Philippe Ciais

Philippe Ciais
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l'Environnement | LSCE

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1,290
Publications
587,009
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138,330
Citations

Publications

Publications (1,290)
Article
Full-text available
The production of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (N) has grown so much in the last century that quantifying the effect of N enrichment on plant growth has become a central question for carbon (C) cycle research. Numerous field experiments generally found that N enrichment increased site-scale plant biomass, although the magnitude of the response a...
Article
Driven by enhanced summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere and land-atmosphere feedbacks during the mid-Holocene (MH), most regions of China were characterized by warmer and wetter summer than present. The MH has been recognized as a benchmark period for climate simulations, but proxy-based reconstructions and model results show some key discr...
Article
Full-text available
Several lines of evidence show that northern Africa was considerably wetter and greener than today at ∼6,000 years ago, which is known as the mid-Holocene green Sahara (GS). However, most current models could not reproduce climate in the GS. The importance of wetland feedbacks on sustaining a wetter climate has partially been recognized while large...
Article
Consistent information on the current elemental composition of vegetation at global scale and the variables that determine it is lacking. To fill this gap, we gathered a total of 30912 georeferenced records on woody plants foliar concentrations of N, P, and K from published databases, and produced global maps of foliar N, P and K concentrations fo...
Article
Full-text available
Satellites have detected a global decline in burned area of grassland, coincident with a small increase in burned forest area. These contrasting trends have been reported in earlier literature; however, less is known of their impacts on global fire emission trends due to the scarcity of direct observations. We use an atmospheric inversion system to...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is projected to increase the aridity of semi-arid ecosystems, including Mongolian grasslands (MG), which provide ecosystem services that support food supply and pastoralist lifestyle. Here, we conducted a grid-scale (0.5º×0.5º) probabilistic risk assessment of MG under climate change for 40 years (1976–2015) based on probability theo...
Article
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Changes in CO2 emissions during the COVID-19 pandemic have been estimated from indicators on activities like transportation and electricity generation. Here, we instead use satellite observations together with bottom-up information to track the daily dynamics of CO2 emissions during the pandemic. Unlike activity data, our observation-based analysis...
Article
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We use a global transport model and satellite retrievals of the carbon dioxide (CO2) column average to explore the impact of CO2 emissions reductions that occurred during the economic downturn at the start of the Covid‐19 pandemic. The changes in the column averages are substantial in a few places of the model global grid, but the induced gradients...
Article
Full-text available
This study assesses the potential of satellite imagery of vertically integrated columns of dry-air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) to constrain the emissions from cities and power plants (called emission clumps) over the whole globe during 1 year. The imagery is simulated for one imager of the Copernicus mission on Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Monitor...
Article
Full-text available
Earth system models predict that increases in atmospheric and soil dryness will reduce photosynthesis in the Amazon rainforest, with large implications for the global carbon cycle. Using in situ observations, solar-induced fluorescence, and nonlinear machine learning techniques, we show that, in reality, this is not necessarily the case: In many of...
Article
Phosphorus (P) losses from fertilized croplands to inland water bodies cause serious environmental problems. During wet years, high precipitation disproportionately contributes to P losses. We combine simulations of a gridded crop model and outputs from a number of hydrological and climate models to assess global impacts of changes in precipitation...
Preprint
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The construction of terraces is a key soil conservation practice on agricultural land in China, providing multiple 15 valuable ecosystem services. Accurate spatial information on terraces is needed for both management and research. In this study, the first 30 m resolution terracing map of the entire territory of China is produced by a supervised pi...
Article
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During the summer of 2018, a widespread drought developed over Northern and Central Europe. The increase in temperature and the reduction of soil moisture have influenced carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems in various ways, such as a reduction of photosynthesis, changes in ecosystem respiration, or allowi...
Article
Full-text available
In summer 2018, Europe experienced a record drought, but it remains unknown how the drought affected ecosystem carbon dynamics. Using observations from 34 eddy covariance sites in different biomes across Europe, we studied the sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP) to environmental drivers during the summer drought of 2018 versus the refer...
Preprint
Full-text available
The availability of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) constrain the ability of ecosystems to use resources such as light, water and carbon. In turn, nutrients impact the distribution of productivity, ecosystem carbon turnovers and their net exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere in response to variation of environmental conditions both in space and in t...
Article
Full-text available
In order to track progress towards the global climate targets, the parties that signed the Paris Climate Agreement will regularly report their anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions based on energy statistics and CO2 emission factors. Independent evaluation of this self-reporting system is a fast-growing research topic. Here, we study the val...
