Philip Verwimp

Philip Verwimp
Université Libre de Bruxelles | ULB · Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management

About

91
Publications
22,206
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3,092
Citations
Citations since 2016
10 Research Items
1805 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Education
October 1997 - January 2003
KU Leuven
Field of study
  • Development Economics

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
We investigate the relationship between exposure to the Burundi Civil War and household (food) poverty, using a three-wave household-level panel matched with data on local-level violence. We find that households living in localities exposed to the war have been subsequently more likely to be poor than non-exposed households. Within-household estima...
Article
Full-text available
In our brief review, we take stock of the emergence, in the last decade, of the “microeconomics of violent conflict” as a new subfield of empirical development economics. We start by de-bunking common misperceptions about the microeconomics of conflict and identify several contributions to economic theory and, in particular, to empirics, methods an...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we show that in rural Burundi the characteristics of the female’s kinship are highly correlated with her decision-making power. First, a female whose own immediate family is at least as rich as her husband’s counterpart enjoys a greater say over children- and asset-related decision-making. Second, the size, relative wealth and proximi...
Article
Having accurate poverty statistics is of primary importance for researchers and policy-makers. Based on original data on Burundi, we investigate the sensitivity of poverty headcount calculations to considering individual- instead of household-level consumption. Relying on a survey module which provides information on the share of expenses allocated...
Article
This paper investigates the food security and nutritional status of formerly displaced households (HHs). Using the 2006 Core Welfare Indicator Survey for Burundi we compare their food intake and their level of expenses with that of their non-displaced neighbours. We test whether it is the duration of displacement that matters for current food secur...
Article
Having accurate poverty statistics is of primary importance for researchers and policy-makers. Based on original data on Burundi, we investigate the sensitivity of poverty headcount calculations to considering individual- instead of household-level consumption. Relying on a survey module which provides information on the share of expenses allocated...
Article
This paper assesses the impact of the demobilization, reinsertion and reintegration program in post-war Burundi. Two major rebel groups benefited from cash and in-kind transfers, the CNDD-FDD from 2004, and the FNL from 2010. We combine panel data of households collected in 2006 and 2010 with official records from the National Commission for Demobi...
Article
This paper reviews current practices and common challenges in the measurement of the causes, functioning, and consequences of violent conflict at the micro-level. We review existing conflict- and violence-related survey questionnaires, with a particular focus on the World Bank's Living Standard Measurement Surveys. We discuss methodological challen...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed symptoms of psychological distress among a population-based sample of 9000-plus adults in Burundi during (1998) and after (2007) armed conflict. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to an 8-item, self-report measure, we identified two domains of psychological distress "Depression/Anxiety" and "Functioning" with good fit to...
Article
Using a panel data set from Burundi where information on protection payments during the twelve-year civil war was collected, we test the relationship between payments, the nature of extraction by the rebels, and the welfare outcomes. We ask, “Does payment to rebels insure against future welfare loss and does the nature of payment matter? Specifical...
Article
This study explores the social entrepreneurial potential of the rule-breaking practices of microfinance programs’ beneficiaries. We empirically apply the positive theory of social entrepreneurship that views social entrepreneurship as a pursuit of neglected positive externalities. Using the storyboard methodology, the paper examines the strategies...
Book
This book shows how Rwanda's development model and the organisation of genocide are two sides of the same coin. In the absence of mineral resources, the elite organised and managed the labour of peasant producers as efficient as possible. In order to stay in power and benefit from it, the presidential clan chose a development model that would not c...
Chapter
The occurrence of crop failure and its development into a local famine in southern Rwanda in 1989 is understudied and thus not well understood. Thus chapter attempts to fill that void. The crop failure and subsequent famine is studied from a political economy; micro and ideological perspective. Habyarimana first denied its existence and then blamed...
Chapter
Relying on Guichaoau (2010) and Des Forges (1999) this chapter places political developments and personal strategies in their historical context. I argue that the death of president Habyarimana created a power vacuum at the helm of the state which was filled by a small politico-military elite consisting of Akazu members and their close associates....
