Philip Parker

Philip Parker
Australian Catholic University | ACU · Institute for Positive Psychology and Education

PhD

About

186
Publications
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8,338
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Publications

Publications (186)
Article
In the quest to identify the key sources of subjective well-being, self-determination theory (SDT) has proposed that three basic psychological needs—autonomy, competence, and relatedness—are fundamental to well-being across cultures. To understand their influence on well-being, we analyzed data from European Social Survey on 27 European countries (...
Research Proposal
Higher Degree Research (HDR) at IPPE We welcome applications from both domestic candidates from Australia and New Zealand, and international candidates. The next round of applications for PhD and MPhil programs closes at 11.59pm 17 October 2022 AEDT. https: // www.acu.edu.au/research-and-enterprise/our-research-institutes/institute-for-positive-ps...
Article
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Self-determination theory holds that the intrinsic and extrinsic content of people's aspirations differentially affect their wellness. An evidence base spanning nearly 30 years indicates that focusing on intrinsic goals (such as for growth, relationships, community giving, and health) promotes well-being, whereas a focus on extrinsic goals (such as...
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Social-emotional skills have been shown to be beneficial for many important life outcomes for students. However, previous studies on the topic have suffered from many issues (e.g., consideration of only a small subset of skills, single-informant, and single-cohort design). To address these limitations, this study used a multi-informant (self, teach...
Article
Children who are excluded from school may end up being excluded from other social institutions. Yet little research has considered whether low school belonging is a risk factor for not being in education, employment, or training after graduation. Using two longitudinal cohorts from Australia (N = 14,082; 51% Boys), we explored this relationship. Co...
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Internationally, there is a gap in high‐school completion rates for Indigenous and non‐Indigenous students. In Australia, gap estimates are commonly based on lag indicators, precluding examination of underlying mechanisms. Using two longitudinal representative samples of Australian youth, we explored differences in high‐school completion between Au...
Article
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For results from large-scale surveys to inform policy and practice appropriately, all participants must interpret and respond to items similarly. While organizers of surveys assessing student outcomes often ensure this for achievement measures, doing so for psychological questionnaires is also critical. We demonstrate this by examining the dimensio...
Article
We explore whether decentralization of decision-making influences school principals’ subjective experience of autonomy, job demands, burnout, and job satisfaction. Using six-years of longitudinal data, we used two Australian education reforms as a natural experiment of the effect of decentralization. Exploiting state-to-state variation in the polic...
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Principal strain and burnout is a major issue in desperate need of further investigation and solutions. Deepening our understanding of emotional exhaustion, the central dimension of burnout, would greatly further this pursuit. Using a large, longitudinal, representative sample of Australian school principals, the present study decomposed emotional...
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The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), the negative effect of school-/class-average achievement on academic self-concept, is one of educational psychology’s most universal findings. However, critiques of this research have proposed moderators based on achievement motivation theories. Nevertheless, because these motivational theories are not suffi...
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Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that experiences of autonomy lead people to be more prosocial, whereas experiences of control lead to antisocial actions. In this meta-analysis, we tested the links between autonomy and prosociality, and control and antisociality, across 139 reports (167 studies) with 1,189 effect sizes (N = 75,546 participant...
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We integrate John Rawls’ concept of primary goods with self-determination theory, to examine the links between people’s perceptions of primary goods (i.e., views of society as providing access to the necessities of a meaningful life), basic psychological needs, and well-being. In Study 1 (N = 762, countries = Australia, the United States, South Afr...
Article
The immigrant paradox is the phenomenon where recent immigrants have better outcomes than individuals from native-born families. Although limited past research has shown the paradox to exist for math self-concept, neither its exact nature nor a theoretical explanation for its existence have been reported. Using Australian cohort data from the Progr...
Chapter
Education is a gateway to occupational success for emerging adults. Differences in access and uptake in higher education are thus a primary explanation for social stratification. In this chapter, the authors consider what might explain the Indigenous gap in educational attainment. Using multiple cohorts of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Youth...
