Philippe Courtet

Philippe Courtet
Université de Montpellier | UM1 · Emergencic Psychiatry

About

638
Publications
111,328
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15,176
Citations
Citations since 2016
329 Research Items
10861 Citations
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Publications

Publications (638)
Article
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It is acknowledged that diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic diphenol with powerful estrogenic properties, causes structural anomalies of the reproductive tract and increases the risk of cancer and genital malformations in children and grandchildren of mothers treated during pregnancy. Conversely, data on DES effects on neurodevelopment and psychi...
Article
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Suicidal ideation and behaviors, as devastating as they are, are extremely hard to prevent. Their pathophysiology is complex and not fully clear. However, mounting amount of evidence has emerged in recent years, pointing to multiple points of connection between inflammatory dysregulation and suicidal ideation and behaviors. A PubMed search was made...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Suicide is a major global public health issue becoming increasingly common despite preventive efforts. Though current methods for predicting suicide risk are not sufficiently accurate, technological advances provide invaluable tools with which we may evolve toward a personalized, predictive approach. OBJECTIVE We aim to predict the shor...
Article
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Introduction Suicide is one of the leading public health issues worldwide. Mobile health can help us to combat suicide through monitoring and treatment. The SmartCrisis V.2.0 randomised clinical trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Intervention to prevent suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Methods and a...
Article
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Background and objective: Phantom limb pain (PLP) concerns >50% of amputees and has a negative impact on their rehabilitation, mental health, and quality of life. Mirror therapy (MT) is a promising strategy, but its effectiveness remains controversial. We performed a systematic review to: (i) evaluate the effectiveness of MT versus placebo in redu...
Article
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Background In 2020–2021, many European countries put in place temporary lockdown measures due to the increase in COVID-19 cases, although such measures have negative psychological effects. As pre-existing mental disorders are a risk factor of negative psychological consequences during pandemics, it is important to identify specific predictors of ps...
Article
One of the biggest ambitions in the field of anorexia nervosa (AN) research is to find a reliable and effective pharmacological treatment. The fact that currently no pharmacological treatment is safe and effective in this disease is worrying and also challenging. On the basis of the progress in our understanding of AN neurobiology, we propose that...
Article
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Cell-free biosensors are promising tools for medical diagnostics, yet their performance can be affected by matrix effects arising from the sample itself or from external components. Here we systematically evaluate the performance and robustness of cell-free systems in serum, plasma, urine, and saliva using two reporter systems, sfGFP and luciferase...
Article
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Background As mHealth may contribute to suicide prevention, we developed emma , an application using Ecological Momentary Assessment and Intervention (EMA/EMI). Objective This study evaluated emma usage rate and acceptability during the first month and satisfaction after 1 and 6 months of use. Methods Ninety-nine patients at high risk of suicide...
Article
Points clés La crise suicidaire est une crise psychique dans un contexte de vulnérabilité avec émergence et expression d’idées suicidaires, dont le risque majeur est le suicide. L’évaluation du risque de passage à l’acte repose sur le niveau de risque, d’urgence et dangerosité. L’intervention de crise doit être réalisée dans un contexte de bienveil...
Article
Marked heterogeneity in suicide attempters has been observed, with earlier onset being linked to stronger heritability, more childhood maltreatment. Nitric oxide signalling system might be implicated in this relationship through its role in the stress response/adaptation. This study examined how NOS genetic variants and childhood maltreatment were...
Article
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Background The opioid tramadol is used as analgesic drug, and more recently was also proposed for the management of major depressive disorder. However, growing evidence suggests a link between opioid system dysfunction and suicidal behaviors, raising the question of tramadol use in view of the high addictive and suicidal risk. Here, we present the...
Article
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Introduction Impulsivity is present in a range of mental disorders and has been associated with suicide. Traditional measures of impulsivity have certain limitations, such as the lack of ecological validity. Virtual reality (VR) may overcome these issues. This study aims to validate the VR assessment tool ‘Spheres & Shield Maze Task’ and speech ana...
Article
Background After the Food and Drug Administration alert about antiepileptic medication and suicide, incident epilepsy has been associated with first or recurrent suicide attempts independently of psychiatric comorbidities and antiepileptic treatment. Following this thread, the aim of this study was to analyze if epilepsy was associated with a highe...
Article
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Resting energy expenditure (REE; i.e., the calorie amount required for 24 h during a non-active period) is an important parameter in nutritional rehabilitation of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study determined whether age, body mass index, AN duration/subtype/specific symptoms/clinical severity, cognitive function alterations, and psych...
