Philippe Langella

Philippe Langella
French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE) | INRAE · Microbiologie de l'Alimentation au Service de la Santé Humaine (MICALIS)

PhD

About

457
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Publications

Publications (457)
Article
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There is now strong evidence to support the interest in using lactic acid bacteria (LAB)in particular, strains of lactococci and lactobacilli, as well as bifidobacteria, for the development of new live vectors for human and animal health purposes. LAB are Gram-positive bacteria that have been used for millennia in the production of fermented foods....
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Background and aims Aging is characterized, at the systemic level, by the development of low-grade inflammation, which has been identified as determining sarcopenia by blunting postprandial muscle anabolism. The causes of this “inflammageing” is still not clearly defined. An increased intestinal permeability, a microbiota dysbiosis and subsequent g...
Article
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Objectives Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a combination of genetic predisposition, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and environmental factors, leading to alterations in the gastrointestinal immune response and chronic inflammation. Caspase recruitment domain 9 ( Card9 ), one of the IBD susceptibility genes, has been shown to protect a...
Article
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With its antimicrobial and immunomodulating properties, the cathelicidin (LL37) plays an important role in innate immune system. Here, we attempted to alleviate chemically induced colitis using a lactococci strain that either directly expressed the precursor to LL37, hCAP18 (LL-pSEC:hCAP18), or delivered hCAP18 cDNA to host cells under the control...
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Food processes use different microorganisms, from bacteria to fungi. Yeast strains have been extensively studied, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, to date, very little is known about the potential beneficial effects of molds on gut health as part of gut microbiota. We undertook a comprehensive characterization of five mold strains, Pen...
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Early in the 1900s, it was proposed that health could be improved and senility delayed by manipulating gut microbiota with the host-friendly bacteria found in yogurt. Later, in 1990, the medical community reconsidered this idea and today probiotics represent a developed area of research with a billion-dollar global industry. As a result, in recent...
Preprint
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is abundant in the healthy human intestinal microbiota, and the absence or scarcity of this bacterium has been linked with inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders. F. prausnitzii thus shows promise as a next-generation probiotic for use in restoring the balance of the gut microbial flora and, due to its strong ant...
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Objective: Gut microbiome dysbiosis has previously been reported in spondyloarthritis (SpA) and could critically be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. The objective of this study was to further characterize the microbiota structure in SpA patients and to investigate the relationship between dysbiosis and disease activity, in light of t...
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Background Innate immunity genes have been reported to affect susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and colitis in mice. Dectin-1, a receptor for fungal cell wall β-glucans, has been clearly implicated in gut microbiota modulation and modification of the susceptibility to gut inflammation. Here, we explored the role of Dectin-1 and D...
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The colon harbours a dynamic and complex community of microorganisms, collectively known as the gut microbiota, which constitutes the densest microbial ecosystem in the human body. These commensal gut microbes play a key role in human health and diseases, revealing the strong potential of fine-tuning the gut microbiota to confer health benefits. In...
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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii), a dominant bacterium of the human microbiota, is decreased in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and exhibits anti-inflammatory effects. In human, colonic lamina propria contains IL-10-secreting, Foxp3-negative regulatory T cells (Treg) characterized by a double expression of CD4 and CD8α...
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The expanding knowledge on the systemic influence of the human microbiome suggests that fecal samples are underexploited sources of new beneficial strains for extra-intestinal health. We have recently shown that acetate, a main circulating microbiota-derived molecule, reduces the deleterious effects of pulmonary Streptococcus pneumoniae and enteric...
Preprint
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii), a dominant bacterium of the human microbiota, is decreased in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and exhibits anti-inflammatory effects. In human, colonic lamina propria contains IL-10-positive, Foxp3-negative regulatory T cells (Treg) characterized by a double expression of CD4 and CD8alp...
Article
Full-text available
Preterm birth is one of the main health problems encountered in the neonatal period, especially because it is also the first cause of death in the critical 1st month of life and the second in children under 5 years of age. Not only preterm birth entails short term health risks due to low weight and underdeveloped organs, but also increases the risk...