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Background Reliable estimates of habitual sleep, physical activity, and sedentary time are essential to investigate the associations between these behaviours and health outcomes. While the number of days needed and hours/day for estimates of physical activity and sedentary time are generally known, the criteria for sleep estimates are more uncertai...
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Based on the Information Distortion Model (IDM), we hypothesized higher academic interest among low socioeconomic (SES) Australian children compared to equally able high SES Australian children. We extend the IDM in two ways. First, the IDM is a model of school selection and thus empirical evidence of its effect needs to come from a model that cont...
Article
In a representative longitudinal sample of 2,602 Australian children (52% boys; 2% Indigenous; 13% language other than English background; 22% of Mothers born overseas; and 65% Urban) and their mothers (first surveyed in 2003), this article examined if maternal judgments of numeracy and reading ability varied by child demographics and influenced ac...
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Importance Cardiorespiratory fitness is an important marker of childhood health and low fitness levels are a risk factor for disease later in life. Levels of children's fitness have declined in recent decades. Whether school-based physical activity interventions can increase fitness at the population level remains unclear. Objective To evaluate th...
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Paradoxically, school leaders as a group report high levels of burnout but also high job satisfaction and passion for their work. School principals are passionate about their job, but this passion can be a double-edged sword leading to good (job satisfaction) and bad (burnout) outcomes. We extend the dualistic model of passion (DMP) in a study of c...
Article
The internet has become the chosen medium for professional learning. Completing professional learning can improve work performance; however, many individuals who begin online courses do not complete them. It is not well understood which influences keep individuals engaged in online professional learning. We address these issues with a systematic re...
Article
Universities around the world are incorporating online learning, often relying on videos (asynchronous multimedia). We systematically reviewed the effects of video on learning in higher education. We searched five databases using 27 keywords to find randomized trials that measured the learning effects of video among college students. We conducted f...
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Objectives To determine if subpopulations of students benefit equally from school-based physical activity interventions in terms of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity. To examine if physical activity intensity mediates improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness. Design Pooled analysis of individual participant data from controlled tria...
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Objectives To determine the impact of bushfires on children’s physical activity. Design Natural experiment comparing device-measured physical activity and air quality index data for schools exposed and not exposed to the Australian bushfires. Methods Participants were drawn from 22 schools participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial of...
Article
We conducted a person-centered analysis of the Aspiration Index to identify subgroups that differ in the levels of their specific (wealth, fame and image, personal growth, relationships, community giving, and health) and global intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. In a Hungarian (N = 3,370; 77% female; age: M = 23.57), an Australian (N = 1,632; 51%...
Preprint
Full-text available
Past research shows the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect (BFLPE; negative effect of school-average achievement on student-level self-concept) to generalize across countries. However, evidence is largely limited to math and science, limiting conclusions of universality to these subjects. Using data from Program for International Students Assessment 2018...
Article
Study Objectives To determine the day-to-day and longer-term longitudinal associations between daytime physical activity and night-time sleep. Methods We used data from a 2-year longitudinal study which included three time points (i.e. baseline, year 1, and year 2). Participants were recruited from primary schools and included 1059 children (50% g...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a person-centered analysis of the Aspiration Index to identify subgroups that differ in the levels of their specific (wealth, fame and image, personal growth, relationships, community giving, and health) and global intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. In a Hungarian (N=3370; 77% female; age: M = 23.57), an Australian (N=1632; 51% femal...
Preprint
Internationally there is a gap in high school completion rates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. In Australia, gap estimates are commonly based on lag indicators, precluding examination of underlying mechanisms. Using two longitudinal and representative samples of Australian youth, we explored differences in high school completion between...
Article
Helping students adjust to university life is a critical developmental issue. Using longitudinal data from 1652 German late adolescents, this research tested the effect of initial high-school parent, same-sex, and opposite sex self-concept and its change on university dropout intentions, study stress, and study satisfaction. High-school self-concep...
