Philippe Clergeau

Philippe Clergeau
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle

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255
Publications
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7,389
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Publications

Publications (255)
Article
Full-text available
Neighbourhoods are a fundamental urban design unit and the focus of many sustainable design frameworks. Although these frameworks were fundamental to mainstream sustainable practices, problems with their use remain, such as their unbalanced sustainability aspects. To face these problems, innovative design approaches emerge, including regenerative d...
Article
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Background As urban areas expand, scientists now agree that the city is an important space for biodiversity conservation. Yet, still relatively little is known about how urban forms could have a differential impact on terrestrial species and ecosystems. If some reviews have been conducted to examine the link between biodiversity and urban character...
Article
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Urban design organises and transforms the space, reflecting human context on cities' shape. Since modernism, designers draw urban projects with the goal to improve cities performances based on a mechanistic worldview, in which living systems are almost not considered. This paradigm led to urbanisation that is prominent in ecological process simplif...
Article
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Urban design practice organizes and transforms space through the development of urban projects, organizing the choices of intervention on a territory. Several initiatives in research and project practice aim to explore the integration of aspects related to the functioning of natural ecosystems in project design. Nevertheless, urbanization processes...
Article
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The object of this article is to present built situations identified by their capacity to accommodate the development of spontaneous plants.
Preprint
Global change, which regroups global warming, landscape transformations and other anthropic modifications of ecosystems, has effects on populations and communities and produces modifications in the expansion area of species. While some species disappear, other ones are beneficiated by the new conditions and some of them evolve in new adapted forms...
Preprint
To understand the processes involved in biological invasions, the genetic, morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics of invasive populations need to be understood. Many invasive species have been reported to be flying species. In birds, both invaders and migrants encounter novel situations, therefore one could expect that both gro...
Preprint
When biological invasions by animals occur, the individuals arriving in novel environments can be confronted with unpredictable or unfamiliar resources and may need social interaction to improve survival in the newly colonized areas. Gathering with conspecifics and using social information about their activities may reveal the location of suitable...
Preprint
Invasions ecology deals more and more with behavioural characteristics of invasive species. Particularly, research have focused on the personality of invaders and on their way of coping with novelty in new habitats. Traits of neophobia may limit individuals in their exploration of novel objects or the consumption of novel foods, they may stop the a...
Article
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Biomimicry is a design framework with growing interests in sustainable architectural and urban design practice. Nevertheless, there is a significant lack of studies and knowledge regarding its practical application. In 2020, a French workgroup called Biomim’City Lab published a document identifying and describing 16 urban projects designed by Frenc...
Article
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By 2050, 68% of the world’s population will likely live in cities. Human settlements depend on resources, benefits, and services from ecosystems, but they also tend to deplete ecosystem health. To address this situation, a new urban design and planning approach is emerging. Based on regenerative design, ecosystem-level biomimicry, and ecosystem ser...
Article
Understanding the habitat-related hunting behavior of house cats Felis catus is needed to evaluate their potential predatory effect on areas they actively visit within their home range. As part of a citizen science program, 30 neutered cats from 25 households were equipped by their owners during, on average, 2 consecutive days per month between Jan...
Article
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Le « zéro artificialisation nette » est un horizon proposé pour endiguer l'artificialisation des sols et le déclin du vivant. Issu du plan Biodiversité du gouvernement lancé en 2018, son impact écologique est pourtant très relatif. Un regard d'écologues sur ce concept et sa traduction opérationnelle soulève en effet de nombreuses questions. Le resp...
Article
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The adaptation of cities to global warming requires the search for economic solutions to be mobilized on a large scale. In this context, the greening of the built envelopes is now known to contribute to the reduction of islands of heat and the benefits of nature in the city. Among the existing vegetation devices, the colonization of the supports bu...
Article
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Today, biodiversity is seen as a necessary element in the construction of sustainable and resilient cities, particularly through the multiple services it provides to urban dwellers. The weakness of the consideration in public policies, questioned us on the interest of the new level of decision as that of the metropolis, in full formalization. We as...
Article
To fight against the biodiversity loss and to take advantage of ecosystem services that nature can offer, urban planners integrate green spaces in urban projects. However to assess green spaces, attention is generally paid to local biodiversity (i.e. “in situ”)which concerns the plot on which buildings are constructed. The biodiversity impacted out...
Technical Report
Tout le monde l’admet, le chat domestique est un mangeur de souris et d’oiseaux. Les chiffres alarmistes qui avancent plusieurs milliards d’oiseaux tués tous les ans aux Etats-Unis (1) nous interrogent, car en France métropolitaine, le nombre de nos seuls chats dits de propriétaire (c’est-à-dire qui ne sont pas considérés comme errants) dépasse les...
