Philip Newall

Philip Newall
University of Bristol | UB · School of Experimental Psychology

PhD

About

93
Publications
24,125
Reads
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564
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - September 2016
University of Stirling
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
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Article
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Background and aims: The same information may be perceived differently depending on how it is described. The risk information given on many gambling warning labels tends to accentuate what a gambler might expect to win e.g., "This game has an average percentage payout of 90%,"(return-to-player), rather than what a gambler might expect to lose, e.g...
Article
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Background and aims: Request-a-bet services are a modern gambling product delivered via the social network Twitter, which allow sports bettors to design custom bets. The public nature of Twitter data provided a unique opportunity to investigate patterns of bettor preference and the bookmaker profit margin in soccer, the UK's favorite sport. Metho...
Article
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Gambling is considered a public health issue by many researchers, similarly to alcohol or obesity. Statistical risk warnings on gambling products can be considered a public health intervention that encourages safer gambling while preserving freedom of consumer choice. Statistical risk warnings may be useful to gamblers, given that net gambling loss...
Article
Full-text available
Gambling is an ordinary pastime for some people, but is associated with addiction and harmful outcomes for others. Evidence of these harms is limited to small-sample, cross-sectional self-reports, such as prevalence surveys. We examine the association between gambling as a proportion of monthly income and 31 financial, social and health outcomes us...
Article
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Loot boxes are quasi-gambling virtual products in video games that provide randomised rewards of varying value. Previous studies in Western contexts have identified a positive correlation between loot box purchasing and problem gambling severity. A preregistered survey of People’s Republic of China (PRC) video game players ( N = 879) failed to repl...
Article
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Purpose of Review Loot boxes are gambling-like monetisation mechanics in video games that are purchased for opportunities to obtain randomised in-game rewards. Gambling regulation is increasingly being informed by insights from public health. Despite conceptual similarities between loot boxes and gambling, there is much less international consensus...
Article
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International research has shown that live sports commentary exhibits racial bias. Specifically, non-White players are more likely to be praised in terms of their physicality, while White players are more likely to be praised in terms of their intellect and character. The current study, which utilised a quantitative content analysis design, examine...
Preprint
For over 30 years, prevalence surveys have been the principal methodology for measuring the distribution of gambling-related harm in a population (Volberg, 2004), and have informed debates around whether existing harm reduction efforts are working, both in the academic literature (Shaffer et al., 2004) and in the news (Davies, 2022). Despite this l...
Article
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Legal gambling is a large industry in many countries. One way some governments try to protect people from losing more than they can afford is by requiring warning labels on gambling machines and their online equivalents. Prominent labels that make the odds of winning clear serve as nudges: They promote a beneficial behavior (such as deciding that t...
Preprint
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Safer gambling messages can potentially form a part of a public health approach to preventing gambling-related harms, if found effective. This study tested the effect of the new UK safer gambling message, “take time to think”, on a range of gambling behaviours in a sample of UK-based online gamblers. UK-based online gamblers could earn monetary end...
Article
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Gambling is marketed in English soccer across various formats such as TV advertising, social media, pitch side hoardings, and shirt sponsorship. There have been recent reductions in TV advertising brought about by self-regulation, but gambling shirt sponsorship remains frequent, and can lead to a high frequency of incidental marketing exposure on T...
Preprint
Online gambling has increased the accessibility and range of gambling products available to people all over the world. This trend has been particularly noticeable in the UK. Cryptocurrency-based gambling is a new, largely unregulated, way to gamble online, which uses mostly anonymous blockchain-based technologies, such as Bitcoin. The present resea...
Article
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Loot boxes are virtual products in video games that provide randomized rewards, and accordingly share structural similarities with gambling. Policymakers around the world are presently considering how best to regulate loot boxes. Current loot box consumer protection measures, such as requiring probability disclosures, have been inspired by similar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Loot boxes are gambling-like monetisation mechanics in video games that are purchased for opportunities to obtain randomised in-game rewards. Gambling regulation is increasingly being informed by insights from public health. Despite conceptual similarities between loot boxes and gambling, there is much less international consensu...
