Philippe Joseph

Philippe Joseph
Université des Antilles | Reunion · UMR ESPACE DEV - BIORECA

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59
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Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of plants is not a new phenomenon and is consubstantial with the history of humanity. Travels and the conquest of new lands helped the spread of species from their place of domestication. The migration dynamics of some populations is closely linked to that of the plants necessary for their survival. The Native American saga in the...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity of the Lesser Antilles vegetation must be linked to the variety of topographic features that influence the structure of some climatic parameters, particularly the rainfall. The above mentioned environmental factors influence a plurality of biotopes colonized by specific phytocenoses. Using survey transects of different minimal areas,...
Article
Full-text available
The temporal vegetation dynamics and its spatial distribution cause discontinuities, border areas, ecotones and ecosystem heterogeneities, in other words biocenotics which result in a multitude of shapes and organic combinations. These interfaces are added...
Article
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From the low areas to the summits, the Lesser Antilles exhibit a dry sub-wet, sub-wet wet, wet and hyperwet bioclimates with several mesoclimate and microclimatic characteristics. They are mainly due to variations in rainfall. The bioclimatic tiering results in a plant tiering whose potential forest types are diverse both at biocenotic and specific...
Article
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Martinique was recognised as a pioneer in the insular Caribbean for coffee cultivation in the early 18th century. The island is known for its legendary "Martinique" coffee dating from that time but it no longer has coffee-growing industries. As part of a project to revive this cultivation, a geographic information system (GIS) was developed in orde...
Article
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Introduced species that become invasive alter the structural and functional organisation of the ecosystems of the host territories because of the absence of certain ecological locks. On a global scale, the consequences are very damaging for many key development-related sectors. Martinique, like all the islands of the Caribbean, is not immune to thi...
Chapter
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In the Lesser Antilles, as elsewhere in the humanized biosphere, the landscape is consubstantial to humans. Landscape entities have in their structure the entire set of singular relationships between human beings and the environment; and in some ways, reveal biotope ecosystemic complexity. The data of scientific literature, including the data upon...
Article
Full-text available
Introduced species that become invasive alter the structural and functional organisation of the ecosystems of the host territories because of the absence of certain ecological locks. On a global scale, the consequences are very damaging for many key develo pment related sectors. Martinique, like all the islands of the Caribbean, is not immune to th...
Article
Full-text available
The islets of Martinique are at varying distances from the coastline and are small territories that reveal a high level of ecosystem complexity, hence their scientific interest. They are located in particular eco-climatic conditions, one of the characteristics of which is the duration of the dry period which exceeds five months. Desiccation leads t...
Technical Report
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Etude floristique et Écologique, Quartier Morne Blanc, Leu-dit : La Mélisse - Commune du Diamant. Inventaires floristiques et analyses des rapports de dominances entre les espèces. Caractérisation des stades d'évolution écosystémique des phytocénoses correspondant au stations de relevés dont l’ensemble est représentatif de la végétation concernée....
Technical Report
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Etude floristique : profils écologique des espèces végétales., niveau d'évolution des phytocénoses.
Article
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The primary objective of the details which will be discussed in this article is to set out a general framework necessary to understand the dynamics of the multiple plant ecosystems in relation to the processes of humanisation. This will be within a conceptual orientation of human ecology, biogeography and biological ecology, integrating the time an...
Technical Report
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La parcelle étudiée est située à moins de 30 mètres d’altitude. Elle se situe entre le niveau de la mer et la base des mornes avoisinants : Gommier, Aca et Montgerald. Ceux-ci ne dépassent guère 200 à 300 mètres mais présentent des pentes particulièrement abruptes à certains endroits . Le réseau hydrographique qui en découle est peu dense mais le c...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Etude floristique et écologique en vue de la mise en place d'une exploitation de substratums géologiques (Morne JALOUSE-Commune du VAUCLIN) -Expertise environnementale systémique -[Unité Mixte de Recherches ESPACE DEV (GROUPE BIORECA)]
Conference Paper
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The planet is facing one of its most important ecological crises that will have considerable long-term societal repercussions: changes in the ecosystem process and the loss of biodiversity largely due to anthropization. During long periods of time, all civilizations from different bioclimatic regions (of different biomes) have been built within eco...