Chapter
This chapter present the results of field work in seven communes in Gitarama. It is shown that horizontal and vertical social relations, as represented in associations and other forms of social capital, had a different effect during the genocide depending on their strengths and weaknesses before the genocide. In fact, local leaders who managed to c...
Chapter
This chapter analyses the factors behind economic growth in the first decade of the Second Republic as well as the onset of decline from the mid-80s onwards. I deal with the nature of the tax system, the provision of public goods as well as the degree of poverty and inequality. I look at internal migration and the colonization of marginal land in r...
Chapter
In this chapter I deal with the participation of ordinary Rwandans in the genocide. The contributions of several authors (Lemarchand, Uvin and Strauss) are examined and criticized. Using recent contributions from economics and the social sciences (Akerlof, Axelrod and Kuran) I regard participation as norm abiding behavior under elite and peer-press...
Chapter
The nature of the Second Republic is studied through an analysis of the peasant ideology of president Habyarimana. The analysis shows that this ideology is more than mere rhetoric to please the peasant masses. The president uses ideology to tie the peasantry to the elite I order to cement his power. The glorification of the peasantry, the maintenan...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the reader to the field work I have undertaken together with eight graduate students in Gitarama in 2004. The socio-economic and political profile of the province is presented as well as a detailed discussion of our methodological approach. Material from a lengthy interview with préfet Uwizeye brings history alive.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the book and explains what a political economy approach to genocide has to offer. It presents the main arguments of the book in a nutshell and discusses leading authors in agrarian studies and the political economy of development. It also outlines the content of all chapters.
Chapter
In terms of objectives reached, in the rate of popular participation in collective action in general (e.g. umuganda, anti-erosion campaigns,…) and in the participation of the killing of the Tutsi minority in particular, Rwanda we a ‘successful’ country.
Article
Full-text available
Next to the taking of lives and the destruction of infrastructure, violent conflict also affects the long-term growth path of a country by its effect on human capital accumulation. This paper investigates the effect of exposure to violent conflict on the completion of primary schooling. We use a nationwide household survey that collected detailed e...
Article
This study surveys the small but growing field of entrepreneurship and conflict in developing countries, which is also the topic of this special issue of the Journal of Small business and Entrepreneurship. We review recent contributions on how mass violent conflict such as civil war affects productive entrepreneurship and we discuss the contributio...
Article
This paper analyzes the poverty impact of the violent events that affected Rwanda in the 1990s. The main objective of the paper is to identify systematically potential mechanisms linking violent conflict with changes in poverty across provinces and households in Rwanda before and after a decade of violence. In accordance with emerging literature on...
Article
Full-text available
Violent conflict, a pervasive feature of the recent global landscape, has lasting impacts on human capital, and these impacts are seldom gender neutral. Death and destruction alter the structure and dynamics of households, including their demographic profiles and traditional gender roles. To date, attention to the gender impacts of conflict has foc...
Article
This paper explores the importance of the risk of violence on the decision making of rural households, using a unique panel data set for Colombian coffee-growers. We identify two channels. First, we examine the direct impact of conflict on agricultural production through the change in the percentage of the farm allocated to coffee. Second, we explo...
Article
This paper explores the importance of the risk of violence on the decision making of rural households, using a unique panel data set for Colombian coffee-growers. We identify two channels. First, we examine the direct impact of conflict on agricultural production through the change in the percentage of the farm allocated to coffee. Second, we explo...
Book
This paper investigates the effect of exposure to violent conflict on human capital accumulation in Burundi. It combines a nationwide household survey with secondary sources on the location and timing of the conflict. Only 20 percent of the birth cohorts studied (1971–1986) completed primary education. Depending on the specification, the probabilit...
Chapter
This paper investigates the effect of exposure to violent conflict on human capital accumulation in Burundi. It combines a nationwide household survey with secondary sources on the location and timing of the conflict. Only 20 percent of the birth cohorts studied (1971–1986) completed primary education. Depending on the specification, the probabilit...
Chapter
This paper investigates the effect of exposure to violent conflict on human capital accumulation in Burundi. It combines a nationwide household survey with secondary sources on the location and timing of the conflict. Only 20 percent of the birth cohorts studied (1971–1986) completed primary education. Depending on the specification, the probabilit...
