Philipp Kanske

Philipp Kanske
Technische Universität Dresden | TUD · Department of Psychology

Dr., M.Sc., Dipl.-Psych., Psychotherapist (CBT)

About

178
Publications
65,726
Reads
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5,219
Citations
Introduction
Neuroscientist & Psychotherapist working on socio-affective functioning in psychopathology
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
Technische Universität Dresden
Position
  • Professor
April 2012 - July 2017
Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
Position
  • Group Leader
November 2011 - March 2012
Universität Heidelberg

Publications

Publications (178)
Article
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Background Individuals with high sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) (“highly sensitive persons”) are thought to be easily excitable and overwhelmed, highly attentive to aesthetic impressions, and particularly sensitive to sensory stimulation. Public discourse suggests that those who describe themselves as highly sensitive see themselves as fundam...
Article
Stimuli that evoke emotions are salient, draw attentional resources, and facilitate situationally appropriate behavior in complex or conflicting environments. However, negative and positive emotions may motivate different response strategies. For example, a threatening stimulus might evoke avoidant behavior, whereas a positive stimulus may prompt a...
Preprint
Background After stressful event exposure, higher perceived social support is a well-established correlate of decreased risk for psychological symptoms, including depressive, anxiety and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, longitudinal data on the direction of this association and the stability of perceived social support are scarce and h...
Article
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Physical distancing measures during the coronavirus pandemic are associated with increased psychological distress, especially in people with mental disorders. We investigated which social risk and resilience factors influence distress over time in people with pre-existing mental disorders. We conducted a longitudinal online survey with weekly follo...
Article
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Over the past 150 years of neuroscientific research, the field has undergone a tremendous evolution. Starting out with lesion-based inference of brain function, functional neuroimaging, introduced in the late 1980s, and increasingly fine-grained and sophisticated methods and analyses now allow us to study the live neural correlates of complex behav...
Preprint
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Social interactions are dynamic, context-dependent, and reciprocal events that influence prospective strategies and require constant practice and adaptation. This complexity of social interactions creates several research challenges. We propose a new framework encouraging future research to investigate not only individual differences in capacities...
Article
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Altruism, defined as costly other-regarding behavior, varies considerably across people and contexts. One prominent context in which people frequently must decide on how to socially act is under stress. How does stress affect altruistic decision-making and through which neurocognitive mechanisms? To address these questions, we assessed neural activ...
Article
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While the importance of social affect and cognition is indisputable throughout the adult lifespan, findings of how empathy and prosociality develop and interact across adulthood are mixed and real-life data are scarce. Research using ecological momentary assessment recently demonstrated that adults commonly experience empathy in daily life. Further...
Preprint
Transparent exploration opens the door for scientific novelty through stimulating new or modified claims about hypotheses, models, and theories. In this second of two consecutive papers, we outline foundations, goals and means of conducting exploration. Transparency in how exploration has been done (through preregistration, open data and open analy...
Article
Positive emotion regulation, that is, upregulating, maintaining, and savoring positive emotions, also bears the potential to counteract and thus mitigate negative affect. In this narrative review, we report on the social emotion of compassion as a particularly efficient form of positive emotion regulation. Compassion emerges as an affiliative respo...
Article
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In the present study, we used mouse tracking to investigate two processes underlying prospective memory (PM) retrieval: First, we aimed to explore to what extent spontaneous retrieval of already completed PM intentions is supported by reflexive-associative and discrepancy-plus-search processes. Second, we aimed to disentangle whether costs to an on...
Article
Music is a human universal and has the ability to evoke powerful, genuine emotions. But does music influence our capacity to understand and feel with others? A growing body of evidence indicates that empathy (sharing another's feelings) and compassion (a feeling of concern toward others) are behaviorally and neutrally distinct, both from each other...
Article
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Affective disorders, specifically Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorders, show high prevalence, relapse rates, and a high likelihood to develop a chronic course. For the past two decades, research has investigated the neural correlates of emotion processing and emotion regulation in patients with affective disorders. Putative underlying ca...
Preprint
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While empathy and Theory of Mind (ToM) have classically been studied as separate social functions, recent advances demonstrate the need to investigate the two in interaction: Naturalistic settings often blur the distinction of affect and cognition and demand the simultaneous processing of such different stimulus dimensions. Here, we investigate how...
