Philippe Bernard

Philippe Bernard
Université Libre de Bruxelles | ULB · Research Centre of Social and Intercultural Psychology (CRPSI)

Doctor of Psychology

About

39
Publications
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2,770
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Introduction
My research examines how sexualization influences body perception, impression formation and whether exposure to such images affects attitudes towards women.

Publications

Publications (39)
Article
Objectification occurs when a person is perceived akin to an object. Recent research has defined objectification as a process through which a person is reduced to her constituent features (e.g., body parts) in a way that resembles how objects are processed. The inversion effect (better recognition for upright stimuli than for inverted ones) has oft...
Article
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We propose a new method to test the reliability of Fredrickson et al.’s self-objectification questionnaire (SOQ). This scale being based on a ranking, traditional reliability estimates are inappropriate. Based on generalizability theory, we suggest to compute the reliability of each subset of questions related to physical appearance vs. physical co...
Article
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L’objectification sexuelle, à savoir la tendance à considérer ou à traiter une personne comme un objet sexuel, est présente au quotidien dans les relations interpersonnelles comme dans les médias. En effet, ceux-ci (télévision, magazines, internet, jeux vidéo…) véhiculent des images sexualisées, idéalisées et stéréotypées des femmes et des hommes q...
Article
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According to objectification theory, being treated as an object leads women to engage in self-objectification, which in turn increases body surveillance and body shame, impairing women’s mental health. While most studies focusing on self-objectification rely heavily on Western populations that emphasize individualism, the current work investigates...
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According to objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), being treated as an object leads women to engage in self-objectification, which in turn increases body surveillance and body shame, impairing women’s mental health. While most studies focusing on self-objectification rely heavily on Western populations that emphasize individualism,...
Article
Purpose In many countries, service workers' (e.g. restaurant staff, bartenders) income depends highly on tips. Such workers are often female and targeted by sexual harassment. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the mode of compensation (tips vs. no tips) could play a causal role in the perceived legitimacy of sexual harassment. D...
Article
Self-objectification has been claimed to induce numerous detrimental consequences for women at the individual level (e.g., sexual dysfunction, depression, eating disorders). Additionally, at the collective level, it has been proposed that self-objectified women might themselves contribute to the maintenance of the patriarchal status quo, for instan...
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Reference for the published paper: Bernard, P., Content, J., Servais, L., Wollast, R., & Gervais, S. (2020). An Initial Test of the Cosmetics Dehumanization Hypothesis: Heavy Makeup Diminishes Attributions of Humanness-Related Traits to Women. Sex Roles. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01115-y
Article
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Human bodies are sometimes cognitively objectified, i.e., processed less configurally and more analytically, in a way that resembles how most objects are perceived. Whereas how people process images of sexualized bodies appearing in the mass media has been well documented; whether subtler manifestations of sexualization, such as wearing makeup, mig...
Preprint
Ever since Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification theory, research on self-objectification and – by extension – other-objectification has experienced a considerable expansion. However, most of the studies on sexual objectification have been conducted solely in Western populations. This study investigates whether the effect of targe...
Article
Full-text available
According to objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), being treated as an object leads women to engage in self‐objectification, which in turn increases body surveillance and body shame as well as impairs mental health. However, very little is known about what factors could act as buffers against the detrimental consequences of self‐obj...
Preprint
According to objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), being treated as an object leads women to engage in self‐objectification, which in turn increases body surveillance and body shame as well as impairs mental health. However, very little is known about what factors could act as buffers against the detrimental consequences of self‐obj...
Preprint
Full-text available
L’objectification sexuelle, à savoir la tendance à considérer ou à traiter une personne comme un objet sexuel, est présente au quotidien dans les interactions interpersonnelles comme dans les médias. En effet, ceux-ci (télévision, magazines, internet, jeux vidéo…) véhiculent des images sexualisées, idéalisées et stéréotypées de femmes et des hommes...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Increasing attention is being paid to the higher prevalence of boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and to the implications of this ratio discrepancy on our understanding of autism in girls. One recent avenue of research has focused on caregiver’s concern, suggesting that autism might present differently in boys and girls. One unexp...
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Research has shown that sexualized people are perceived as possessing fewer traits of a human being. Most scholars have argued that these effects are driven by revealing clothing, with targets wearing swimsuits or lingerie being perceived as possessing less mind and less humanness in comparison with nonsexualized targets. However, revealing clothin...
