Philippe Charlier

Philippe Charlier
Université Paris-Saclay · Laboratory Anthropology Archaeology Biology (LAAB)

MD PhD LittD

About

467
Publications
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1,609
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Additional affiliations
September 2006 - present
Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin
Position
  • MCU-PH

Publications

Publications (467)
Article
Aim During archaeological excavations in Maltot, Normandy (France), the remains of a German soldier probably dating from Operation Jupiter (July 10–11, 1944) were discovered. The study of the body showed that he was a man aged 17 to 20 at the time of death. His death was likely caused by several recent projectile impacts: bullet entry orifice in th...
Article
Objectives: King Henri IV of France (reign from 1589 to 1610) was one of the most important kings of France. Embalmed and buried in Saint-Denis, his remains were beheaded in 1793. His head (including his larynx) survived in successive private collections until its definitive identification in 2010. The purpose of the study was to provide a morphol...
Article
Background Following several studies considering the potential toxicity of food-type containers, we hypothesized elemental analysis would help us test and classify a collection of Ecuadorian ceramic sherds from Andean and Amazonian sites. Material and methods μ-XRF spectrometer analyses were carried out on 48 ceramic sherds coming from 4 different...
Article
A close‐up photograph of a Teke community Chief (Congo, circa 1880–1890) seemed to be of diagnostic interest, as areas of achromic maculae were visible on the hands: the most relevant diagnoses were a Koebner phenomenon on a background of vitiligo, or a diagnosis of lupus. However, examination of the entire photograph showed that the ‘maculae’ were...
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In Maltot (Normandy, France), one grave containing the remains of a German soldier, who died in 1944, was excavated amongst other graves and isolated elements. A dozen whole vials were unearthed, resulting in questions about their content. Various screenings were carried out on the contents of one single vial: HPLC–DAD and HR-LC–MS screening after...
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Gigantism and acromegaly have been observed in past populations; however, analyses usually focus on the morphological features of the post-cranial skeleton. The aim of this study is to characterize the internal anatomical features of the skull (brain endocast anatomy and asymmetry, frontal pneumatization, cranial thickness, sella turcica size) of a...
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The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis , is a strictly obligate human ectoparasite with a long history of association with humans. Here, 17 ancient head lice nits were recovered from six shrunken human heads (known as tsantsas ) of individuals from the Shuar/Jivaro tribe, a native Amazonian population from Ecuador, South America. Cytochrome b DN...
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Background Japan is famous for its fabulous creatures (yōkai) characterized by their deformities. Methodology We wanted to know if local factors were involved in the high frequency of these legendary malformations, and sought to identify local teratogenic elements. Results/discussion Many potential teratogenic elements have been identified, which...
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Introduction La santé des dirigeants mondiaux est une source légitime de préoccupation pour la population et pour les historiens. Les troubles cognitifs peuvent avoir un impact sur les décisions relatives à leur mandat, en particulier lorsqu’ils surviennent au début de leur mandat. Le cancer et les maladies cardio-vasculaires peuvent entraîner une...
Article
The search for clinical signs suggestive of diseases and medical analysis in works of art and portraits (sculpture, painting, engraving, photography, etc.) is known as iconodiagnosis1. This exercise is highly enjoyable, but limited by the own subjectivity of the spectators and their background. The lack of crosschecking by using additional sources...
Article
Background: In the absence of a treatment still considered universally effective, and of a vaccine validated by the health authorities, we wanted to know which Catholic saint the European Christian community turned to in the event of infection with Covid-19 to request a miraculous healing. Methodology: An online survey was carried out on a sampl...
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Background In a previous article related to ethical reflection around the study of human remains and their biological products in archaeological, ethnographic and museum contexts, a general scientific isolation - going against the common interest and leading to certain forms of misconduct - had been raised. It appeared a real need to act in the dir...
Article
Three magical effigies (bocio) dedicated to kings of the ancient kingdom of Danhomey (Abomey) were examined on radiography: their internal constitution and the details of their consecration are thus better known. The results are presented here, as well as the associated anthropological and historical analyses.
Article
On April 7th, 1498, Charles VIII, King of France, attended a game of palm in the ditches of the Château d'Amboise. The 27-year-old King suddenly collapsed and became comatose. He laid down, almost on his own, on a straw mat that was hastily arranged and passed away 9 hours later. His contemporaries perceived his death as a perfect reminder of fatal...
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Surprisingly, Catholic hagiography can teach us a lot about medicine. As an example, we present here the history of Saint Roch who is considered, along with Saint Sebastian, one of the two main Saints who act as protectors against plagues and have often been invoked by Catholic people during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas Saint Sebastian is...
Article