Poster
iPoster link:https://jpgu-agu2020-azure.ipostersessions.com/Default.aspx?s=81-F0-47-BA-2B-0A-CD-03-E4-5E-E5-66-7E-8A-DB-94 【Biogeosciences Biogeochemistry】【B-BC03】 【Earth and Planetary Science Frontiers for Life and Global Environment】
Article
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After stagnating in the early 2000s, the atmospheric methane growth rate has been positive since 2007 with a significant acceleration starting in 2014. While causes for previous growth rate variations are still not well determined, this recent increase can be studied with dense surface and satellite observations. Here, we use an ensemble of six mul...
Article
Full-text available
The top-down atmospheric inversion method that couples atmospheric CO2 observations with an atmospheric transport model has been used extensively to quantify CO2 emissions from cities. However, the potential of the method is limited by several sources of misfits between the measured and modeled CO2 that are of different origins than the targeted CO...
Article
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The satellites that have been designed to support the monitoring of fossil fuel CO 2 emissions aim to systematically measure atmospheric CO 2 plumes generated by intense emissions from large cities, power plants and industrial sites. These data can be assimilated into atmospheric transport models in order to estimate the corresponding emissions. Ho...
Article
During the early to middle Holocene, the Sahara received enhanced precipitation and was covered by steppe-like vegetation with a large-scale hydrographic network of lakes, wetlands and fans, which is known as the Green Sahara (GS). However, most coupled land-atmosphere models underestimate the precipitation and vegetation cover, suggesting that cri...
Article
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The terrestrial carbon cycle has been strongly influenced by human‐induced CO2 increase, climate change and land use change since the industrial revolution. These changes alter the carbon balance of ecosystems through changes in vegetation productivity and ecosystem carbon turnover time (τeco ). Even though numerous studies have drawn an increasing...
Article
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Growth of high-elevation forests is generally temperature-limited and thus sensitive to warming. The Tibetan Plateau has experienced fast warming rates associated with decreased summer monsoon rainfall over the last century. However, whether such warming and monsoon-induced drought could offset a potential warming-driven enhancement of forest growt...
Article
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Afforestation in China provides carbon sequestration and prevents soil erosion, but its remote impacts on climate in other regions via the coupling of forest energy fluxes with atmospheric circulation are largely unknown. Here, we prescribe inventory-based forest cover change and satellite-observed leaf area index from 1982 to 2011 in a coupled lan...
Article
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Arctic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to climate change because of Arctic amplification. Here, we assessed the climatic impacts of low-end, 1.5 °C, and 2.0 °C global temperature increases above pre-industrial levels, on the warming of terrestrial ecosystems in northern high latitudes (NHL, above 60 °N including pan-Arctic tundra and boreal...
Article
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The drivers of global change, including increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, N and S deposition, and climate change, likely affect the nutritional status of forests. Here we show forest foliar concentrations of N, P, K, S and Mg decreased significantly in Europe by 5%, 11%, 8%, 6% and 7%, respectively during the last three decades. The decr...
Preprint
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Abstract. As the second largest area of contiguous tropical rainforest and second largest river basin in the world, the Congo basin has a significant role to play in the global carbon (C) cycle. Inventories suggest that terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) and C storage in tree biomass has increased in recent decades in intact forests of trop...
Conference Paper
Robust changes in climatic hazards, including droughts, heatwaves and dust storms, are evident in many parts of the world and they are expected to increase in magnitude and frequency in the future. At the same time, socio-ecological damage from climate-related disasters has increased worldwide, including the Eurasian steppes, notably Mongolian gras...
Article
China has experienced rapid agricultural development over recent decades, accompanied by increased fertilizer consumption in croplands; yet, the trend and drivers of the associated nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions remain uncertain. The primary sources of this uncertainty are the coarse spatial variation of activity data and the incomplete model repr...
Article
Measuring leaf gas exchange from canopy leaves is fundamental for our understanding of photosynthesis and for a realistic representation of carbon uptake in vegetation models. Since canopy leaves are often difficult to reach, especially in tropical forests with emergent trees up to 60 m at remote places, canopy access techniques such as canopy cran...
Article
Persistent sinks of atmospheric CO2 in undisturbed peatlands are not included in future projections of the global carbon budget. We aimed to explore possible responses of northern peatlands to future climate change and to quantify the role of northern peatlands in the carbon balance of the Northern Hemisphere. The terrestrial Northern Hemisphere (>...
Article
Full-text available
The U.S.‐China trade conflict has already considerably reshaped China's food imports, and should the conflict continue, it might have substantial impacts on global food supply dynamics as well as China's food supply sources. We address these implications by analyzing recent trends in China's food imports and associated use of land and water resourc...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphorus (P) is the second most important nutrient after nitrogen (N) and can greatly diminish plant productivity if P supply is not adequate. Plants respond to soil P availability by adjusting root biomass to maintain uptake and productivity due to P use. In spite of our vast knowledge on P effects on plant growth, how to functionally model enha...
