top surface of the fresh c...