Article
Background: Suicidal behaviors are known to be increased in people with epilepsy compared to the general population. However, few studies have explored the frequency of epilepsy in a large sample of suicide attempters, and scarce data exist about differences and similarities between epileptic attempters (EA) and nonepileptic attempters (NEA). The a...
Article
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Introduction: Prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours is higher among patients with borderline personality disorder than the general population. However, evidence concerning the role of specific borderline symptoms for predicting suicide-related outcomes is lacking and no systematic review/meta-analysis (SR/MA) investigated this topic. Our...
Article
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In clinical practice, differentiating Bipolar Disorder (BD) from unipolar depression is a challenge due to the depressive symptoms, which are the core presentations of both disorders. This misdiagnosis during depressive episodes results in a delay in proper treatment and a poor management of their condition. In a first step, using A-to-I RNA editom...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cell-free biosensors are promising tools for medical diagnostics, yet their performance can be affected by matrix effects arising from the sample itself or from external components. Here we systematically evaluate the performance and robustness of cell-free systems in serum, plasma, urine, and saliva using two reporter systems, sGFP and luciferase....
Article
Features of resting brain metabolism in motor functional neurological disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to investigate the alterations of resting brain metabolism in a cohort of patients experiencing a first episode of motor functional neurological disorder with recent symptom onset, and their association with persistent disabilit...
Preprint
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Purpose The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between weight suppression at lowest weight (WS-LW) and eating disorder (ED) clinical severity, and to test WS-LW role as a mediator of childhood maltreatment (CM) impact on ED. Methods For this retrospective cohort study, adult participants were selected at the Daycare Unit for multidisc...
Article
Currently, only a limited number of interventions can rapidly relieve depressive symptoma-tology in patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder experiencing extreme distress. Such crises, especially when suicide attempt or ideation is involved, are a major risk factor of suicide. Ketamine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor a...
Article
Improving our understanding of pathophysiology of suicidal behavior (SB) is an important step for prevention. Assessment of suicide risk is based on socio-demographic and clinical risk factors with a poor predictivity. Current understanding of SB is based on a stress-vulnerability model, whereby early-life adversities are predominant. SB may thus r...
Article
Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe chronic psychiatric disorder affecting 0.5 to 1% of the population worldwide. To date, most studies have estimated the cost of BD via information sourced from insurance claims with limited information on clinical characteristics and course of BD. The aims of this study are (i) to estimate the direct he...
Article
Background & Aims Patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) present many nutritional deficiencies (macro- and often also micro-nutrients), possibly explained by their inadequate food intake. Previous studies reported that selenium (Se) deficiency is common in the general population. As Se can be easily added as a supplement, the goal of this study was to...
Article
Objective: Psychological pain is a transdiagnostic factor in mental health and a key clinical dimension to understand suicide in patients with mood disorders. However, less is known about the clinical characteristics that predict high psychological pain. The aim of this study was to fill this gap in a sample of patients with mood disorders. Method...
Article
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In patients with bipolar disorder (BD), pain prevalence is close to 30%. It is important to determine whether pain influences BD course and to identify factors associated with pain in BD in order to guide BD management. This naturalistic, prospective study used data on 880 patients with BD from the French FACE-BD cohort who were divided into two gr...
Article
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Objective To confirm the rapid onset anti-suicidal benefits of ketamine in the short term and at six weeks, overall and according to diagnostic group. Design Prospective, double blind, superiority, randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Seven French teaching hospitals between 13 April 2015 and 12 March 2019. Eligibility criteria for partic...
Article
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Objective Eating disorders (ED) are associated with an in increased risk of suicidal behaviours. Laxative abuse might alter the gut–brain axis signaling, that might be implicated in the pathophysiology of suicide. This study aims to determine the association between laxative misuse and suicide attempt (SA) and suicidal ideation (SI) in patients wit...
Article
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Background: Electrodermal hyporeactivity has been proposed as a marker of suicidal risk. The EUDOR-A study investigated the prevalence of electrodermal hyporeactivity among patients with depression and its association with attempted and completed suicide. Methods: Between August 2014 and March 2016, 1,573 in- and outpatients with a primary diagnosi...
Article
Introduction Negative symptoms can be grouped into five domains: apathy/avolition, anhedonia, asociality, alogia, and affective flattening. There are few validate self-rated measures that assess these five dimensions. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the Self-Evaluation of Negative Symptoms (SNS) in Spanish patients with schizophrenia. Mate...