Article
Full-text available
In order to track progress towards the global climate targets, the parties that signed the Paris Climate Agreement will regularly report their anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions based on energy statistics and CO2 emission factors. Independent evaluation of this self-reporting system is a fast-growing research topic. Here, we study the val...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Emissions from land-use and land-cover change are a key component of the global carbon cycle. Models are required to disentangle these emissions and the land carbon sink, however, because only the sum of both can be physically observed. Their assessment within the yearly community-wide effort known as the Global Carbon Budget remains a ma...
Article
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Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been proposed as a proxy for carbon dioxide (CO2) taken up by plants at the leaf and ecosystem scales. However, several additional production and removal processes have been identified which could complicate its use at larger scales, among which are soil uptake, dark uptake by plants, and soil and anthropogenic emissions....
Article
Changes in rainfall amounts and patterns have been observed and are expected to continue in the near future with potentially significant ecological and societal consequences. Modelling vegetation responses to changes in rainfall is thus crucial to project water and carbon cycles in the future. In this study, we present the results of a new model-da...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic land use and land cover changes (LULCC) have a large impact on the global terrestrial carbon sink, but this effect is not well characterized according to biogeographical region. Here, using state-of-the-art Earth observation data and a dynamic global vegetation model, we estimate the impact of LULCC on the contribution of biomes to th...
Article
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Severe drought and extreme heat associated with the 2015–2016 El Niño event have led to large carbon emissions from the tropical vegetation to the atmosphere. With the return to normal climatic conditions in 2017, tropical forest aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks are expected to partly recover due to increased productivity, but the intensity and spat...
Article
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Acid phosphatase produced by plants and microbes plays a fundamental role in the recycling of soil phosphorus (P). A quantification of the spatial variation in potential acid phosphatase activity (AP) on large spatial scales and its drivers can help to reduce the uncertainty in our understanding of bio-availability of soil P. We applied two machine...
Article
Urban vegetation can influence local air temperatures through its biophysical effects on surface energy balance. These effects produce gradients (ΔTa) between air temperature of vegetation spaces (Tveg) and air temperature of open spaces (Topen) (ΔTa=Tveg−Topen), hereafter referred to as vegetation cooling (negative values of ΔTa) and warming (posi...
Preprint
Full-text available
(150 words limits) Root plays a key role in plant growth and functioning. Here we combine 10307 field measurements of forest root biomass worldwide with global observations of forest structure, climatic conditions, topography, land management and soil characteristics to derive a spatially-explicit global high-resolution (~ 1km) root biomass dataset...
Article
First‐order organic matter decomposition models are used within most Earth System Models (ESMs) to project future global carbon cycling; these models have been criticized for not accurately representing mechanisms of soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization and SOC response to climate change. New soil biogeochemical models have been developed, but t...
Article
The availability of carbon (C) from high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and anthropogenic release of nitrogen (N) is increasing, but these increases are not paralleled by increases in levels of phosphorus (P). The current unstoppable changes in the stoichiometries of C and N relative to P have no historical precedent. We describe change...
Article
Full-text available
Earlier vegetation greening under climate change raises evapotranspiration and thus lowers spring soil moisture, yet the extent and magnitude of this water deficit persistence into the following summer remain elusive. We provide observational evidence that increased foliage cover over the Northern Hemisphere, during 1982–2011, triggers an additiona...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. This study assesses the potential of satellite imagery of vertically integrated columns of dry-air mole fractions of CO<sub>2</sub> (XCO<sub>2</sub>) to constrain the emissions from cities and power plants (called emission clumps) over the whole globe during one year. The imagery is simulated for one imager of the Copernicus mission on An...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Leaf phenology in the humid tropics largely regulates the seasonality of forest carbon and water exchange. However, it is inadequately represented in most global land surface models due to limited understanding of its controls. Based on intensive field studies at four Amazonian evergreen forests, we propose a novel, quantitative representa...
Article
Full-text available
Soil acidity plays a central role in the diversity and function of terrestrial ecosystems. Recent studies have revealed that acid deposition has acidified topsoil over time. However, uncertainties relating to how the acidity of the entire soil profile, including deep soil, responds to multiple global change drivers make it challenging to predict th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Atmospheric inversions have been used for the past two decades to derive large scale constraints on the sources and sinks of CO<sub>2</sub> into the atmosphere. The development of high density in-situ surface observation networks, such as ICOS in Europe, enables in theory inversions at a resolution close to the country scale in Europe. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and m...
Article
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Wind power, a rapidly growing alternative energy source, has been threatened by reductions in global average surface wind speed, which have been occurring over land since the 1980s, a phenomenon known as global terrestrial stilling. Here, we use wind data from in situ stations worldwide to show that the stilling reversed around 2010 and that global...
Article
The emission and deposition of global atmospheric phosphorus (P) have long been considered unbalanced, and primary biogenic aerosol particles (PBAP) and phosphine (PH3) are considered to be the only atmospheric P sources from the ecosystem. In this work, we found and quantified volatile organic phosphorus (VOP) emissions from plants unaccounted for...