The health of world leaders is a legitimate source of concern for the global population, and for historians. Cognitive disorders may impact their mandate decisions, particularly when occurring early in office [1]. Cancer and cardio‐vascular diseases may lead to disability with impossibility to carry out expected duties or unexpected death with powe...
Article
Women are a particularly vulnerable group among persons seeking asylum but are still required to provide clinical evidence of acts of violence inflicted against them. In this study the authors describe patient histories, dermatological lesions and other injuries arising from physical violence and torture in female asylum-seekers attending a special...
Article
How do funeral rituals adapt when death is of infectious origin, or when death occurs in an epidemic context? What changes are needed? What anthropological fundamentals are altered, diverted or reversed? We will see, in the following anthropological and historical examples, how the community of the living deals with its fears and metaphysical deman...
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Objectives: The increasing numbers of migrants and refugees to Europe include persons seeking asylum, many of whom will have experienced physical violence and torture. Here we describe the personal histories and clinical evidence of violence and torture among attendees at a public health specialist service in France. Methods: Physicians in a multi...
Article
Hansen's disease (HD) is one of the best‐characterized diseases in paleopathology, with dozens of excavations since the late 1950s, mostly in Europe, describing HD‐related bone alterations in skeletons from the past two millenia.1 HD is not only a disease of antiquity, with more than 200,000 new cases diagnosed annually and at least 4 million peopl...
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Background: It is important for dermatologists and other physicians in refugee-receiving countries to acquire knowledge of forensic dermatology to identify lesions from torture. Objective: Review forensic dermatology in cases of torture. Results: In providing medical assessment and care to refugees and migrants, chronic skin lesions will be the mo...
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Introduction: By threatening our lives, death becomes a medical as well as an institutional issue. To remedy the quest of sense, Man develops a culture amongst which the symbols will be the basis of rites. Recent studies have shown a high rate of burnout syndromes and suicide within the medical community. With a qualitative approach, we aimed to an...
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Dante places the sinners who promoted scandals, schism, and discord in the ninth Ditch of the Inferno. Among those is also the Prophet Muhammad. Describing the Prophet’s punishment, Dante resorts to technical terms and vulgar expressions. This poetic representation highlights Dante’s medical and anatomical knowledge and reflects 14th c. Christian r...
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Résumé Il est certainement trop tôt pour faire le point sur les intuitions du professeur Raoult, et ce n'est d'ailleurs pas le but de ce court article. Néanmoins, l'expérience a montré qu'en période de crise sanitaire sans précédent, les prescriptions se révèlent souvent aventureuses, surtout lorsqu'il s'agit d'un nouveau virus. L'imagination colle...
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We present here a new method for bioethics: systemic modelling. In this method, the complex phenomenon being studied (e.g. personalized medicine, genetic testing, gene therapy, genetically modified organisms) is modelled as a whole, to shed light on its organization and functioning, and major (bio)ethi-cal issues and solutions for their resolution...
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IntroductionAlthough otolaryngology became a subspecialty only since the middle of the nineteenth century, many diseases of ENT system, their clinical symptoms, universality and potential seriousness have been described since over 3000 years ago. Texts of the medical school of Cos and its founder Hippocrates (460–370 BC) collected in the Corpus Hip...
Article
Remains of corroded diatoms were found on one strand of hair from the relics of Holy Mary-Magdalene. It was initially hypothesized that they could be tracers of her living environment, the cave of La Sainte-Baume reputed to be the place of her thirty-year retreat before she died. To validate this assumption, ten samples collected in the cave of La...
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What is the place of medico-historical cases in the professional practice of the disciplinary field of medicine and biology? How can these patients from the past be used for teaching and continuing medical education? How to justify their place in biomedical publications? In this article, we explain all the legitimacy of paleomedicine, and the need...
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For several years, the CT-scan is an indispensable tool for the study of museum objects. The CT-scan in a non-invasive and non-destructive tool that reveals internal structures of these objects. Here we present the results of 3 CT-scan of three wooden sculpture from the Fang ethnic group (Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon), conserved in the Mus...
Article
The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemep.2020.100529. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
Article
Recent paleopathological cases have shown the usefulness of interdisciplinary odontological studies in the investigation of historical figures. A macroscopic examination of the mandible of Saint-Louis (13th c. AD), conserved in the cathedral of Notre-Dame (Paris, France) was carried out, and compared with biographical data about the life and death...
Article
Résumé Sans doute loue-t-on les nouvelles technologies procréatives lorsqu’elles réduisent la mortalité embryonnaire, sans doute s’en félicite-on lorsqu’elles sécurisent la santé de la femme enceinte. Pourtant, le phénomène de technicisation croissante de la reproduction humaine émeut, sinon effraie. Dans cet article, nous commençons par analyser c...