Article
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Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence shows the negative psychological impact of lockdown measures in the general population. It is also important to identify predictors of psychological distress in vulnerable people, particularly patients with history of depressive episodes (the most prevalent psychiatric disorder), in order to ad...
Article
This study investigated the potential role of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) to assess low bone mass in anorexia nervosa patients (AN). Bone parameters from QUS and DXA were positively correlated and significantly reduced in AN compared with controls, suggesting that QUS is a pertinent technique to assess low bone mass in these patients.PurposeThe a...
Article
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Introduction: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a disabling psychiatric condition characterized by the failure of two antidepressants (ADs). Since the occurrence of side effects (SEs) appears to be one of the main determinants of early discontinuation of pharmacological treatments contributing to a pseudo-resistance, the purpose of this study...
Article
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The available interventions for people who are at risk of suicide have limited efficacy. Recently, research on new mental health treatments has started to consider psychedelic compounds, particularly psilocybin, a molecule with a few thousand years of history of use in human societies. The possible effects of psilocybin on suicidal ideation and beh...
Article
Objectives To explore the link between cytokines and suicide attempts and their relationship with the psychological aspects of this complex multifactorial phenomenon. Methods 96 participants, including 20 patients with a recent suicide attempt and diagnosis of Major Depression Disorder (MDD), 33 MDD patients with a lifetime history of suicide atte...
Article
Dissociative disorders (DD) and conversion disorders (CD) are frequent in general and psychiatric populations. Some evidence suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) are dysregulated in both disorders. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to summarize the existing knowledge on the stress...
Article
Background Tobacco smoking has been associated with suicide, impulsivity and depression in non-clinical populations with differences across sexes. Objective To determine the role of tobacco smoking in Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD) according to sex in a precision-medicine approach. Method The FACE-TRD cohort is a national cohort of TRD pati...
Poster
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Contact • More than half of Anorexia Nervosa patients were deficient in selenium • Low selenium is associated with worse reward system functioning, as measured with delayed discounting task • Low selenium is associated with worse clinical symptoms and body shape impairments measured by EDQ and BSQ • Low selenium predicted worse quality of life • Se...
Article
Background: . Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, lifelong condition, associated with increased risk of obesity, cognitive impairment, and suicidal behaviors. Abdominal obesity and a higher risk of violent suicide attempt (SA) seem to be shared correlates with older age, BD, and male sex until middle age when menopause-related female body changes...
Article
Impaired decision-making (DM) is well-known in suicidal behavior (SB). We aimed to review the evidence on DM and its mediating factors in SB and perform a meta-analysis on DM assessed using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). We conducted a search on databases of papers published on DM and SB up to 2020: 46 studies were included in the systematic review,...
Article
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Background: Growing evidences suggest that depression with suicidal ideation (SI) could be a specific phenotype with its own characteristics. Moreover, opioid system deregulation might be implicated in suicidal behaviour (SB). The aim of this study was to determine whether the A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) in ORPM1 (the gene encoding opioid recep...
Article
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Background: Psychiatric disorders in children exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) are still debated. We report here the impact of DES prescribed to suppress lactation on the children born after such treatment and their progeny, focusing particularly on psychiatric disorders. Case presentation: We report here an informative family in whi...
Preprint
Objective A major limitation of current suicide research is the lack of power to identify robust correlates of suicidal thoughts or behaviour. Variation in suicide risk assessment instruments used across cohorts may represent a limitation to pooling data in international consortia. Method Here, we examine this issue through two approaches: (i) an e...
Preprint
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Purpose: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious mental illness that is frequently accompanied with a history of childhood maltreatment (CM) which may constitute a specific ecophenotype of the eating disorder necessitating special assessment and management. Chronic stress inflicted by CM in patients with AN may manifest through increased low grade infla...
Article
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Background Genetics and biology may influence the age at onset of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aims of this study were to determine whether common genetic variation contributes to AN age at onset and to investigate the genetic associations between age at onset of AN and age at menarche. Methods A secondary analysis of the Psychiatric Genomics Consor...
Chapter
Suicide is a multifaceted phenomenon, related to an everlasting interconnection between biological, psychosocial, sociological, philosophical, and cultural aspects of human life. Immune system, which is constantly responding to changing environments and changing in response to them, seems to play a major role in this interaction. Multiple studies h...
Article
Objective: Little is known about the amyloid load impact on depressive symptoms or disorders, although it can modulate the cognitive trajectory in older adults. Here, we analyzed, in individuals at risk of Alzheimer's dementia, the relationship between amyloid load and depressive symptoms changes over time. Methods: This study included ≥ 70-year-o...