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The commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has unique anti-inflammatory properties, at least some of which have been attributed to its production of MAM, the Microbial Anti-inflammatory Molecule. Previous phylogenetic studies of F. prausnitzii strains have revealed the existence of various phylogroups. In this work, we address the questio...
Article
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The probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii CNCM I-4884 exhibits anti-Giardia activity in vitro and in vivo in a murine model of giardiasis. The aim of this study was the identification and characterization of the probiotic potential of L. johnsonii CNCM I-4884, as well as its safety assessment. This strain was originally classified as Lactobacill...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a combination of genetic predisposition, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and environmental factors, leading to alterations in the gastrointestinal immune response and chronic inflammation. Caspase recruitment domain 9 ( Card9 ), one of the IBD susceptibility genes, has been shown to protect a...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic disorders are an increasing concern in the industrialized world. Current research has shown a direct link between the composition of the gut microbiota and the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. In only a few weeks, an obesity-inducing diet can lead to increased gut permeability and microbial dysbiosis, which contributes to chronic inf...
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The establishment of gut microbiota has been proven to be impacted by several factors during pregnancy, delivery, and neonate periods. The body of evidence describing C-section delivery (CSD) as one of the most disruptive events during early life has expanded in recent years, concluding that CSD results in a drastic change in microbiota establishme...
Article
The lungs harbor multiple resident microbial communities, otherwise known as the microbiota. There is an emerging interest in deciphering whether the pulmonary microbiota modulate local immunity, and whether this knowledge could shed light on mechanisms operating in the response to respiratory pathogens. In this study, we investigate the capacity o...
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Giardia intestinalis is a flagellated protozoan responsible for giardiosis (also called giardiasis in humans), the most prevalent and widespread parasitic infection in humans and mammals worldwide. The intestinal microbiota is highly diverse and any alteration in its composition may impact on the health of the host. While studies on the mouse model...
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The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (DSM 6601, Mutaflor), generally considered beneficial and safe, has been used for a century to treat various intestinal diseases. However, Nissle 1917 hosts in its genome the pks pathogenicity island that codes for the biosynthesis of the genotoxin colibactin. Colibactin is a potent DNA alkylator, s...
Article
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The intestinal epithelium serves as an effective barrier against the external environment, hampering the passage of potentially harmful substances (such as pathogenic microbes) that could trigger an exacerbated host immune response. The integrity of this barrier is thus essential for the maintenance of proper intestinal homeostasis and efficient pr...
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Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, changes in microbiota composition as well as in the fecal, serum, and urine levels of microbial metabolites. Yet a causal relationship between dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and ASD remains to be demonstrated. Here, we hypo...
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Gut interleukin-17A (IL-17)-producing γδ T cells are tissue-resident cells that are involved in both host defense and regulation of intestinal inflammation. However, factors that regulate their functions are poorly understood. In this study, we find that the gut microbiota represses IL-17 production by cecal γδ T cells. Treatment with vancomycin, a...
Article
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Christensenellaceae is a family of subdominant commensal bacteria found in humans. It is thought to play an important role in gut health by maintaining microbial symbiosis. Indeed, these bacteria occur at significantly lower levels or are absent in individuals suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here, we explored if type species Chri...
Article
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Background There is increasing evidence that microbiome-based therapies can correct dysbiosis and reduce inflammation associated with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). In particular, the human commensal family of Christensenellaceae bacteria has been reported as missing in several cohorts of Crohn’s disease patients, indicating that it may have a...
Article
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Agave species are a source of diverse products for human use, such as food, fiber, and beverages, which include mezcal, a distilled beverage produced by spontaneous fermentation. Agave is an excellent source of high amounts of sugars, minerals, and phenolic compounds, which favor the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast communities. In th...
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Consumption of dairy products is one of the most natural ways to introduce probiotics. However, the beneficial effects of the probiotics might depend on the administration form. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial properties of two probiotic strains: Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L...