Article
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ABSTRACT Melastomataceae are particularly diverse in the Neotropical realm. The study of the sylvatic formations of the Lesser Antilles made it possible to identify the dominant floristic corteges associated with the different bioclimates. Although there are many indications that Melastomataceae are not among the species structuring the climax form...
Article
Full-text available
In all the regions of the world, Man has domesticated, through the process of trial and error, certain plants so as to ensure his survival. Plants for medicinal purposes were and still are primary elements among these. In present-day societies, as with those of the past, mainly rural ones, medicinal plants are an integral part of therapeutic practi...
Article
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From the middle of the 17th century to the end of the 18th century, the dynamics of land use in Martinique were accompanied by significant landscape transformation. The latter resulted from profound changes in the structural and functional organization of the vegetation. In the end, the history of this small tropical island is a permanent process o...
Article
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The main physical factors influencing the diversity of phytocenoses are the climate and geomorphology. The latter’s various aspects can modify, for example, the spatiotemporal structure of the temperature, rainfall, humidity and evaporation. These changes result in a set of biotopes whose varied biocenotic responses correspond to a dense floristic...
Article
Full-text available
The demographic development, the trade exchanges as well as the increasing human needs represent a major threat to biodiversity. These phenomena caused the extinction of a large number of plant species creating ecological conditions favourable to the appearance of new species harmful to the native ones. In fact, the lands and forests of the Lesser...
Article
Full-text available
In tropical island systems, the mesological factors have led to great environmental diversification. These specificities have resulted in a high ecosystemic and specific diversity. In Martinique, as in the other islands of the Lesser Antilles, the rainfall gradients defined the bioclimates. Each bioclimate corresponds to a vegetation floor composed...
Article
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Abstract: At planetary as well as local scale, the relief forms induce spatial modifications of the structure of the main bioclimatic factors such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, insolation, evaporation and nebulosity. Depending on the area under consideration, these changes result in more or less strong floristic gradients. We wanted to study...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity of the Lesser Antilles vegetation must be linked to the variety of topographic features that influence the structure of some climatic parameters, particularly the rainfall. The above mentioned environmental factors influence a plurality of biotopes colonized by specific phytocenoses. Using survey transects of different minimal areas,...
Article
Full-text available
Despite their small size, the French West Indies are characterised by a large number of environments supporting a surprisingly high floristic, ecosystem and landscape diversity. From the foundation of dwelling groups, beginning in the 17th century to the present day, human activities have resulted in the sharp decline of the forest areas. To some e...
Article
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The geomorphology and the climate represent the two elements that form the basis of biotope diversity in the Lesser Antilles. They are home to many plant species expressing various combinations. Irrespective of their morphogenetic phases and phytocenotic evolution stages, the taxa occupy specific sites. These sites named installation and expansion...
Article
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The geomorphology and dynamics of the atmosphere are two elements which determine the diversity of the bioclimates of the Lesser Antilles. These are usually associated with specific forest types: seasonal evergreen rainforests with their subtypes and facies, tropical sub-montane rain forests and tropical montane rain forests. Originally, these fore...
Technical Report
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Philippe JOSEPH (Professeur de botanique et d'écologie-Responsable de l'étude) Kévine BAILLRD (Doctorante en biogéographie, macro-écologie et botanique) Séverine ELYMARIUS (Doctorante en biogéographie, macro-écologie et botanique) Yelji Abati (Doctorante en biogéographie, macro-écologie et botanique) Jean-Philippe CLAUDE (Master2 en Biogéographie e...
Article
Full-text available
On all spatial levels, the contrasting topography of the Lesser Antilles represents a great number of biotopes. From the different species to the landscapes, including the phytocenoses and ecosystems, the multiple forms of flora organisation are one of the primary consequences. Despite strong anthropisation, this archipelago is an important compone...
Article
Full-text available
The soil and water dynamics and the dynamics between soil and vegetation are difficult to explore. Yet plant phenology is closely linked to this interdependence whose characteristics vary with the seasons and the climates as well as the stages of floristic succession. In this area, at the interface between botany, ecology and pedology, the referenc...
Article
Full-text available
In the Lesser Antilles, from the 17th century takeover up to the present day, mankind has altered the natural environment with frequent and intense distinguished methods. Today's vegetation is resolved in a phytocenotic complex in which shrub, pre-forest and young secondary forest cover dominates. At present, there are few examples of mature sylva,...