Article
Full-text available
Ever since Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification theory, research on self-objectification and – by extension – other-objectification has experienced a considerable expansion. However, most of the studies on sexual objectification have been conducted solely in Western populations. This study investigates whether the effect of targe...
Article
Recent research found that configural information is less important for the processing of sexualized bodies than for the processing of nonsexualized bodies. The present investigation aims to expand these findings by directly manipulating configural versus analytic processing of sexualized and nonsexualized bodies. We posited that disrupting first-o...
Article
Objectification studies have mostly focused on why and how women are objectified, but relatively little is known about what drives the objectification of men. This article aims to examine the objectifying gaze toward men, which is operationalized in the present article as decreased focus on men's faces and increased focus on men's body parts (arms,...
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This paper investigates whether exposure to sexually objectifying media leads to more tolerance toward sexual harassment of women in the context of a real-life scenario. Moreover, given that self-objectification reflects the internalization of gender-based inequalities, we also tested whether self-objectification was associated with greater toleran...
Article
Social stereotypes fulfill a variety of functions and influence social judgment via both automatic and controlled cognitive processes. The formation of shared stereotypes reflects a group's attempt to appraise the social position of relevant out-groups in line with its preexisting norms and beliefs. Competence and warmth organize the content of ste...
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A commentary on The sexualized-body-inversion hypothesis revisited: Valid indicator of sexual objectification or methodological artifact? by Schmidt, A. F., and Kistemaker, L. M. (2015). Cognition 134, 77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.09.003 Recent objectification research found results consistent with the sexualized body-inversion hypothesis (...
Article
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A blossoming body of research documents the effect of sexual objectification on social perception, but little is known about the consequences of sexual objectification. This paper examines how sexual objectification influences men and women’s rape perceptions in case of a stranger rape. We hypothesized that victims’ sexual objectification might dim...
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Recent studies have shown that sexualized female bodies are objectified at a cognitive level. Research using the body-inversion recognition task, a robust indicator of configural (vs. analytic processing) within cognitive psychology, shows that for sexualized female bodies, people recognize upright and inverted bodies similarly rather than recogniz...
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The purpose of this investigation was to test a mediation model with cultural orientation, specifically vertical individualism (i.e., perceiving the self as an autonomous individual and accepting inequality) and social comparison predicting sexual objectification perpetration. The present work integrates literatures suggesting that objectification...
Article
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A recent study showed that people rely on piecemeal, analytic processing when viewing sexualized female (vs. male) bodies, suggesting that people perceived sexualized female bodies similarly to objects. This paper will examine whether cognitive objectification of sexualized female bodies is associated with a focus on women's body parts rather than...
Article
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Objectification and dehumanization represent motivational conundrums because they are phenomena in which people are seen in ways that are fundamentally inaccurate; seeing people as objects, as animals, or not as people. The purpose of the 60th Nebraska Symposium on Motivation was to examine the motivational underpinnings of objectification and dehu...
Article
A survey revealed that researchers still seem to encounter difficulties to cope with outliers. Detecting outliers by determining an interval spanning over the mean plus/minus three standard deviations remains a common practice. However, since both the mean and the standard deviation are particularly sensitive to outliers, this method is problematic...
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When learning of an aggression, people think that they could have foreseen it, which may lead to victim blame. We examined how position identification with the victim may affect this feeling of foreseeability and blame. Participants read a testimony, which ended either with or without a sexual aggression. To manipulate position identification, they...
Article
Some people experience a feeling of guilt after transgressing a social norm, while others do not. Perceiving this emotion in others therefore yields important information about their personality. Two experimental studies assessed the effects of the victims’ perceptions of the offenders’ feelings of guilt on the victims’ judgments of the offenders’...
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In the study reported here, we tested the novel sexualized-body-inversion hypothesis. Integrating research and theory on objectification and person versus object recognition, we examined whether sexualized women, but not sexualized men, are recognized in the same way as objects are. According to objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997),...
Article
The present study investigates the effect of defendants' feeling of guilt, during their trial as well as their interrogation, on their penalties. Results show that defendants who experience a guilty feeling are sentenced less severely than defendants who do not. Two cognitive processes mediate this effect: attribution of the offence to internal fac...

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