Article
We provide an analysis of a power-maximising model for dictatorial behaviour. In the model, the dictator’s revenues depend on the exports of a single crop. Using export earnings the dictator buys loyalty from the producers of the export crop by setting the domestic producer price. Revenues resulting from the difference between the international and...
Article
Full-text available
We use a series of field experiments in rural Burundi to examine the impact of exposure to conflict on social, risk, and time preferences. We find that conflict affects behavior: individuals exposed to violence display more altruistic behavior towards their neighbors, are more risk-seeking, and have higher discount rates. Large adverse shocks can t...
Article
The paper investigates the effect of child undernutrition on the risk of mortality in Burundi. Using anthropometric data from a longitudinal survey (1998-2007) we find that undernourished children, measured by the height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) in 1998 had a higher probability to die during subsequent years. In order to address the problem of omitte...
Article
This paper describes how although affected by the shocks of conflict and violence, households are more than impotent victims. Within their own context (assets, motivations, perceptions, capabilities, resources and power relations) they adopt different coping strategies to ‘navigate’ through conflict. Many of these strategies, however, entail the de...
Article
Until now, two main sets of arguments have dominated the debate on the nature of the massacres that were perpetrated in Rwanda before the 1994 genocide. The first one maintains that they constituted a response to prior attacks by the RPF, implying that they should be regarded as military operations, rather than as acts of ethnic cleansing. The seco...
Article
This study surveys the small but growing field of entrepreneurship and conflict in developing countries, which is also the topic of this special issue of the Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship. We review recent contributions on how mass violent conflict such as civil war affects productive entrepreneurship and we discuss the contributio...
Chapter
Two types of arguments have until today dominated the debate on the nature of the massacres perpetrated in Rwanda before the 1994 genocide. The first is that these massacres were a response to preceding attacks by the RPF, implying that they should be qualified as war operations and not as ethnic cleansing. The second is that they were try-outs for...
Article
Tables About the authors....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Acknowledgements...............................................................................................................................
Article
This paper challenges the idea that farmers revert to subsistence farming when confronted with violence from civil war. While there is an emerging macroeconomic consensus that wars are detrimental to development, we find contrasting microeconomic evidence. Using several rounds of (panel) data at the farm and community level, we find that farmers in...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the demographic consequences of the Rwandan genocide and how the excess mortality due to the conflict was distributed in the population. Data collected by the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey indicate that although there were more deaths across the entire population, adult males were the most likely to die. Using the characteri...
Article
We use experimental data from 35 randomly selected communities in Burundi to examine the impact of exposure to conflict on social-, risk- and time preferences. These types of preferences are important as they determine people’s propensity to invest and their ability to overcome social dilemmas, so that changes therein foster or hinder economic grow...
Article
The overall goal of the report is to increase the capacity of researchers and policy makers to identify comparatively, and across time, how individuals, households and communities are affected by violent conflict. The report provides an extensive overview of existing practices and datasets used in this field of research. We investigate existing met...
Article
We use experimental data from 35 randomly selected communities in Burundi to examine the impact of exposure to conflict on social-, risk- and time preferences. These types of preferences are important as they determine people’s propensity to invest and their ability to overcome social dilemmas, so that changes therein foster or hinder economic grow...
Article
Child health during and after violent conflicts has been a priority for both policymakers and academics, as ill-health in early life can be impossible to make up for in later life, and has important effects on education and adult wages. In order for policy interventions to mitigate health impacts, it is essential to understand the channels through...
Article
This article introduces a special issue on the micro-level dynamics of mass violent conflict. While most analyses of conflict typically adopt a regional, national or global perspective, often using country-level data, this special issue takes an explicit micro-level approach, focusing on the behaviour and welfare of individuals, households and grou...