Article
Full-text available
Martinique and Guadeloupe are unique within the Lesser Antilles due to their geographic position, their history and the fact that they form part of France, and more recently Europe. Despite strong ecological, historical, ethnic and cultural similarities with other islands in the archipelago (English and Dutch), notable differences exist from both a...
Article
Full-text available
In the light of our knowledge of the Antilles' plant ecosystems we were able to underline their influence on the main factors of the general climate. By using climate measuring stations, three of which were located within the shrubland, pre-forest and young forest formations, two metres above the ground, we have demonstrated a tangible relationship...
Article
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The anthropisation of the Lesser Antilles has resulted in the establishment of secondary herbaceous, shrub and pre-forest communities. Today the plant landscape is a mosaic of age physiognomic units, of different structure and plant composition. The various components of the vegetation come in different levels of ecological evolution. These are all...
Article
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Generally, mountains determine the characteristics of particular areas, because of the island phenomenon they cause. However, the geological origins of mountains are multiple and they are located in different climatic regions. Nevertheless, in all aspects they reflect the basic elements of the local biologic unit. The shapes, climates, diverse wate...
Article
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Human activity in the Lesser Antilles has led to the establishment of secondary herbaceous, shrubby and pre-forest communities. Today, vegetation cover is a mosaic of physionomic units of varying age, structure and floristic composition. These various components cover a range of specific biocenotic evolution levels. There are many degrees of comple...
Article
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Hurricane Dean, a category 4 storm, impacted the forests along the western coast of Martinique on August 17, 2007. In March 2008, plots were selected in the rainforest of the Plateau Concorde, which presented a range of post-hurricane damage. The study focused on climber community patterns in two extreme ranges of disturbance (HIP: highly damaged p...
Article
Full-text available
The geomorphologics differences of Lesser Indies lead variations of climatic factors which influence the processes of selection of the species. On the mountainous islands, the pluviometric altitudinal gradients bound bioclimatic floors packaging the development of potential forest types. Of uneven spatial distribution on the scale of the archipelag...
Article
Full-text available
According to all spatial scales, the uneven topography of the Lesser Antilles leads to a great lot of biotops. So, from species to landscapes, through phytocenoses and ecosystems, numerous types of floristic organisation occur. Despite an important anthropization, this archipelago belongs to one of the Hotspots of the planetary biodiversity: the Ca...
Poster
Full-text available
Evolution des paysages de 1635 à nos jours. Au cours de l’histoire de la Martinique les diverses phases d’anthropisation ont entraîné une régression spatiale de la forêt. Les phytocénoses secondaires ont supplanté les formations sylvestres des temps amérindiens. La dynamique écosystémique et Les différentes unités physionomiques du présent sont aut...
Chapter
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Résumé : La dynamique migratoire de certains peuples est étroitement liée à celle de végétaux nécessaires à leur survie. L’épopée amérindienne dans le bassin caraïbe, qui se traduisit par l’introduction de nombreuses plantes utiles, est un exemple éloquent. Dans les Antilles, du début de la colonisation à nos jours, aux espèces exogènes importées d...
Article
Full-text available
In the mountainous islands of Lesser Antilles, the climatic gradients, providing from the geomorphological patterns identify, nevertheless, a complex vegetal building, clearly noticeable throughout the physionomies and within the landscapes expressed by the great floristic unities, as well. Those latter, from the coast up to the higher peaks, anywh...
Article
Full-text available
Plant introduction is not a new phenomenon and is consubstantial with the history of humanity. The advent of travel and conquering new lands has lead to the dissemination of plant species from their point of domestication. The migratory dynamics of certain peoples are closely linked to those of plants, essential to their survival. The epic of Ameri...
Article
Full-text available
La introducción de plantas es un fenómeno antiguo y consustancial a la historia de la humanidad. Los viajes y las conquistas de nuevas tierras permitieron la diseminación de las especies a partir de su lugar de domesticación. La migración de algunos pueblos está estrechamente ligada a la de los vegetales que son necesarios para su supervivencia. La...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout the anthropic history of Martinique, the formation of a regressive vegetation of an essentially shrubby, herbaceous or pre-forest nature, has replaced the various original and supposedly climatologically adapted forests. Today remaining forests enclose highly complex units of a floristic quality that is not far removed from those which u...

Questions

Questions (8)
Question
The forest layers of the canopy towards the ground are surfaces of exchange which condition an intraforestal environment different from the general climate.