Article
Gender-equality paradoxes (GEPs) posit that gender gaps in math self-concepts (MSCs) are larger-not smaller-in countries with greater gender equality. These paradoxical results suggest that efforts to improve gender equality might be counterproductive. However, we show that this currently popular explanation of gender differences is an illusory, ep...
Preprint
Full-text available
Universities around the world are incorporating online learning, often relying upon videos (asynchronous multimedia). We systematically reviewed the effects of video on learning in higher education. We searched five databases using 27 keywords to find randomised trials that measured the learning effects of video among college students. We conducted...
Preprint
Background. How are parents perceived by their children to develop during the high school years, and what are the consequences of this development for youth well-being? Methods. Each year from Grade 8 to 12, we administered measures of parenting style and well-being across 16 schools (Time 1 M age = 13.7, SD age = .45; N = 2043; 49.6% Male). Utiliz...
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Expectancy value theory is often evoked by educational psychologists to explain gender differences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) variables. Yet gender does not operate in isolation. Nor are gender effects likely to be context free. In the current meta-analysis, we explore gender differences in STEM-related expectancy f...
Article
Physical activity is considered an effective method to improve sleep quality in adolescents and adults. However, there is mixed evidence among children. Our objectives were to investigate this association in children and to examine potential moderating variables. Eight databases were systematically searched, and we included all study designs with a...
Article
The concept of self is central to personhood, but personality research has largely ignored the relevance of recent advances in self‐concept theory: multidimensionality of self‐concept (focusing instead on self‐esteem, an implicit unidimensional approach), domain specificity (generalizability of trait manifestations over different domains), and mult...
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Background: Excessive engagement with digital screens is harmful to children's health. However, new evidence suggests that exposure at moderate levels may not be harmful and may even provide benefit. Therefore, our objective was to determine if there are curvilinear relationships between different types of screen time and a diverse set of outcomes...
Preprint
We conducted a person-centered analysis of the Aspiration Index to identify subgroups that differ in the levels of their specific (wealth, fame and image, personal growth, relationships, health, and community giving) and global intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. In a Hungarian (N=3370; 77% female; age: M = 23.57), an Australian (N=1632; 51% femal...
Preprint
Full-text available
We integrate Rawls’ (1971/2009, 1993, 2001) concept of primary goods with self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017), to examine the link between people’s perceptions of primary goods (i.e., views of society as just and fair), basic psychological need satisfaction, and well-being. In Study 1 (N=762, countries = Australia, the United States,...
Article
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In this review we examined the evidence regarding self-determination theory within the school physical education context. We applied a multilevel structural equation modelling approach to meta-analyze data from a systematic review that identified 265 relevant studies. In line with theory, autonomous motivation was positively correlated with adaptiv...
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Job satisfaction is important for employee well-being and retention, which are both crucial for high strained occupations such as teachers and school principals. We investigated the structure and relationship of teachers’ job satisfaction (N = 142,280) and principals’ job satisfaction (N = 8,869). Results of structural equation modeling using multi...
Preprint
Moral foundation theory argues humans respond to five moral dimensions: a) care/harm; b) fairness; c) ingroup; d) authority; and e) purity. Research and theory from the US suggest progressives appeal to the care/harm dimension, while conservatives appeal to a more balanced profile. Using a corpus of nearly 5000 speeches by Australian prime minister...
Article
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School‐based physical education (PE) provides opportunities to accumulate moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity (MVPA), but many students are insufficiently active during PE lessons. Providing teachers with feedback regarding their students’ physical activity may increase the effectiveness of PE for achieving MVPA goals, but existing physical acti...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of (a) the Australian education system (including a historical overview from 1970 to today); (b) an exploration of socioeconomic inequality in IQ, academic achievement in high-stakes tests, and critical non-cognitive factors from the start of school to near the end of middle school; (c) an exploration of socioecono...