Article
Every year, thousands of refugees are forced to leave their countries of origin and are hosted by their neighboring countries. However, very few is known about the impact of these refugees on the local economy and its inhabitants. Based on hypothesis formulated during a two-month iterative field research, a theoretical framework is used to understa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper estimates the risk preferences of cotton farmers in Southern Peru, using the results from a multiple-price-list lottery game. Assuming that preferences conform to two of the leading models of decision under risk--Expected Utility Theory (EUT) and Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT)--we find strong evidence of moderate risk aversion. Once we...
Article
The brief article introduces the four articles in the symposium.
Article
Full-text available
Recent literature in the political economy of civil war has pointed to the importance of (changes) in the economic environment for the understanding of conflict dynamics. Three channels, negative income shocks, the presence of exportable commodities and indiscriminate violence inflicted on one’s community are considered as drivers of conflict. This...
Article
Full-text available
Every year, thousands of refugees are forced to leave their countries of origin and are hosted by their neighboring countries. However, very little is known about the impact of these refugees on the local economy and its inhabitants. Based on a hypothesis formulated during a two-month iterative field research, a theoretical framework is used to und...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse the effect of violence and rebellion on the evolution of household welfare. We collected new panel data for Burundi (1999-2007) in which we reinterviewed original as well as newly formed households (split-offs). We use several definitions of the household as unit of analysis and test for resource pooling between parental and split-off ho...
Article
Grievance and reduced opportunity costs are two popular ideas within the civil war literature to explain participation in violent rebellion. We test both hypotheses at the village-level using data on recruitment activities during the civil war in Burundi. We use historical data on violent attacks in 1972 and 1988 as a proxy for grievance. The cross...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse the effect of civil war on household welfare. Using Burundian panel data for the 1998-2007 period in which we re-interviewed original as well as newly formed households (split-offs), we show that headcount poverty decreased by 3.5 % points when split-off households are taken into account and 1% when splits are left out. Poverty is persis...
Article
Full-text available
This paper models the instability of peace agreements, motivated by the empirical regularity with which peace agreements tend to break down following civil war. When war provides opportunities for profit to one side, or when other difficulties such as historical grievances exist, peace may become incentive incompatible. The party that has something...
Article
Full-text available
We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi’s civil war on children’s health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war’s timing across provinces and the exposure of children’s birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for pro...
Article
Full-text available
Economic shocks at birth have lasting effects on children's health several years after the shock. The authors calculate height for age z-scores for children under age five using data from a Rwandan nationally representative household survey conducted in 1992. They exploit district and time variation in crop failure and civil conflict to measure the...
Article
For many years experimental observations have raised questions about the rationality of economic agents--for example, the Allais Paradox or the Equity Premium Puzzle. The problem is a narrow notion of rationality that disregards fear. This article extends the notion of rationality with new axioms of choice under uncertainty and the decision criteri...
Article
Civil war and genocide in the 1990-2000 period in Rwanda - a small, landlocked, densely populated country in Central Africa - have had differential economic impacts on the country’s provinces. The reasons for this are the death toll of the genocide, the location of battles, the waves of migration and the local resurgence of war. As a result, the la...
Article
Full-text available
This article is a quantitative study of the use of machetes and firearms during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, Kibuye Prefecture. The machete is an agricultural tool owned by most Rwandan households and is believed to have been the prime instrument of killing during the genocide. The article addresses the question to what extent individual characteri...
Article
Full-text available
In 2002 Malawi experienced a serious shortage of cereals due to adverse climatic conditions. The World Food Programme assumed that about 2.1 to 3.2 million people were threatened of starvation at that time. However, not much research has been undertaken to investigate the actual consequences of this crisis. In particular, little is known about how...
Article
This paper investigates the impact of the latest civil war and the subsequent economic embargo in Burundi on the health status of the Burundese children. We find that the civil war and the economic embargo had a particularly detrimental impact on the nutritional status of rural populations, due to a direct effect of the civil war and to the soaring...
Article
This paper presents the results of a research project in which we have traced 350 Rwandan households who were part of a rural household survey before the Rwandan genocide (1994). Economic, demographic and agricultural data from an extensive 1989–1992 survey can be linked with the condition of the household at the time of the Genocide Transition Sur...
