Philipp Brun

Philipp Brun
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL | WSL · Land Change Science

PhD

About

28
Publications
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510
Citations

Publications

Publications (28)
Article
Full-text available
The trait-based approach is gaining increasing popularity in marine plankton ecology but the field urgently needs more and easier accessible trait data to advance. We compiled trait information on marine pelagic copepods, a major group of zooplankton, from the published literature and from experts and organized the data into a structured database....
Article
Full-text available
Marine plankton have been conspicuously affected by recent climate change, responding with profound spatial relocations and shifts in the timing of their seasonal occurrence. These changes directly affect the global carbon cycle by altering the transport of organic material from the surface ocean to depth, with consequences that remain poorly under...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Statistical species distribution models (SDMs) are the most common tool to predict the impact of climate change on biodiversity. They can be tuned to fit relationships at various levels of complexity (defined here as parameterization complexity, number of predictors, and multicollinearity) that may co-determine whether projections to novel cli...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the processes that drive the dramatic changes in biodiversity along the productivity gradient remains a major challenge. Insight from simple, bivariate relationships so far has been limited. We combined >11,000 community plots in the French Alps with a molecular phylogeny and trait information for >1200 plant species to simultaneously...
Article
Full-text available
The combination of drought and heat affects forest ecosystems by deteriorating the health of trees, which can lead to large‐scale die‐offs with consequences on biodiversity, the carbon cycle, and wood production. It is thus crucial to understand how drought events affect tree health and which factors determine forest susceptibility and resilience....
Article
Central Europe has been experiencing unprecedented droughts during the last decades, stressing the decrease in tree water availability. However, the assessment of physiological drought stress is challenging, and feedback between soil and vegetation is often omitted because of scarce belowground data. Here we aimed to model Swiss forests' water avai...
Preprint
Full-text available
A multitude of physical and biological processes on which ecosystems and human societies depend are governed by climatic conditions. Understanding how these processes are altered by climate change is central to mitigation efforts. Based on mechanistically downscaled climate data, we developed a set of climate-related variables at yet unprecedented...
Article
Full-text available
Outside controlled experimental plots, the impact of community attributes on primary productivity has rarely been compared to that of individual species. Here, we identified plant species of high importance for productivity (key species) in >29,000 diverse grassland communities in the European Alps, and compared their effects with those of communit...
Article
Full-text available
The documentation of biodiversity distribution through species range identification is crucial for macroecology, biogeography, conservation, and restoration. However, for plants, species range maps remain scarce and often inaccurate. We present a novel approach to map species ranges at a global scale, integrating polygon mapping and species distrib...
Preprint
Full-text available
Predictions from species distribution models (SDMs) that rely on presence-only data are strongly influenced by how pseudo-absences are derived. However, which strategies to generate pseudo-absences give rise to faithful SDMs in complex mountainous terrain, and whether species-specific or generic strategies perform better remain open questions. Here...
Article
Full-text available
Automatic identification of plant specimens from amateur photographs could improve species range maps, thus supporting ecosystems research as well as conservation efforts. However, classifying plant specimens based on image data alone is challenging: some species exhibit large variations in visual appearance, while at the same time different specie...
Presentation
Live presentation of the COMECO research project that is dedicated to the identification of Swiss plant species via photographs and based on Neural Networks and environmental data. It is a joint project by researchers of the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Info Flora, Swiss Data Science Center and the Ecovision Lab at ETH. Youtube VIDEO with...
Poster
Full-text available
Project Goal: Recent technological progress allows us to create user-friendly apps to identify plants based on images. However, rare species or those that resemble other species, are hardly recognized. That is why we build a new tool based on arti cial neural networks and that also includes species distribution models. Meanwhile we complete the Inf...
Article
Full-text available
Aim While species distribution models (SDMs) are standard tools to predict species distributions, they can suffer from observation and sampling biases, particularly presence-only SDMs, which often rely on species observations from non-standardized sampling efforts. To address this issue, sampling background points with a target-group strategy is co...
Preprint
Full-text available
While the impact of biodiversity, notably functional diversity, on ecosystem productivity has been extensively studied, little is known about the effect of individual species. Here, we identified species of high importance for productivity (key species) in over 28,000 diverse grassland communities in the European Alps, and compared their effects wi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Automatic identification of plant specimens from amateur photographs could improve species range maps, thus supporting ecosystems research as well as conservation efforts. However, classifying plant specimens based on image data alone is challenging: some species exhibit large variations in visual appearance, while at the same time different specie...
Article
Aim Tropical America, including the Tropical Eastern Pacific and the Caribbean Sea, presents a high level of marine biodiversity, but its fish fauna has been poorly documented. In early studies marine species distributions were interpreted based on tectonic activity during the late Cenozoic, while more recent studies have highlighted a link with th...
Article
Throughout much of the world's oceans, life is organized around seasonal cycles of feast and famine. Here we seek to understand the life-history strategies by which marine organisms contend with seasonal variations through a range of adaptations and traits, including overwintering stages, dormancy, investment in reserves, and migration. Our perspec...
Article
Full-text available
Although the importance of edaphic factors and habitat structure for plant growth and survival is known, both are often neglected in favor of climatic drivers when investigating the spatial patterns of plant species and diversity. Yet, especially in mountain ecosystems with complex topography, missing edaphic and habitat components may be detriment...
Article
Full-text available
Räumliche Analyse von Trockenheitssymptomen im Schweizer Wald mit Sentinel-2-Satellitendaten Andri Baltensweiler, Philipp Brun, Joanna Pranga, Achilleas Psomas, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Christian Ginzler Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft, WSL (CH)*, Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft, WSL (...
Article
Full-text available
Marine free living copepods can survive harsh periods and cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions using resting eggs (embryonic dormancy). Laboratory experiments show that temperature is the common driver for resting egg production. Hence, we hypothesize (i) that seasonal temperature variation, rather than variation in food abun...
Article
Functional traits, rather than taxonomic identity, determine the fitness of individuals in their environment: traits of marine organisms are therefore expected to vary across the global ocean as a function of the environment. Here, we quantify such spatial and seasonal variations based on extensive empirical data and present the first global biogeo...
Article
Statistical species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to project spatial relocations of marine taxa under future climate change scenarios. However, tests of their predictive skill in the real-world are rare. Here, we use data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder program, one of the longest running and most extensive marine biologica...
Article
Full-text available
Irwin et al. recently published a study that investigates the capacity of phytoplankton to adapt their ecological niches to changing environmental conditions (1). The authors find in a 15-y time series of field observations that phytoplankton taxa significantly change their ecological niches in line with environmental changes in irradiance, nitrate...
Article
Full-text available
We characterize the realized ecological niches of 133 phytoplankton taxa in the open ocean based on observations from the MAREDAT initiative and a statistical species distribution model (MaxEnt). The models find that the physical conditions (mixed layer depth, temperature, light) govern large-scale patterns in phytoplankton biogeography over nutrie...
Data
This data contains realized ecological niche estimates of phytoplankton taxa within the mixed layer of the open ocean. The estimates are based on data from the MARine Ecosystem DATa (MAREDAT) initiative, and cover five phytoplankton functional types: coccolithophores (40 species), diatoms (87 species), diazotrophs (two genera), Phaeocystis (two spe...
Article
Full-text available
Marine plankton play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of important elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. While our knowledge about marine ecosystem structure and functioning is still scarce and episodic, several recent observational studies confirm that marine ecosystems have been changing due to recent climate change, overfis...