Article
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Background Traumatic experiences may result in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is characterized as an exaggerated fear response that cannot be extinguished over time or in safe environments. What are beneficial psychotherapeutic treatment options for PTSD patients? Can oxytocin (OXT), which is involved in the stress response, and safety...
Article
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Objective Narcissism can manifest in grandiose and vulnerable patterns of experience and behavior. While largely unrelated in the general population, individuals with clinically relevant narcissism are thought to display both. Our previous studies showed that trait measures of grandiosity and vulnerability were unrelated at low-to-moderate levels o...
Preprint
Clandestine exploratory analyses are all too common, producing nominally confirmatory results through hidden analytical steps instead of harnessing exploration’s potential to modify and inform hypotheses, models, and theories. For such valuable exploration to evolve, however, methodological guidance, elaboration and implementation in the publicatio...
Article
Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in social communication and interaction, which have been related to atypical neural processing of rewards, especially in the social domain. Since intranasal oxytocin has been shown to modulate activation of the brain’s reward circuit, oxytocin might ameliorate the processing...
Article
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Anticipating population ageing to reach a historically unprecedented level in this century and considering the public goal of promoting well-being until old age, research in many fields has started to focus on processes and factors that contribute to healthy ageing. Since human interactions have a tremendous impact on our mental and physical well-b...
Preprint
While the importance of social affect and cognition is indisputable throughout the adult lifespan, findings of how empathy and prosociality develop and interact across adulthood are mixed, and real-life data are scarce. Research using ecological momentary assessment recently demonstrated that adults commonly experience empathy in daily life. Furthe...
Preprint
Full-text available
While the importance of social affect and cognition is indisputable throughout the adult lifespan, findings of how empathy and prosociality develop and interact across adulthood are mixed, and real-life data are scarce. Research using ecological momentary assessment recently demonstrated that adults commonly experience empathy in daily life. Furthe...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often suffer from impairments in social functioning. This study investigates differences in empathy, compassion, and Theory of Mind (ToM) in individuals with OCD as a possible cause for social functioning deficits. Design: Sixty-four individuals diagnosed with OCD and 62 healthy in...
Article
Social cognition allows humans to understand and predict other people's behavior by inferring or sharing their emotions, intentions and beliefs. Few studies have investigated the impact of one's own emotional state on understanding others. Here, we tested the effect of being in an angry state on empathy and theory of mind (ToM). In a between-groups...
Article
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Narcissism can manifest in a grandiose form-admiration-seeking, exhibitionism, and dominance-or a vulnerable form-anxiety, withdrawal, and hypersensitivity. While grandiose narcissism is conceptually in line with an independent self-construal, as prevalent in Western countries, the vulnerable form can be assumed to relate more to an interdependent...
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Background Causal quests in non-randomized studies are unavoidable just because research questions are beyond doubt causal (e.g., aetiology). Large progress during the last decades has enriched the methodical toolbox. Aims Summary papers mainly focus on quantitative and highly formal methods. With examples from clinical psychology, we show how qua...
Article
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Narcissism is a Janusian personality construct, associated with both grandiose self-assuredness and dominance, as well as vulnerable insecurity and reactivity. Central questions of intra-and interpersonal functioning in narcissism are still a matter of debate. Neuroscience could help to understand the paradoxical patterns of experience and behavior...
Article
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Humans are a highly social species. Complex interactions for mutual support range from helping neighbors to building social welfare institutions. During times of distress or crisis, sharing life experiences within one’s social circle is critical for well-being. By translating pattern-learning algorithms to the UK Biobank imaging-genetics cohort (n...
Article
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Empathy and Theory of Mind (ToM) are two core components of social understanding. The EmpaToM is a validated social video task that allows for independent manipulation and assessment of the two capacities. First applications revealed that empathy and ToM are dissociable constructs on a neuronal as well as on a behavioral level. As the EmpaToM has b...
Article
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This study aimed to compile and synthesize studies investigating explicit emotion regulation in patients with bipolar disorder and individuals at risk of developing bipolar disorder. The importance of explicit emotion regulation arises from its potential role as a marker for bipolar disorders in individuals at risk and its potent role in therapy fo...
