Philippe de Timary

Philippe de Timary
Université Catholique de Louvain - UCLouvain | UCLouvain · Institute of Neuroscience and Department of Adult Psychiatry

Psychiatrist, MD, PhD

About

234
Publications
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Publications

Publications (234)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent more than 25 years of war resulting in millions of deaths and in survivants struggling with trauma related disorders. The factors contributing to acute stress disorder following a traumatic event remain little understood. Emotion regulation might play a role in the development of acute stre...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented stressor for frontline healthcare workers, notably increasing acute stress disorder and depression rates. Emotion regulation and social support could be major protective factors against such psychopathological states, but their role has not been explored outside Western contexts. Objective: To...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Visuo-perceptive deficits in severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) remain little understood, notably regarding the respective involvement of the two main human visual streams, i.e., magnocellular (MC) and parvocellular (PC) pathways, in these deficits. Besides, in healthy populations, low-level visual perception can adapt depending on the na...
Poster
Full-text available
Identifying transdiagnostic socio-cognitive profiles across 4 clinical populations o Distinct profiles of perspective-takers found in healthy participants 1,2. o Socio-cognitive impairments and interpersonal difficulties are frequently observed in various mental disorders 4-5. o But inconsistent findings: possibly due to overreliance on single-scor...
Article
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Background Emerging evidence highlights that targeting the gut microbiota could be an interesting approach to improve alcohol liver disease due to its important plasticity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inulin supplementation on liver parameters in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients (whole sample) and in a subpopulation with early al...
Article
Altered psychological profiles are associated with drug adherence and drug resistance in patients with resistant hypertension (RHTN). However, treatment resistance may also result from increased arterial stiffness and target organ damage. The aim of this study was to assess the association of psychological factors with both drug adherence and drug...
Article
In a pilot study including 35 patients with resistant hypertension, we documented associations between psychological profile, drug adherence and severity of hypertension. The current study aims to confirm and expand our findings in a larger sample of patients with resistant hypertension, using controlled hypertensive patients as comparator. Patient...
Article
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Objective We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an online High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) program on clinical psychological symptoms in higher education students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown.Materials and Methods During the lockdown, 30 students aged 18–25 years, who had been screened previously with a cut-off score ≥5...
Article
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Coronavirus disease 2019 has spread rapidly over the globe and has put an unprecedent psychological pressure on health care workers (HCWs). The present study aimed at quantifying the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on HCWs during and after the first wave and identify sociodemographic, situational, and psychological risk/protecti...
Article
Visuospatial impairments have long been reported in Severe Alcohol Use Disorder but remain poorly understood, notably regarding the involvement of magnocellular (MC) and parvocellular (PC) pathways. This empirical gap hampers understanding the implications of these visual changes, especially since the MC and PC pathways are thought to sustain centr...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing disease associated with malnutrition, metabolic disturbances, and gut microbiota alterations that are correlated with the severity of psychological symptoms. This study aims at supplementing AUD patients with prebiotic fiber during alcohol withdrawal, in order to modulate the gut microbiota composit...
Article
Background . High-quality comprehensive data on short-/long-term physical/mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed. Methods . The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT) is an international, multi-language (n=30) project involving >230 investigators from 49 countries/territories/regi...
Article
Background: Numerous risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The contribution of psychological factors, including post-traumatic stress disorder, remains largely underexplored, despite their potential role in hypertension. Objectives: We compared the prevalence of trauma, post-traumatic stress and other psychological...
Article
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a quickly expanding welfare disease. It has been associated with unhealthy high-sugar beverages containing fructose. Here we describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who has been followed at the endocrinology consultation for about 20 years, for a metabolic syndrome associating type 2 diabetes. Due to th...
Article
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The gut-brain communication is mostly driven by the immune, metabolic and neural pathways which remained poorly explored in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The metabolites arising from the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway have gained considerable attention since they are at the interface between intestinal bacteria, host immune response and...
Article
Background: Consistent data highlight the presence and clinical significance of social cognition impairments in severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD). However, important social cognition components, notably social perception and knowledge (i.e. the ability to identify and interpret latent social rules from social situations), have not yet been explore...
Article
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Brain abnormalities observed in alcohol use disorder are highly heterogeneous in nature and severity, possibly because chronic alcohol consumption also affects peripheral organs leading to comorbidities that can result in exacerbated brain alterations. Despite numerous studies focusing on the effects of alcohol on the brain or liver, few studies ha...
Article
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Metadehumanization, the perception of being treated as less than a human by others, is a pervasive phenomenon in intergroup relations. It is dissociated from stigmatization or stereotypes, and it has been recently identified as a critical process in severe alcohol use disorders (SAUD). Metadehumanization is associated with a wide array of negative...
Article