Preprint
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Governments rarely aim at altering the way children view themselves. Yet, governments, culture, and social norms shape the social settings children find themselves in (i.e., the amount of ability stratification in the education system). Reviewing sociological, economic, and psychological literature we construct a theory that states that any macro i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Governments rarely aim at altering the way children view themselves. Yet, governments, culture, and social norms shape the social settings children find themselves in (i.e., the amount of ability stratification in the education system). Reviewing sociological, economic, and psychological literature we construct a theory that states that any macro i...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we argue for the need to assess social identity group need satisfaction and frustration in addition to individual level needs. We argue that political science and psychology require a measure of social identity group needs to provide empirical insights into how state treatment of groups influences their citizens' wellbeing. In this p...
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Objectives: To what extent is the frame of reference of overlapping friendship communities important for young people's feelings of discrimination and subjective well-being? That is, do youth feel better or worse to the extent that they feel less or more discrimination than their friends? Method: Participants (N = 898; Mage = 14.13; SDage = 3.37...
Article
Both self‐compassion and empathy have been theorized to promote prosociality in youth, but there is little longitudinal data examining this possibility. We assessed self‐compassion, empathy, and peer‐rated prosociality yearly, in a cohort of 2,078 youth across 17 schools (M age at T1 = 14.65 years; 49.2% female), as they progressed from Grade 9–12....
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Parental role models and sociocultural beliefs (e.g., gender stereotype and equality) are critical in shaping gendered interest and coursework in science. However, few studies have explored the interaction of both micro (family) and macro (sociocultural milieu) factors in influencing adolescent girls’ interest in science. To this end, we analyzed d...
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CFAs of multidimensional constructs often fail to meet standards of good measurement (e.g., goodness-of-fit, measurement invariance, well-differentiated factors). Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) represents a compromise between exploratory factor analysis’ (EFA) flexibility, and CFA/SEM's rigor and parsimony, but lacks parsimony (par...
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We evaluated STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) coursework selection by women and men (representative longitudinal sample, 10,370 Australians) in senior high school and university, controlling achievement and expectancy-value variables. A near-zero total effect of gender on high school STEM enrollment reflected pathways favori...
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Motivation and Learning - by K. Ann Renninger February 2019
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In this study, we contrast two competing approaches, not previously compared, that balance the rigor of CFA/SEM with the flexibility to fit realistically complex data. Exploratory SEM (ESEM) is claimed to provide an optimal compromise between EFA and CFA/SEM. Alternatively, a family of three Bayesian SEMs (BSEMs) replace fixed-zero estimates with i...
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Objective Compulsive internet use (CIU) has been linked to decrements in mental health and well‐being. However relatively little is known about how CIU relates to evaluations of the self, and in particular, whether CIU is antecedent to or is a consequence of negative evaluations of one's social worth (self‐esteem) and general efficacy (hope). To ex...
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Background: Abundant evidence demonstrates a relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing. However, the strength of the relationship is not consistent. Factors contributing to variation in the strength of association are not well understood and, therefore, it remains difficult to optimize physical activity to ensure the strongest po...
Data
Additional File 2: The Motivation towards Active Travel to School Scale (MATSS): Instrument development and initial validity evidence.
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Friends provide important social contexts for student development. Research has shown that adolescent friends are similar to each other in their interest and values for different school subjects. Yet our current understanding does not extend to knowing whether selection, deselection, or socialization processes are responsible for this phenomena. Wi...
Article
We simultaneously resolve three paradoxes in academic self-concept research with a single unifying meta-theoretical model based on frame-of-reference effects across 68 countries, 18,292 schools, and 485,490 15-year-old students. Paradoxically, but consistent with predictions, effects on math self-concepts were negative for: • being from countries w...
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The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an important international study of 15‐olds' knowledge and skills. New results are released every 3 years, and have a substantial impact upon education policy. Yet, despite its influence, the methodology underpinning PISA has received significant criticism. Much of this criticism has focu...