Preprint
Full-text available
The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (DSM 6601, Mutaflor), generally considered as beneficial and safe, has been used for a century to treat various intestinal diseases. However, Nissle 1917 hosts in its genome the pks pathogenicity island that codes for the biosynthesis of the genotoxin colibactin. Colibactin is a potent DNA alkylator...
Article
Full-text available
The commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii plays a key role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis and serves as a general health biomarker in humans. However, the host molecular mechanisms that underlie its anti-inflammatory effects remain unknown. In this study we performed a transcriptomic approach on human intestinal epithel...
Article
Metabolism of tryptophan by the gut microbiota into derivatives that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to intestinal homeostasis. Many chronic inflammatory conditions, including celiac disease involving a loss of tolerance to dietary gluten, are influenced by cues from the gut microbiota. We investigated whether AhR ligand pr...
Article
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Bacterial flagellin can elicit production of TLR5-mediated IL-22 and NLRC4-mediated IL-18 cytokines that act in concert to cure and prevent rotavirus (RV) infection. This study investigated the mechanism by which these cytokines act to impede RV. Although IL-18 and IL-22 induce each other's expression, we found that IL-18 and IL-22 both impeded RV...
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Every year, millions of people around the world benefit from radiation therapy to treat cancers localized in the pelvic area. Damage to healthy tissue in the radiation field can cause undesirable toxic effects leading to gastrointestinal complications called pelvic radiation disease. A change in the composition and/or function of the microbiota cou...
Article
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In this work, 16 strains with promising probiotic characteristics belonging to the Lactobacillus pentosus (13) and Lactobacillus plantarum (3) species and isolated from table olive biofilms were tested for adherence to cell lines and to solvents, immunomodulatory, and anti-proliferative properties on epithelial human cellular lines. Most Lactobacil...
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Bifidobacteria are among the first colonisers of the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed newborns due to, among other things, their ability to metabolise oligosaccharides naturally occurring in human milk. The presence of bifidobacteria in the infant gut has been shown to promote intestinal health and homeostasis as well as to preserve a functiona...
Article
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Maternal immune activation (MIA) and poor maternal nutritional habits are risk factors for the occurrence of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Human studies show the deleterious impact of prenatal inflammation and low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake on neurodevelopment with long-lasting consequences on behavior. However, the mechanis...
Article
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The microbiota of the mouth disperses into the lungs, and both compartments share similar phyla. Considering the importance of the microbiota in the maturation of the immunity and physiology during the first days of life, we hypothesized that primo-colonizing bacteria of the oral cavity may induce immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells. Her...
Article
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Over the last 20 years, Lactobacillus species inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) have received much attention, and their health-promoting properties are now well-described. Probiotic effects cannot be generalized, and their uses cover a wide range of applications. It is thus important to proceed to an accurate selection and evaluation of p...
Article
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The human gut harbors a complex bacterial community that plays important roles in host health and disease, including nutrient acquisition, maturation of the immune system, and resistance to infections. The capacity to adhere to surfaces and form communities called biofilms is believed to be important for niche colonization and maintenance of gut ba...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are associated with dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis resulting in changes in microbiota composition as well as fecal, serum and urine levels of microbial metabolites. Yet, a causal relationship between dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and ASD remains to be demonstrated. Here, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii plays a key role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis and serves as a general health biomarker in humans. However, the host molecular mechanisms that underlie its anti-inflammatory effects remain unknown.MethodsA transcriptomic approach on human intestinal epithelial cells...
Article
Full-text available
Symbioflor2® is a probiotic product composed of six Escherichia coli genotypes, which has a beneficial effect on irritable bowel syndrome. Our objective was to understand the individual impact of each of the six genotypes on the host, together with the combined impact of the six in the compound Symbioflor2®. Gnotobiotic mice were mono-associated wi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is one of the most abundant gut symbiont species, whose contribution to host health through its ability to degrade diet polysaccharides and mature the immune system is under untense scrutiny. By contrast, adhesion and biofilm formation, which are potentially involved in gut colonization, microbiota structure and stabili...