Philipp Koch

Philipp Koch
Central Institute of Mental Health | CIMH · Hector Institut for Translational Brain Research

Professor

About

147
Publications
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4,538
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Publications

Publications (147)
Article
Full-text available
Malformations of human cortical development (MCD) can cause severe disabilities. The lack of human-specific models hampers our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the intricate processes leading to MCD. Here, we use cerebral organoids derived from patients and genome edited-induced pluripotent stem cells to address pathophysiological ch...
Article
Symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions are conserved strategies for stem cell expansion and the generation of more committed progeny, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that in human neural stem cells (NSCs), lysosomes are asymmetrically inherited during mitosis. We show that lysosomes contain Notch receptors and that Notch activation occurs the a...
Article
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Motoneurons, skeletal muscle fibers, and Schwann cells form synapses, termed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). These control voluntary body movement and are affected in numerous neuromuscular diseases. Therefore, a variety of NMJ in vitro models have been explored to enable mechanistic and pharmacological studies. So far, selective integration of Sch...
Article
Full-text available
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). How this mutation leads to these neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. Here, we show using patient stem cell–derived motor neurons that the repeat expansion impairs microtubule-based...
Preprint
Extra-cellular accumulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques is causatively associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, mechanisms that mediate the pre-pathological state of amyloid plaque formation remain elusive. Here, using paired RNAi and kinase inhibitor screens, we discovered that AKT-mediated insulin/nutrient signaling suppresses lysosomal c...
Cover Page
Hi everyone, I'm happy to advertise that the Special Issue entitled "Neural Stem Cell Systems to Study Brain Development and Diseases" in CELLS journal is accepting submissions. I have the privilege to serve as Guest Editor together with my great colleagues Marco Onorati and Philipp Koch. Further info can be found at the link to the Special Issue w...
Article
Genetic studies identified multiple mutations associated with malformations of cortical development (MCD) in humans. When analyzing the underlying mechanisms in non-human experimental models it became increasingly evident, that these mutations accumulate in genes, which functions evolutionary progressed from rodents to humans resulting in an incomp...
Article
Full-text available
Expansions of short tandem repeats are genetic variants that have been implicated in several neuropsychiatric and other disorders, but their assessment remains challenging with current polymerase-based methods1–4. Here we introduce a CRISPR–Cas-based enrichment strategy for nanopore sequencing combined with an algorithm for raw signal analysis. Our...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the C9orf72 gene are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). How this mutation leads to these neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons to show that C9orf72 repeat expansions im...
Article
BACKGROUND The formation of multicellular networks via thin cellular protrusions named tumor microtubes (TMs) emerged as a novel mechanism of therapy resistance in malignant glioma. TMs are also involved in tumor cell invasion and growth. Within these tumor cell networks, connected tumor cells communicate via intercellular calcium waves (ICWs). Onl...
Article
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Human neural stem cell cultures provide progenitor cells that are potential cells of origin for brain cancers. However, the extent to which genetic predisposition to tumor formation can be faithfully captured in stem cell lines is uncertain. Here, we evaluated neuroepithelial stem (NES) cells, representative of cerebellar progenitors. We transduced...
Article
Psychiatric disorders are a heterogeneous group of mental illnesses associated with a high social and economic burden on patients and society. The complex symptomatology of these disorders, coupled with our limited understanding of the structural and functional abnormalities affecting the brains of neuropsychiatric patients, has made it difficult t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Expansions of short tandem repeats are genetic variants that have been implicated in neuropsychiatric and other disorders but their assessment remains challenging with current molecular methods. Here, we developed a Cas12a-based enrichment strategy for nanopore sequencing that, combined with a new algorithm for raw signal analysis, enables us to ef...
Article
Tumor microtubes (TMs), which are ultra-thin and long cellular protrusions extended by glioma cells, have emerged as a novel mechanism of glioma cell growth, invasion and interconnection with consecutive therapy resistance. So far, few molecular drivers of TM formation and function (Gap43, Cx43, Ttyh1 and actin dynamics) have been identified and th...
Article
The development of organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells heralded a new area in studying human organ development and pathology outside of the human body. Triggered by the seminal work of pioneers in the field such as Yoshiki Sasai or Hans Clevers, organoid research has become one of the most rapidly developing fields in cell biology....
Article
Full-text available
As a powerful regulator of cellular homeostasis and metabolism, adenosine is involved in diverse neurological processes including pain, cognition, and memory. Altered adenosine homeostasis has also been associated with several diseases such as depression, schizophrenia, or epilepsy. Based on its protective properties, adenosine has been considered...
Article
Generation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), especially increased production of Aβ42/Aβ43 over Aβ40, and their aggregation as oligomers and plaques, represent a characteristic feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In familial AD (FAD), altered Aβ production originates from specific mutatio...
Article
Full-text available
Generation of amyloid β peptides (Aβs) by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (AβPP), especially increased production of Aβ42/Aβ43 over Aβ40, and their aggregation as oligomers and plaques, represent a characteristic feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In familial AD (FAD), altered Aβ production originates from specific mutations...
Article
Full-text available
Background Genetic predisposition and epigenetic alterations are both considered to contribute to sporadic neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Since cell reprogramming and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are themselves associated with major epigenetic remodeling, it remains unclear to what ex...
Article
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The human cortex is highly expanded and exhibits a complex structure with specific functional areas, providing higher brain function, such as cognition. Efforts to study human cerebral cortex development have been limited by the availability of model systems. Translating results from rodent studies to the human system is restricted by species diffe...
Article
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population with remarkable characteristics. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells (NCCs) migrate extensively, populate nearly every tissue of the body and differentiate into highly diverse cell types such as peripheral neurons and glia, but also mesenchymal cells including chondrocytes...