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Recent technological progress allows us to create user-friendly apps to identify plants based on images. However, rare species or those that resemble other species, are hardly recognized. That is why we build a new tool based on artificial neural networks and that also includes species distribution models. Meanwhile we complete the Info Flora database with new images for Swiss plant species.
Project
Rarity has always fascinated conservation and evolutionary biologists with the goal to uncover species characteristics causing extinction risk. Recently, some results suggest that rare species may over-contribute to the diversity of traits within communities thus supporting irreplaceable roles while others show that rare species are functionally redundant with common species. Beyond the rarity of species, the rarity of functions played by species, coined as functional rarity, is thus key to understand the impact of biodiversity decline on ecosystem functioning. However, functional rarity still lacks a clear definition and a quantitative framework while its emergence and maintenance within communities is largely unknown. The aim of the FREE working group is to advance the concept of functional rarity and examine the causes and consequences of functional rarity from local to global scales. We will first analyze the distribution of functional rarity in communities, regions, biomes and at a global scale using a cross-taxonomic group comparative approach (plants, microbes, mammals, birds, fishes) using an identified set of inter-operable databases. Next, we will explore the theoretical causes of the maintenance of functional rarity in communities using simulations. Finally, we will evaluate the theoretical consequences of functional rarity loss on ecosystem functioning and quantify them using a database of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments in plants. The FREE working group brings together specialists in community ecology, macro-ecology, biogeography, functional ecology, microbial ecology and phylogeny.