Question
In other words, some ecosystems would ensure their perennity when the original conditions of their genesis no longer exist?
This could explain some observable ecosystem weaknesses of our day in relation to climate change and anthropization
Question
The inversions of vegetation seem to allow the increase of phytocenotic biodiversity. The main factors are often ecosystem topography and evolution.
Question
Ecosystems are complex and hierarchical systems. The level of connectivity between the elements must be considered.
Question
Plant succession is a nonlinear phenomenon and involves many ecological profiles.

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Projects (3)
Archived project
Archived project
Doctorante: SIEGWALT-BAUDIN Flora Directeur de thèse: CHEVALLIER Damien Co-Directeur: ROBIN Jean-Patrice Site d'étude : Antilles-Caraïbes Les relations interspécifiques sont un indicateur naturel de l’état de santé des écosystèmes et de leur évolution. Les interactions existantes entre les espèces marines et leurs ressources trophiques permettent par conséquent de mieux comprendre la dynamique de la biodiversité marine. Depuis quelques années, les Antilles françaises voient leurs herbiers indigènes progressivement envahis par la phanérogame Halophila stipulacea. La colonisation des herbiers insulaires par cette espèce invasive entraîne des changements dans leur diversité spécifique et leur dynamique, mais aussi dans la survie des espèces qui s’y nourrissent. L'invasion des Caraïbes par l'herbe marine H. stipulacea, et son expansion continue, amènent à nous demander comment les espèces herbivores indigènes sont affectées par cette phanérogame à croissance rapide, écologiquement flexible. Parmi les espèces d'herbivores marines, les grands vertébrés tels que les tortues marines et les dugongs représentent une grande partie de la biomasse consommatrice d’herbes marines. Pour les espèces dépendantes des habitats marins indigènes, les espèces invasives induisent un changement dans l’abondance et la disponibilité des ressources alimentaires, ainsi que dans l’efficacité d’utilisation par les espèces qui les consomment telles que les tortues vertes. Les tortues vertes pourraient donc ajuster leur distribution et l’utilisation de l’habitat en fonction de l'abondance relative des phanérogames indigènes et invasives, en modifiant de façon importante leur comportement alimentaire en réponse à cette invasion. Il a été montré que les tortues vertes broutent continuellement les mêmes herbiers marins dans des prairies marines monospécifiques. De tels comportements de fourragement aboutissent à la création de parcelles persistantes, composées de jeunes pousses exemptes d'épiphytes, avec des feuilles facilement digestibles riches en azote, pouvant être exploitées continuellement durant 16 mois. Dans les herbiers multispécifiques, les tortues vertes se nourrissent soit en fonction de l'abondance relative des espèces de phanérogames, soit en ciblant certaines espèces. À ce jour, notre connaissance sur l'écologie des tortues vertes dans les herbiers multispécifiques dans la mer des Caraïbes reste parcellaire. Les sites d’alimentation disponibles dans la Caraïbe sont peu nombreux, ce qui fait des Petites Antilles françaises des zones clefs pour l’alimentation des tortues vertes immatures durant leur phase de développement, tout en jouant un rôle crucial dans l’évolution de la dynamique de population à l’échelle de l’Atlantique et des Caraïbes. Néanmoins, on estime que les populations de tortues vertes actuelles correspondent à 10% de leur état originel. Leur diminution à l’échelle mondiale a poussé les instances internationales à les considérer en danger. Dans ce contexte, nous devons nous inquiéter de l’impact du développement d’H. stipulacea sur l’habitat de développement des tortues vertes immatures et des conséquences sur l’espèce en Atlantique car, rappelons-le, les immatures de Martinique contribuent à alimenter l’ensemble des colonies de reproducteurs de l’Atlantique. Notre projet a pour objectif d’étudier l’écologie comportementale des tortues vertes s’alimentant sur les herbiers multispécifiques de la Martinique et de tester l’hypothèse selon laquelle les tortues vertes jouent un rôle prépondérant dans le développement d’H. stipulacea. Nous étudierons 1) les facteurs influençant la sélection de l’habitat, la sélection alimentaire, l’abondance et la distribution des tortues vertes, 2) les facteurs influençant l’abondance et la distribution d’H. stipulacea, ainsi que 3) l’impact de la pression d’herbivorie des tortues vertes sur H. stipulacea.