Article
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Meditation-based mental training interventions show physical and mental health benefits. However, it remains unclear how different types of mental practice affect emotion processing at both the neuronal and the behavioural level. In the context of the ReSource project, 332 participants underwent an fMRI scan while performing an emotion anticipation...
Preprint
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Harking and p-hacking are considered as main causes of the replication crisis, and pre-registration of hypotheses and analyses is regarded as the best countermeasure so far. However, the pressure to produce purportedly confirming results through hidden exploration largely resists. While some pre-registration advocates encourage the alternative of h...
Article
Background Deficient cognitive control (CC) over emotional distraction is a central characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Reduced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been linked to this deficit. This study investigates whether it is possible to ameliorate CC deficits via anodal tDCS over the left dlP...
Preprint
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in social communication and interaction, which have been related to atypical neural processing of rewards, especially in the social domain. Since intranasal oxytocin has been shown to modulate activation of the brain's reward circuit, oxytocin could be a useful tool to ameliorate the p...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with mental disorders often struggle to generate positive emotions, a critical deficit as positive emotions can cause cascading effects leading to well-being. Here, we focus on a specific form of positive emotion, compassion that arises as an affiliative response to other people. The cultivation of compassion has a long tradition in Easter...
Article
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In public discourse, narcissism is often portrayed one-sidedly and overly negative, rendering a picture of narcissistic individuals as “toxic people” or “evil characters”. Beyond these salient associations, psychological theories point to a more complex phenomenon, and different developmental mechanisms are being discussed in relation to it. We inv...
Article
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Identifying distinct neural networks underlying social affect (empathy, compassion) and social cognition (Theory of Mind) has advanced our understanding of social interactions. However, little is known about the relation of activation in these networks to psychological experience in daily life. This study (N = 122) examined the ecological validity...
Preprint
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A bstract Despite the importance of our ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others, the social brain remains incompletely understood. Here, we studied the plasticity of social brain function in healthy adults following the targeted training of attention-mindfulness, socio-affective, and socio-cognitive skills for 9 months. All partic...
Article
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Along with the increased interest in and volume of social cognition research, there has been higher awareness of a lack of agreement on the concepts and taxonomy used to study social processes. Two central concepts in the field, empathy and Theory of Mind (ToM), have been identified as overlapping umbrella terms for different processes of limited c...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel beleuchtet Emotionsregulation (ER) aus einer neurowissenschaftlichen Perspektive. Welche Hirnstrukturen sind an der ER beteiligt? Wie arbeiten diese zusammen? Und wie ist der zeitliche Verlauf? Der Fokus dieses Kapitels liegt darauf, den aktuellen Stand der Forschung zu neuronalen Korrelaten der ER verständlich zu beschreiben. Weiter...
Article
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Acting is fascinating from psychological and neuroscientific perspectives, as it involves an individual creating an endogenously generated, accurate physical and verbal performance of another's emotional and cognitive states. However, despite the popularity of acting, the practice has received limited interest from cognitive neuroscience (Goldstein...
Preprint
Meditation-based mental training interventions show great benefits for physical and mental health. However, it remains unclear how different types of mental practice differentially affect emotion processing at both the neuronal and the behavioural level. In the context of the ReSource project, 332 participants underwent an fMRI scan while performin...
Preprint
Meditation-based mental training interventions show great benefits for physical and mental health. However, it remains unclear how different types of mental practice differentially affect emotion processing at both the neuronal and the behavioural level. In the context of the ReSource project, 332 participants underwent an fMRI scan while performin...
Article
Full-text available
Theory of Mind, empathy, and action observation are central themes in social neuroscience research. Meta-analyses of functional neuroimaging research show substantial heterogeneity in brain activation for these cognitive abilities, depending on the type of experimental task used. We followed up on these findings by a comparison to basic connectivit...
Article
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In contrast to conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis across participants, item analysis allows generalizing the observed neural response patterns from a specific stimulus set to the entire population of stimuli. In the present study, we perform an item analysis on an fMRI paradigm (EmpaToM) that measures the neural corr...