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Résumé Dans cet article, nous poursuivons notre réflexion entreprise dans une précédente contribution sur la médicalisation de la reproduction humaine, tendant à éviter la naissance d’enfants malades ou handicapés. Nous aborderons ici le problème à la lueur d’un principe de procréation responsable, qui selon nous permet de saisir au mieux la réalit...
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In many European countries the number of asylum seekers has increased in parallel with increasing numbers of migrants and refugees. Recent experiences in providing medical assessment, care and corroborating evidence for people seeking asylum in France motivated us to review the basic principles of forensic dermatology, an essential skill for the at...
Article
This article, written by a collective of international researchers and worldwide representatives of indigenous populations, is an open letter to the WHO, based on the latest elements from the scientific literature, and the latest climatological data. It takes stock of the health consequences of global warming, and urges research organizations to ta...
Article
CT-scan is now an indispensable tool for the study of museum objects. The non-invasive and non-destructive nature of this technique allows a thorough study of artifacts and reveals their internal structures. Here we present the results of a CT-scan examination of a nkishi wooden sculpture from the Songye ethnic group (Democratic Republic of Congo),...
Article
Introduction Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is a rare genetic disorder that is also called “malignant osteopetrosis” because it typically manifests within the first few months after birth and later manifests severe complications (blindness, deafness, facial palsy, dental caries, hypocalcemia) and medullary haematopoetic disorders. The aim...
Article
Why do actual females have a 9-months-pregnancy? Here, we hypothesize that the pregnancies of prehuman species were longer than currently (10 or 11 months), and that anatomical and metabolic changes, by increasing the in-utero size of the fetal brain, selected groups with premature delivery, low-calcified and/or not welded cranial vault bones (perm...
Article
Sir Martin Frobisher (ca 1535-1594), the famous Elizabethan explorer and privateer, sustained a bullet to the outer plate of his ilium from a low-velocity bullet wound fired at close range from an arquebus, an early form of musket. The bullet was removed, but he subsequently died from gas gangrene. This paper looks at the management of this injury...
Article
Background Radiology has many uses other than clinical diagnosis or surgical planning. In museum settings, the use of X-rays is frequent for objects submitted to structural analysis (in that case, they are temporarily moved to hospitals or research centers for this special exam). Purpose For the first time, we wanted to test the feasibility of a C...
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The French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793) was assassinated in 1793 in his bathtub, where he was trying to find relief from the debilitating skin disease he was suffering from. At the time of his death, Marat was annotating newspapers, which got stained with his blood and were subsequently preserved by his sister. We extracted and sequenc...
Article
Background: The Paris Catacombs contain the remains of approximately 6 million people dating back to the 15th century, when leprosy was endemic in France. Aims: The aim of this palaeopathological study was to identify the presence of leprosy in skulls from the Paris Catacombs. Subjects and methods: Macroscopic examination of skulls in situ for bo...
Article
Blood is apart from the rest of the tissues as this fluid is overseen by basic and applied life and humanistic sciences. Blood is the essence of human functioning. It is the object of one of the most commonly known cancers, leukemia. It is life-saving in transfusion - a property that also gives blood a special credit and questions blood as a valuab...
Article
Résumé Dans plusieurs communautés Bamileke du Cameroun, les rites de veuvage auxquels on rattache communément des fonctions expiatoire, purificatoire, libératrice et protectrice sont devenus des occasions de tortures, de brimades, d’humiliation et de négation de la dignité humaine des veuves, violant ainsi des droits fondamentaux proclamés et proté...
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Migrants pose many challenges to recipient countries, including preparedness and resilience of health systems and provision of access to health services. Refugees and asylum seekers comprise a heterogenous group with significant and complex health needs, including the physical and mental consequences of violence. Physicians are often on the frontli...
Article
The problem I am interested in is above all that of the biomedical management of human remains in archaeology, these ancient artifacts “unlike any other”, these “atypical patients”. In the following text, I will examine, with an interdisciplinary perspective (anthropological, philosophical and medical), how it is possible to work on human remains i...
Article
Background: At the beginning of the 20th century, the Viennese physiologist Eugen Steinach proposed to treat the effects of physiological ageing by vasectomy. After experimenting his theory with animal, he published his results, and convinced scientists to apply this method to humans (ie men). The scientific community has been convinced by these p...
Preprint
Full-text available
The French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat was assassinated in 1793 in his bathtub, where he was trying to find relief from the debilitating skin disease he was suffering from. At the time of his death, Marat was annotating newspapers, which got stained with his blood and were subsequently preserved by his sister. We extracted and sequenced DNA from...
Article
Paul Broca (1824-1880) is considered one of the founding fathers of modern neurology, mainly because of his major contribution to the anatomo-clinical method (Figure 1) (Sagan, 1979). He has also distinguished himself by his fascination with cranial measurements at the origin of modern physical anthropology and, unfortunately, racial theories based...