Article
Objective: The emergence of new drugs for managing suicidal ideation (e.g. ketamine) raises the question of whether suicidal depression (i.e. moderate to severe depression with concomitant suicidal ideation) is a specific depression phenotype. Therefore, this study characterized patients with suicidal depression (baseline clinical characteristics,...
Article
As compared to the general population, adult individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) have higher mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases and higher prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Recent evidence suggests that childhood maltreatment may contribute to the cardiovascular burden in individuals with BD. However, studies are scarce, with...
Article
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Prior research suggests that sleep disturbances are associated with increased risk of suicide. However, sleep disturbances are associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders, and it is unknown whether this association is independent of psychopathology. In a large nationally representative prospective survey, the National Epidemiologic Survey...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak may have affected the mental health of patients at high risk of suicide. In this study we explored the wish to die and other suicide risk factors using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in patients with a history of suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Contrary to our expectations we...
Article
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Mental health issues, including major depressive disorder, which can lead to suicidal behavior, are considered by the World Health Organization as a major threat to global health. Alterations in neurotransmitter signaling, e.g., serotonin and glutamate, or inflammatory response have been linked to both MDD and suicide. Phosphodiesterase 8A (PDE8A)...
Article
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Introduction We assessed the correlation between childhood maltreatment (CM) and severity of depression in an elderly unipolar Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD) sample. Methods Patients were enrolled from a longitudinal cohort (FACE-DR) of the French Network of Expert TRD Centres. Results Our sample included 96 patients (33% of the overall coh...
Article
Background Cynical hostility (CH), a specific dimension of hostility that consists of a mistrust of others, has been suggested as a high-risk trait for dementia. However, the influence of CH on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains poorly understood. This study investigated whether late-life CH is associated with AD risk and structural...
Article
Objectives. To address the extreme suicide risk period following a suicidal crisis, we aimed to assess the current evidence for specific healthcare system-based interventions on suicide-related outcomes within one-week or one-month in individuals with current suicidal ideation (SI) or a recent suicide attempt (SA). Methods. We performed a database...
Article
Background : Smartphone monitoring could contribute to the elucidation of the correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB). In this study, we employ smartphone monitoring and machine learning techniques to explore the association of wish to die (passive suicidal ideation) with disturbed sleep, altered appetite and negative feelings. Methods...
Article
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Bipolar disorder (BD) diagnosis currently relies on assessment of clinical symptoms, mainly retrospective and subject to memory bias. BD is often misdiagnosed as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) resulting in ineffective treatment and worsened clinical outcome. The primary purpose of this study was to identify blood biomarkers that discriminate MDD f...
Article
When the first lockdown was implemented to limit the spread of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID‐19), many experts alerted on the potential risk of suicide. Indeed, prolonged social isolation due to the stay‐at‐home directives has been associated with increased loneliness (1), known to increase suicide risk.
Article
Objectives: The comorbidity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and bipolar disorder (BD) has been repeatedly associated with poorer clinical outcomes than BD without AUD. We aimed to extend these findings by focusing on the characteristics associated with the sequence of onset of BD and AUD. Methods: 3,027 outpatients from the Fondamental Advanced Ce...
Article
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In the current study, we provide the list of pharmacological interventions applied during the one-year follow-up period of the Pharmacological treatment profiles in the FACE-BD cohort study. These data show the treatments used in the new clusters formed in this previous study and also in usual bipolarity subtypes. The proportion of each treatment u...
Article
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In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. The Section on Suicidology and Suicide Prevention of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) wants to raise awareness about the potential increase in mental health disorders and suicides as a result of the socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic,...
Article
Background: Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) is the most frequent heritable disorder of the connective tissue. This is characterized by a generalized fragility of tissues leading to chronic pain, disability and high levels of psychological distress. Suicidal behaviors in those affected are not uncommon but they have not been well studied....
Article
Background : Suicidal behaviors can result from a complex interaction between social stressors and individual vulnerability. Evidence suggests a specific neural processing of social cues in suicide attempters without knowledge of how it relates to real-world experiences. Objective : To investigate the association between brain activity during expe...
Article
Background : Despite thorough and validated clinical guidelines based on bipolar disorders subtypes, large pharmacological treatment heterogeneity remains in these patients. There is limited knowledge about the different treatment combinations used and their influence on patient outcomes. We attempted to determine profiles of patients based on thei...