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Action preparation relies on the operation of control processes that modulate the excitability of the corticospinal tract. On the one hand, excitatory processes prepare the motor system for the forthcoming response; the stronger these influences, the stronger the tendency to act. On the other hand, inhibitory influences allow to suppress inappropri...
Article
Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for depression but how it achieves its clinical effects remains unclear. Methods We set out to study the brain's response to ECT from a large-scale brain-network perspective. Using a voxelwise analysis, we looked at resting-state functional connectivity before and after a c...
Article
Introduction: The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the acute cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remain poorly understood. Prior research has shown that proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL-10 may interfere with cognitive functioning. Interestingly, immunomodulation is one of the proposed modes of acti...
Article
Background: Metadehumanization (i.e., the perception of being considered as less than human by others) is proposed to be widespread in stigmatized populations, such as people with severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD). However, the relations between metadehumanization, self-dehumanization (i.e., the self-perception of being less than human), and stigm...
Article
Introduction ECT is an effective treatment for depression. Beyond its therapeutic effect on mood it has a unique impact on psychomotor and cognitive symptoms.Its mechanism of action remains still unclear. To investigate this, we set out to study the brain’s response to ECT from a large-scale brain-network perspective. Objectives The aim of this st...
Article
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Craving is central in the prognosis of gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT) provides a sound framework to account for craving in addictive disorders, and interference methods inspired from the EIT have substantiated their effectiveness in mitigating substance and food-related cravings. The principle of these methods is to recrui...
Article
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Background & Aims Chronic alcohol consumption can cause malnutrition that may contribute to alcohol-induced organ injury and psychological disorders. We evaluated the link between nutrient intake, especially dietary fibers and different parameters reflecting mental health and well being, namely anxiety, depression, alcohol craving, sociability, fat...
Article
Background: Severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) is associated with social cognition deficits. Patients with SAUD are impaired for the recognition of emotional facial expressions, particularly at early stages of abstinence. These deficits damage interpersonal relations and increase relapse risk. However, uncertainties still abound on their variation...
Article
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Background and aims Following the recognition of ‘internet gaming disorder’ (IGD) as a condition requiring further study by the DSM‐5, ‘gaming disorder’ (GD) was officially included as a diagnostic entity by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD‐11). However, the proposed d...
Article
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Inhibitory control underlies the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses and involves processes that suppress motor excitability. Such motor modulatory effect has been largely described during action preparation but very little is known about the neural circuit responsible for its implementation. Here, we addressed this point by studying the deg...
Article
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic considerably affects health, wellbeing, social, economic and other aspects of daily life. The impact of COVID-19 on blood pressure (BP) control and hypertension remains insufficiently explored. We therefore provide a comprehensive review of the potential changes in lifestyle factors and behaviours as...
Article
Background Prior studies suggest that IL-6 may be involved in the pathophysiology of psychomotor symptoms in depression. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), as yet the most effective biological treatment of severe depression, is known to improve psychomotor functioning, while recent studies have shown a decrease in the elevated IL-6 levels of depresse...
Article
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Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) present with important emotional, cognitive, and social impairments. The gut microbiota has been recently shown to regulate brain functions and behavior but convincing evidence of its role in AUD is lacking. Here, we show that gut dysbiosis is associated with metabolic alterations that affect behavioral (dep...
Article
The human intestine is colonized by a variety of microbes that influence the metabolic responses, the immune system and the nervous system. Dietary patterns are important factors that shape the composition of the gut microbiota. Many animal models of alcohol exposure have highlighted the key role of the alcohol-induced gut microbiota alterations, l...
Article
There is a growing amount of evidence showing a reciprocal relation between the gut microbiota and the brain. Substance use disorders (SUD), which are a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide, have an influence on the gut microbiota and on the gut-brain axis. The communication between the microbiota and the brain exists throug...
Article
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Purpose According to the Cognitive-Interpersonal Maintenance Model of anorexia nervosa, social factors are involved in the maintenance and development of this disorder. Therefore, this study aimed to test whether patients with restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN-R) experience malicious envy (negative emotions associated with the wish that others...
Article
Full-text available
Impairments in social cognition have been documented in severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) over the past two decades. They have been linked with lower social functioning and poor treatment outcomes, illustrating their key role in the disorder. However, studies investigating social cognition in SAUD have largely focused on emotional decoding and the...
Article
Full-text available
Background Animal data suggest a role of the gut-liver axis in progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but human data are scarce especially for early disease stages. Methods We included patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) who follow a rehabilitation program and matched healthy controls. We determined intestinal epithelial and vascular p...
Article
Background: Severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) is associated with impaired discrimination of emotional expressions. This deficit appears increased in crossmodal settings, when simultaneous inputs from different sensory modalities are presented. However, so far, studies exploring emotional crossmodal processing in SAUD relied on static faces and unm...