Article
Background: Motivational dysregulation represents a core vulnerability factor for bipolar disorder. Whether this also comprises aberrant learning of stimulus-reinforcer contingencies is less clear. Methods: To answer this question, we compared healthy first-degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 42) known to convey an increas...
Article
Cognitive control is influenced by affective states and the emotional quality of the stimulus it operates on. In the present review, we address how emotional valence influences control processes, distinguish between different types of conflicts (cognitive, emotional), examine physiological correlates of cognition - emotion interactions, and discuss...
Article
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Emotional valence is known to influence word processing dependent upon concreteness. Whereas some studies point towards stronger effects of emotion on concrete words, others claim amplified emotion effects for abstract words. We investigated the interaction of emotion and concreteness by means of fMRI and EEG in a delayed lexical decision task. Beh...
Article
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Mindfulness-and, more generally, meditation-based interventions increasingly gain popularity, effectively promoting cognitive, affective, and social capacities. It is unclear, however, if different types of practice have the same or specific effects on mental functioning. Here we tested three consecutive three-month training modules aimed at cultiv...
Article
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Background: Most mental disorders are associated with impairments in social functioning. Paradigms developed to study social functioning in laboratory settings mostly put participants in a detached observer point of view. However, some phenomena are inherently interactive and studying full-blown reciprocal interactions may be indispensable to under...
Article
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In a recent article, Wundrack et al. (2018) put forward an elaborate and intriguing hypothesis on enhanced perspective-taking (Theory of Mind) ability as a consequence of higher personality state variability. While there is evidence in favor of this hypothesis, the clinical examples of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, as highli...
Article
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1 st European Congress on Clinical Psychology and Psychological Treatment in Dresden, Germany, 31 October – 2 November 2019
Article
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There is substantial interest in the possibility that cognitive skills can be improved by dedicated behavioral training. Yet despite the large amount of work being conducted in this domain, there is not an explicit and widely agreed upon consensus around the best methodological practices. This document seeks to fill this gap. We start from the pers...
Article
Full-text available
Humans have the capacity to share others' emotions, be they positive or negative. Elicited by the observed or imagined emotion of another person, an observer develops a similar emotional state herself. This capacity, empathy, is one of the pillars of social understanding and interaction as it creates a representation of another's inner, mental stat...
Article
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The emotional matching paradigm, introduced by Hariri and colleagues in 2000, is a widely used neuroimaging experiment that reliably activates the amygdala. In the classic version of the experiment faces with negative emotional expression and scenes depicting distressing events are compared with geometric shapes instead of neutral stimuli of the sa...
Article
Full-text available
The emotional matching paradigm, introduced by Hariri and colleagues in 2000, is a widely used neuroimaging experiment that reliably activates the amygdala. In the classic version of the experiment faces with negative emotional expression and scenes depicting distressing events are compared with geometric shapes instead of neutral stimuli of the sa...
Article
There is substantial interest in the possibility that cognitive skills can be improved by dedicated behavioral training. Yet despite the large amount of work being conducted in this domain, there is not an explicit and widely agreed upon consensus around the best methodological practices. This document seeks to fill this gap. We start from the pers...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emotions are frequently thought of as reactions to events in the world. However, many of our emotional experiences are of our own making, coming from thoughts and memories. These different origins mean that these endogenous emotions are more controllable than exogenous emotions, making plausible a role of endogenous emotion in self-regulation and m...
Article
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Concerns about the veracity of psychological research have been growing. Many findings in psychological science are based on studies with insufficient statistical power and nonrepresentative samples, or may otherwise be limited to specific, ungeneralizable settings or populations. Crowdsourced research, a type of large-scale collaboration in which...
Article
Major-depressive-disorder (MDD) and alexithymia have both been associated with empathy deficits. We examined whether depression and alexithymia show dissociable or interacting effects on cognitive and emotional trait and state empathy. Healthy controls with high and low alexithymia and MDD-patients with high and low alexithymia were assessed. We us...
Article
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Progressive hearing loss is a common phenomenon in healthy aging and may affect the perception of emotions expressed in speech. Elderly with mild to moderate hearing loss often rate emotional expressions as less emotional and display reduced activity in emotion-sensitive brain areas (e.g., amygdala). However, it is not clear how hearing loss affect...