Article
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Adolescents can easily access esports betting sites and place bets using cash or skins. This descriptive cross-sectional study examined the characteristics of adolescent esports bettors and relationships between their esports betting, video gaming activities, monetary gambling participation, and at-risk/problem gambling. Two survey samples of Austr...
Article
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Background Safer gambling messages are a common freedom-preserving method of protecting individuals from gambling-related harm. Yet, there is little independent and rigorous evidence assessing the effectiveness of safer gambling messages. In our study, we aimed to test the effect of the historically most commonly-used UK safer gambling message on c...
Article
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Investing and gambling share key features, in that both involve risk the coming together of two or more people, and both are voluntary activities. However, investing is generally a much better way than gambling for the average person to make long-run profits. This paper reviews evidence on two types of “gamblified” investment products where this ad...
Article
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Background and aims Purchasing loot boxes in digital games is akin to gambling as it involves risking money for a chance-based reward of uncertain value. Research has linked buying loot boxes to problem gambling amongst adolescents, but has not examined co-occurring gambling participation. This study examined links between loot box purchasing and p...
Article
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Cost-of-play information is one public health intervention recommended to help reduce gambling-related harm. In the UK, this information is given on electronic gambling machines in a format known as the “return-to-player”, e.g., “This game has an average percentage payout of 90%.” However, previous evidence suggests that this information could be i...
Preprint
Paid loot boxes are now more commonly implemented in the highest-grossing UK iPhone games (which is reflective of other Western markets) than reported by Zendle et al. (2020). This is due to multiple reasons: games with loot boxes becoming more popular; some popular games subsequently introducing loot boxes; methodological factors around loot box i...
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Bayesian approaches presuppose that following the coherence conditions of probability theory makes probabi-listic judgments more accurate. But other influential theories claim accurate judgments (with high "ecological rationality") do not need to be coherent. Empirical results support these latter theories, threatening Bayesian models of intelligen...
Article
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UK online casino games are presently not subject to any limitations on speed-of-play or stakes. One recent policy proposal is to ensure that no online casino game can be played faster than its in-person equivalent. Another policy proposal is to limit the maximum stakes on online casino games to £2, to match the current stake limit on electronic gam...
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Cite as: Xiao L.Y., Henderson L.L., Nielsen R.K.L., Grabarczyk P., & Newall P.W.S. (2021). Loot Boxes, Gambling-Like Mechanics in Video Games. In N. Lee (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games. Springer. Loot boxes are mechanics often found in video games that provide the player with randomised virtual rewards. Some loot boxes can be pai...
Article
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Background and aims Skin gambling uses in-game items (skins) acquired in video games, to gamble on esports, games of chance, other competitive events and privately with friends. This study examined characteristics of adolescent skin gamblers, their engagement in monetary gambling, and relationships between skin gambling and at risk/problem gambling...
Preprint
Professional sports have in recent years become increasingly intertwined with gambling marketing, especially in countries such as Australia, Spain, and the UK. Even Formula 1 racing, which used to be closely associated with tobacco sponsorship, announced in 2021 an agreement to have an official betting sponsor. However, as happened previously with...
Preprint
Professional sports have in recent years become increasingly intertwined with gambling marketing, especially in countries such as Australia, Spain, and the UK. Even Formula 1 racing, which used to be closely associated with tobacco sponsorship, announced in 2021 an agreement to have an official betting sponsor. However, as happened previously with...
Preprint
Full-text available
Loot boxes are purchased to obtain randomised rewards in video games. These mechanics are frequently implemented, including in children’s games, and are psychologically akin to gambling. Emulating gambling harm reduction measures, disclosing the probabilities of obtaining loot box rewards is a consumer protection measure that may reduce overspendin...
Article
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Background and aims Personal investors decrease their stock market investment returns by trading frequently, which the behavioral finance literature has primarily explained via investors' overconfidence and low levels of financial literacy. This study investigates whether problem gambling can help account for frequent trading in a sample of active...