Article
The world human population is more and more urban and cities have a strong impact on the biosphere. This explains the development of urban ecology. In this context, the goal of our work is fourfold: to describe the diversity of scientific questions in urban ecology, show how these questions are organized, to assess how these questions can be built...
Technical Report
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Souvent bâtie sur les milieux les plus riches et favorables à la vie, le long de fleuves, sur des espaces naturels diversifiés ou agricoles, la ville est un milieu entièrement construit et entretenu par l'Homme qui subit des modifications rapides et brutales engendrant une mosaïque de milieux différents. Les sols, y sont maintes fois remaniés, dést...
Data
Présenter des références bibliographiques dans différents champs de recherche, d'expérimentation et de réflexion sur les murs végétalisés : biodiversité, sociologie, perspectives pour l'urbanisme, aspects techniques, mais également évaluation des services rendus
Article
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Green roofs and walls have recently emerged as conservation tools, and they offer promising additional opportunities to enhance biodiversity in cities. However, their ecological conditions remain poorly considered when planning wildlife corridors. To discuss the role of vegetated buildings in landscape connectivity, we reviewed the ecological and t...
Chapter
Reflections In a context of urban greening, vertical plantings offer a great potential to enhance urban biodiversity but it is unclear whether they act as exclusive habitats or components of urban corridors. Thus, understanding the ecological value and functioning of each system becomes critical to integrate nature into urban design and planning at...
Article
An important bias in the estimations of threatened evolutionary history is that extinctions are considered as independent events. However, the extinction of a given species may affect the vulnerability of its partners and cause extinction cascades. Co-extinctions are likely not random in the tree of life and may cause the loss of large amounts of u...
Article
An important bias in the estimations of threatened evolutionary history is that extinctions are considered as independent events. However, the extinction of a given species may affect the vulnerability of its partners and cause extinction cascades. Co-extinctions are likely not random in the tree of life and may cause the loss of large amounts of u...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanisation as a major driver of changes leads to the extinction of some species while others increase in abundance, especially non-native species. Spatiotemporal distribution patterns of these successful species are likely to be shaped by their response and tolerance to urban features. This study assesses the anthropo-ecological requirements of t...
Article
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This study presents the results of object-based classifications assessing the potential of bi-temporal Pléiades images for mapping broadleaf and coniferous tree species potentially used by the ring-necked parakeet Psittacula krameri for nesting in the urban area of Marseille, France. The first classification was performed based solely on a summer P...
Article
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The Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus is common and widespread in its native range. The species’ adaptability means that it thrives in landscapes modified by human activity. In recent decades, non-native populations have become established in several areas of Europe as a result of escapes or deliberate releases from collections. Such populations...
Article
Some organisms are able to disperse by air through passive or active flying and can colonize highly isolated habitat. We can hypothesis than aerial dispersions could be a process of biodiversity development even in isolated town habitats such as some building roofs. The urban aerial plankton has been poorly studied and we analyzed here the arthropo...
Article
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Aim Effective policy and management responses to the multiple threats posed by invasive alien species (IAS) rely on the ability to assess their impacts before conclusive empirical evidence is available. A plethora of different IAS risk and/ or impact assessment protocols have been proposed, but it remains unclear whether, how and why the outcomes o...
Article
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With the development of worldwide trade of exotic pets, cities have become key entry points for the increasing introductions of non-native animals. While many studies show the negative impacts of these introductions, few focus on the appreciation of these species by the city-dwellers. With the arrival of the Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri...
Article
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La Perruche à collier (Psittacula krameri) niche en Île-de-France depuis les années 1970. Au vu de la croissance exponentielle des noyaux de reproduction en Europe, des inquiétudes émanent des collectivités, des gestionnaires, mais également des particuliers concernant les potentiels impacts de cette espèce. Dans cette étude, nous nous sommes intér...
Article
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There is an increasing interest in measuring loss of phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness which together depict the evolutionary history of conservation interest. Those losses are assessed through the evolutionary relationships between species and species threat status or extinction probabilities. Yet, available information is no...
Article
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The Red-whiskered bulbul is a very successful invasive bird species. Morphological differences have been reported among individuals inhabiting the humid and dry coasts of Reunion Island, in a 30-year-old population. This suggests a capacity for rapid local adaptation which could explain the general invasive success of this species. However, the ori...