Article
Cerebral organoids represent a new model in which to study human brain development outside the human body. Recently in Nature Biotechnology, Lancaster et al. (2017) tackled the lack of reproducibility, tissue homogeneity, and complexity of this system by bioengineering organoids to establish the next generation of human mini brains.
Article
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Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by intracerebral deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ). While Aβ40 is the most abundant form, neurotoxicity is mainly mediated by Aβ42. Sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases gives rise to full-length Aβ (Aβ1-x) and N-terminally truncated Aβ′ (Aβ11-x) whereas cleavage by α- and γ-se...
Article
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SUMMARY Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) is caused by a hetero-zygous deletion of chromosome 17p13.3 involving the genes LIS1 and YWHAE (coding for 14.3.3ε) and leads to malformations during cortical development. Here, we used patient-specific forebrain-type orga-noids to investigate pathological changes associated with MDS. Patient-derived organoids a...
Article
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While transplantation represents a key tool for assessing in vivo functionality of neural stem cells and their suitability for neural repair, little is known about the integration of grafted neurons into the host brain circuitry. Rabies virus-Based retrograde tracing has developed into a powerful approach for visualizing synaptically connected neur...
Data
Animated 3D reconstruction of a hippocampal lt-NES cell graft (mRFP1, red) showing EGFP+ host input neurons (green) in the medial septal complex, entorhinal cortex, the CA1 sector as well as the hippocampal stratum oriens. Scale bars as indicated.
Data
Animated 3D reconstruction of a striatal lt-NES cell graft (mRFP1, red) depicting EGFP+ host cells (green) in cortex as major input source projecting onto the engrafted human neurons. Scale bars as indicated.
Data
Supplementary Figures, Supplementary Tables and Supplementary References
Article
Full-text available
Epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation in brain tumors has been reported for many genes, however, their function on pathogenesis needs to be evaluated. We investigated the MTSS1 gene, identified as hypermethylated by differential methylation hybridization (DMH). Fifty-nine glioma tissue samples and seven glioma cell lines were examined for hyperme...
Article
Full-text available
Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by secretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Increased production of Aβ42 over Aβ40 and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) hallmark. Identifying products of the ‘human chemical exposome’ (HCE) able to induce Aβ42 pro...
Article
Full-text available
Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by secretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Increased production of Aβ42 over Aβ40 and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark. Identifying products of the 'human chemical exposome' (HCE) able to induce Aβ42 pro...
Article
Full-text available
Aggregation and toxicity of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) are considered as critical events in the initiation and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent evidence indicated that soluble oligomeric Aβ assemblies exert pronounced toxicity, rather than larger fibrillar aggregates that deposit in the forms of extracellular plaques. While some rare...
Article
Parent of origin imprints on the genome have been implicated in the regulation of neural cell type differentiation. The ability of human parthenogenetic (PG) embryonic stem cells (hpESCs) to undergo neural lineage and cell type-specific differentiation is undefined. We determined the potential of hpESCs to differentiate into various neural subtypes...
Article
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Development of disease-modifying therapeutics is urgently needed for treating Alzheimer disease (AD). AD is characterized by toxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides produced by β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). β-secretase inhibitors reduce Aβ levels, but mechanism-based side effects arise because they also inhibit...
Article
Molecular Psychiatry publishes work aimed at elucidating biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and their treatment
Article
Modeling human neuronal aging at a cellular level remains challenging. Human neurons are accessible from iPSCs, but during reprogramming age-associated traits of somatic cells get lost. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Mertens et al. (2015) demonstrate that neurons obtained by direct cell conversion retain age-associated transcriptional traits and...
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The brain's serotonergic system centrally regulates several physiological processes and its dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. While in the past our understanding of serotonergic neurotransmission has come mainly from mouse models, the development of pluripotent stem cell and induced fibrob...
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Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a functional deficiency of arylsulfatase A (ARSA), an enzyme that catalyzes desulfation of 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (sulfatide). Lack of active ARSA leads to the accumulation of sulfatide in oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells and some neurons and triggers p...
Article
(Abstract) In the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), different neural precursor populations such as neural stem cells (NSCs), intermediate neurogenic progenitors (INPs) and immature neurons have to migrate from their places of birth to their location of function. Coordinated migration is mediated by direct cell-cell interactions and by extrac...
Article
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Reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotency stem cell state have opened new opportunities in cell replacement therapy and disease modeling in a number of neurological disorders. It still remains unknown, however, to what degree the grafted human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) differentiate into a functional neuronal phenotype and if t...
Article
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Purpose: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) improve behavior and form neurons after implantation into the stroke-injured adult rodent brain. How the aged brain responds to grafted iPSCs is unknown. We determined survival and differentiation of grafted human fibroblast-derived iPSCs and their ability to improve recovery in aged rats after strok...
Article
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Increasing evidence suggests that elevated Aβ42 fractions in the brain cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although γ-secretase modulators (GSMs), including a set of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), were found to lower Aβ42 in various model systems, NSAID-based GSMs proved to be surprisingly inefficient in human clinical trials. Reasoning...
Article
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Limited neuronal migration into host brain tissue is a key challenge in neural transplantation. We found that one important mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an intrinsic chemotactic interaction between the grafted neural precursor cells (NPCs) and their neuronal progeny. NPCs secrete the receptor tyrosine kinase ligands FGF2 and VEGF, which...