Article
Background: Dehumanization, i.e., the denial of one’s humanity, has important consequences for social interactions. Earlier works mainly studied the dehumanizer’s perspective, neglecting victims and particularly psychiatric populations. This study’s goal is thus to investigate if patients with severe alcohol-use disorders (SAUD) feel dehumanized by...
Article
Numerous studies have explored the morphological differences of the brain between subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and control subjects, but very few have investigated the impact of the duration of alcohol use disorder (DAD) and current level of alcohol consumption (CAC) within AUD subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compare...
Article
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Probiotics have been used to treat a variety of diseases for decades; however, what is the rationale for their application? Such a treatment was first proposed in the early nineteenth century based on observations of decreased bifidobacterial populations in children suffering from diarrhea, suggesting that oral intake of bifidobacteria could replet...
Article
Aims : To assess the interest and the efficacy of a systematic encounter with a psycho-oncologist on the perception of the psychologist among men and women with cancer. Procedure : The patients who systematically encounter the psycho-oncologist were compared to a control group. Anxio-depression symptoms and the patients’ perception of the psycholog...
Article
Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation between anhedonia and depression in alcohol use disorders (AUD) during detoxification: Is trait anhedonia measured at the beginning of detoxification predictive of depressive symptoms observed at the end? Does state anhedonia recover during detoxification as depression does? Gender di...
Article
Background: In this paper we focus on adolescents in transition towards young adulthood (ATYA). We know from international studies that the transition process makes adolescents vulnerable to mental illness. However, little is known about Belgian ATYA mental-health status. Nor are risk factors associated with their mental illness understood, in par...
Article
Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire has been extensively investigated in relation to psychoactive substance or food cravings but, to date, has scarcely been studied in relation to gam...
Article
Background: Management of resistant hypertension (RHTN) is challenging and often implies the use of complex polypharmacy and interventional therapies. The main objectives of this study were (i) to describe the characteristics of patients with RHTN referred to two expert centres; (ii) to identify predictors of blood pressure (BP) control after inten...
Article
Alcohol addiction is a complex and multifactorial disease influenced by social, psychological and biological aspects. The current pharmacological drugs used in the management of alcohol dependence have shown only a modest efficacy and the relapse rate remains high in this disease. Recently, the gut microbiota, a huge and dynamic ecosystem made up o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with impairments of cognitive functions, and cognitive training programs are thus rapidly developing in SUD treatment. However, neuropsychological impairments observed early after withdrawal (i.e., early impairments), that is, approximately in the first six months, may be widespread. Consequ...
Article
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Innovations in 2018 in the psychiatry field ? Psychiatry occupies a very specific position within the field of medicine, given that it integrates the biological, psychological, and sociological dimensions that all contribute to the expression of mental health disorders. The essential innovations that have taken place within the fields of biology a...
Preprint
Innovations in 2018 in the psychiatry field ? Psychiatry occupies a very specific position within the field of medicine, given that it integrates the biological, psychological, and sociological dimensions that all contribute to the expression of mental health disorders. The essential innovations that have taken place within the fields of biology a...
Article
Si l’existence de liens entre consommation éthylique et symptômes thymiques paraît évidente, la nature et les mécanismes qui sous-tendent ces interactions s’avèrent en revanche très complexes et moins bien connus. Cet article, qui s’appuie essentiellement sur des données empiriques et destinées aux cliniciens, vise à décrire de quelle manière la co...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (a-TRH) are often poorly adherent to drug treatment and have an unusual personal history and psychological profile. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of drug adherence and drug resistance in a cohort of patients with aTRH, with emphasis on psychological characteristics...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired inhibitory control contributes to the development, maintenance, and relapse of alcohol-dependence, but the neural correlates of this deficit are still unclear. Because inhibitory control has been labeled as an executive function, most studies have focused on prefrontal areas, overlooking the contribution of more “primary” structures, such...
Article
Recognizing others' emotions is a fundamental social skill, widely impaired in psychiatric populations. These emotional dysfunctions are involved in the development and maintenance of alcohol-related disorders, but their differential intensity across emotions and their modifications during disease evolution remain underexplored. Affective prosody d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background. Research and clinical practice support the key role of craving in the development, maintenance and relapse of Gambling Disorder. The Elaborated Intrusion Theory of desire (Kavanagh et al., 2005) is a comprehensive and process-based cognitive model of craving validated for various appetitive behaviors, including gambling. The Craving Exp...
Article
Background: Alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) simultaneously present decreased inhibitory control and increased attention towards alcohol-related cues. The dual-process models have proposed that these symptoms reflect an imbalance between prefrontal/reflective and limbic/automatic systems, respectively leading to cognitive dysfunctions in executi...
Article
The gastrointestinal tract is the natural habitat for a huge community of microorganisms, comprising bacteria, viruses, fungi and yeast. This microbial ecosystem codevelops with the host throughout life and is subject to a complex interplay that depends on multiple factors including host genetics, nutrition, life-style, stress, diseases and antibio...
Article
Background: To compare the symptom patterns of major depressive disorder (MDD) among subjects with MDD and 1) no alcohol use disorder (AUD), 2) alcohol abuse and 3) alcohol dependence, respectively. Methods: In a general population survey of 38,694 French individuals, MDD and AUDs were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inter...