Article
Full-text available
In the 1960s and 1990s, internal strife in Rwanda has caused a mass flow of refugees into neighbouring countries. This article explores the cumulated fertility of Rwandan refugee women and the survival of their children. To this end, we use a national survey conducted between 1999 and 2001 and covering 6,420 former refugee and non-refugee household...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the strategic behavior of four parties in the crucial years preceding the Rwandan genocide, namely 1990-1994. For that purpose a nested game is developed in which the autocratic regime plays a transition game with the domestic opposition in the principal arena and at the same time that regime is involved in a civil war game with...
Article
Full-text available
Western donors are heavily engaged in Rwanda's Demobilisation and Reintegration Programme for former combatants. This engagement reflects the commitment of the donors to implement a new post‐conflict agenda in a very difficult situation. When this agenda goes beyond mere economic development, we argue that donors should not drift too far away from...
Article
Full-text available
In the 1960s and 1990s, internal strife in Rwanda has caused a mass flow of refugees into neighbouring countries. This paper explores the cumulated fertility of Rwandan refugee women and the survival of their children. To this end, we use a national survey covering 6420 former refugee and non-refugee households conducted between 1999 and 2001. The...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports a quantitative study of the genocide in the prefecture of Kibuye in western Rwanda in 1994. It uses a database produced from a house-to-house survey of victims by the organization of genocide survivors, Ibuka. For a total of 59,050 victims of the genocide, data were collected on age, sex, occupation, commune of residence before t...
Article
Full-text available
Results of a research project with household-level data on the demographic impact of genocide and civil war in Rwanda are reported. The survey includes demographic and criminological data on 352 peasant households that were part of a large household survey project before the genocide. The absolute number of Hutu killed in the sample is half of the...
Article
The paper presents a political economy analysis of the Habyarimana regime in Rwanda. The analysis shows how, through the producer price of coffee, the dictator buys political loyalty from the peasant population, and how, in periods of economic growth, the dictator increases his level of personal consumption as well as power over the population. The...
Article
Full-text available
Is it a matter of pure altruism or shortsightedness when a dictator spends an increasing amount of his revenues for the population, while cutting on own consumption? In order to be able to consume, the dictator first has to stay in power. We present a formal model of a power maximizing dictator. His revenues depend on the exports of a single crop....
Article
of the paper The paper analyses the agricultural policy of the Habyarimana regime, which ruled Rwanda from 1973 to 1994. Econometric analysis of rural household survey data is used to investigate the effects of the 1989 crop failure in southern Rwanda on children's health status. The paper shows that children in southern Rwanda are chronically maln...
Article
Full-text available
The paper analyses the agricultural policy of the Habyarimana regime, which ruled Rwanda from 1973 to 1994. Econometric analysis of rural household survey data is used to investigate the effects of the 1989 crop failure in southern Rwanda on children’s health status. The paper shows that children in southern Rwanda are chronically malnourished, mor...
Article
This paper describes the Belgian Law on universal jurisdiction for crimes against humanity and its application in a trail against four Rwandan suspects. The paper shows the innovative character of the 1993 law as well as the unprecedented application of this law. We give details on the accusations of the four suspects and show how the trial reveale...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is a quantitative study of the genocide in the prefecture of Kibuye in Rwanda in 1994. We use an original data base developed by the organisation of the survivors of the genocide (IBUKA) who collected the data by house-to-house fieldwork. The data contain information on the age, sex, commune of residence before the genocide, the professi...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
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I use an extended version of Mincer's original model to estimate the returns to schooling in rural Ethiopia. In a first step, a multinomial logit model is applied to distinguish between four groups of people, (1) full-time farmers, (2) part-time farmers, part time wage workers, (3) part-time farmers, part time traders and (4) full-time non-farmers....
Article
Incl. abstract in English, German, French, Spanish and Russian; bibliographical references This paper constructs two measures of the quality of education. The first one is a quality measure on the institutional level, it is derived inductively from the answers provided by school directors from rural Ethiopia on several interview questions. A corner...
Article
This paper is part of a series of recent research commissioned for the African Human Development Report. The authors include leading academics and practitioners from Africa and around the world, as well as UNDP researchers. The findings, interpretations and conclusions are strictly those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of...

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