Article
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Background Phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness are highly valuable components of biodiversity, but they are rarely considered in conservation practices. Focusing on a biodiversity hotspot, the Mediterranean Basin, we aimed to identify those areas where evolutionary history is highly threatened and range-restricted in the region...
Article
The “Grenelle de l’Environnement” forum outlined the importance of taking into account the dispersion of species across territories and therefore proposed the identification and protection of ecological networks with reservoirs of biodiversity and connecting corridors: the “Trames vertes et bleues” (TVB). In urbanized areas, these TVB are difficult...
Article
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Interference competition has proved to be a factor of successful establishment of invasive species. This type of competition may have a stronger impact when native species have temporal niche overlap with the invasive species. The ring-necked parakeet Psittacula krameri has been successfully introduced in many countries and its interspecific agonis...
Article
The need to take into account environmental and ecological issues in land use is highlighted in several political and legal texts. However, the implementation of biodiversity conservation objectives at the local level is still very light. The mere ecological approach would forget the relationship to the uses and ambiences that is the responsibility...
Article
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The Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri), native of Asia and Africa, is a very successful invasive species in Europe: it has been present there for over 50 years. A recent study showed that European invasive populations occupy a colder climatic niche than in their native range but the establishment of this tropical species in temperate regions...
Article
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Purpose: Alien species are considered one of the major causes contributing to the current loss of biodiversity. Over the past few decades, a large and increasing number of alien species have become invasive in many parts of the world. Their impacts range from competition for resources with native species to damage of urban infrastructure. In Europe...
Article
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The Earth's evolutionary history is threatened by species loss in the current sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history. Such extinction events not only eliminate species but also their unique evolutionary histories. Here we review the expected loss of Earth's evolutionary history quantified by phylogenetic diversity (PD) and evolutionary dist...
Conference Paper
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Protected areas are mainly designed to maintain species richness and/or rare, vulnerable species. Yet these criteria may not be sufficient to conserve the diverse facets of biodiversity, especially phylogenetic diversity and the functions it provides. Protecting the evolutionary history shared by species has been argued to be highly valuable to con...
Conference Paper
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A major objective for biologists is to identify the most threatened species in order to define and prioritize conservation actions. In this aim, the Red List developed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) enables to identify species at risk of extinction and has supported a large number of conservation programs (IUCN, 20...
Article
Le Noma est une affection grave, touchant essentiellement les enfants des pays en voie de développement. Les facteurs favorisants de cette pathologie, inhérents à ces pays, sont nombreux et vont conduire à une situation clinique de délabrement facial rapide qu’il conviendra de stopper rapidement pour en minimiser les séquelles. Le traitement de ces...
Article
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In a context of urban greening, vegetated façades offer a great potential to enhance urban biodiversity. Yet, little is known about the ecological drivers of such man-made ecosystems on assemblages. We assessed four types of façades: three types of vegetated-façades–CP (climbing plant façades), FL (felt layer façades) and SM (substrate module façad...
Article
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Population dynamics of the introduced Roseringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri in Île-de- France. Originally distributed in subtropical areas, the Rose-ringed Parakeet was accidentally introduced to Europe through the escape of captive individuals. The bird is now established in several European towns such as the suburbs of Paris (Île-de-France regio...
Article
Originally distributed in subtropical areas, the Rose-ringed Parakeet was accidentally introduced to Europe through the escape of captive individuals. The bird is now established in several European towns such as the suburbs of Paris (Île-de-France region). In order to update the population size and distribution of the Rose-ringed Parakeet in Île-d...
Article
Full-text available
For several decades, the sprawling of urbanisation has resulted in the loss of natural habitats and in landscape fragmentation and thus represents one of the main causes of the erosion of biodiversity. Green spaces in urban areas help maintain ecological connectivity and provide ecosystem services to citizens. The impact of urban green spaces on th...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The Red-whiskered bulbul is a very successful invasive bird, native from south Asia and often considered as an agricultural pest. In Reunion Island, a study conducted 20 years after the introduction of this species showed that several morphotypes of bulbul occur in contrasted environments. The authors concluded that the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods The area dedicated to business activity increased by 42 % during the last 30 years in the Île-de-France (IdF) region (France). In urban and suburban zones, the green spaces at business sites can represent large surfaces : in IdF, they cover 8 700 ha i.e. 8 % of the total urban green spaces. Given their importance, they...
Article
Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local-...
Article
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Urban densification is often considered has a green planning policy. However, its effects on woodland arthropods have been rarely analysed. To fill this gap, a multi-taxa approach using three ground-dwelling arthropod assemblages was conducted on 11 woodlands located along an urbanisation gradient. The gradient range from rural areas to one of the...