Article
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Pickering and Blaszczynski’s paper (2021) claims that the problem gambling rate is inflated in paid online convenience and crowdsourced samples. However, there is a methodological flaw in their findings: they combined problem gambling rates from samples that are specific by design (e.g. at-least monthly sports bettors), and compared them to a probl...
Preprint
Gambling is an ordinary pastime for some people, but is associated with addiction and harmful outcomes for others. Evidence of these harms is limited to small-sample, cross-sectional self-reports, such as prevalence surveys. We examine the association between gambling as a proportion of monthly income and 31 financial, social and health outcomes us...
Article
Full-text available
Loot boxes provide randomized rewards in video games; their purchase is linked to disordered gambling and they are present in approximately half of UK video games. The relative novelty of loot boxes means that regulators and policymakers in various jurisdictions are still deciding how to regulate them. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is the fi...
Preprint
Cost-of-play information is one public health intervention recommended to help reduce gambling-related harm. In the UK, this information is given on electronic gambling machines in a format known as the “return-to-player”, e.g., “This game has an average percentage payout of 90%.” However, previous evidence suggests that this information could be i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Loot boxes are quasi-gambling virtual products in video games that provide randomised rewards of varying value. Previous studies in Western contexts have identified a positive correlation between loot box purchasing and problem gambling. A preregistered survey of People’s Republic of China (PRC) video game players (N=879) largely failed to replicat...
Article
Full-text available
When deciding where to invest, individuals choose mutual funds based on recent past performance, despite standard mandated disclaimers that "past performance does not guarantee future results." Investors would receive better long-term returns by choosing funds with lower fees. We explored the impact of fees and past performance on realistic mutual...
Preprint
Full-text available
Loot boxes in video games provide randomised rewards that bear structural similarities to gambling. Current loot box consumer protection measures, such as requiring probability disclosures, have been inspired by similar approaches in gambling. However, current loot box rewards are too complex for consumers to be meaningfully protected by probabilit...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims A literature exists on the structural characteristics of electronic gambling machines (EGMs), which are design innovations that can promote spending excessive time and money on these games. Fixed-odds sports betting products, where bettors place sports bets against a bookmaker, have also seen significant innovations in recent ye...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pickering and Blaszczynski (2021) purport to show that the problem gambling rate is inflated in paid online convenience and crowdsourced samples. Unfortunately there is a critical methodological flaw that undermines their findings: they combined problem gambling rates from samples that are specific by design (e.g., at-least monthly sports bettors),...
Preprint
UK online casino games are presently not subject to any limitations on stakes or speed-of-play. Two policy recommendations have been recently put forward: One proposal is to limit the maximum bet to £2, and another is to ensure that no online casino game can be played faster than its in-person equivalent. However, any policy proposal may be ineffec...
Preprint
Full-text available
When deciding where to invest, individuals choose mutual funds based on recent past performance, despite standard mandated disclaimers that "past performance does not guarantee future results." Investors would receive better long-term returns by choosing funds with lower fees. We explored the impact of fees and past performance on realistic mutual...
Preprint
Full-text available
Safer gambling messages are a common freedom-preserving method of protecting individuals from gambling-related harm. Yet, there is a striking lack of independent and rigorous evidence to attest to the effectiveness of safer gambling messages. This study presents results from three large (N ≈ 3,000), preregistered, and incentivized experimental test...
Preprint
Background and aims: A literature exists on the structural characteristics of electronic gambling machines (EGMs), which are design innovations that can promote spending excessive time and money on these games. Fixed-odds sports betting products, where bettors place sports bets against a bookmaker, have also seen significant innovations in recent y...
Book
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Please note that the abstract here consists of parts of the executive summary of the report, and that the full executive summary and report should be read to put all findings into context. The NSW Office of Responsible Gambling (ORG) commissioned this study into gambling and simulated gambling amongst young people aged 12-17 years in NSW. The stud...
Article
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A large body of literature on the favorite–longshot bias finds that sports bettors in a variety of markets appear to have irrational biases toward either longshots (which offer a small chance of winning a large amount of money) or favorites (which offer a high chance of winning a small amount of money). While early studies in horse racing led to an...
Preprint
The stock market should be a unique kind of casino, where the average person wins money over time. However, previous research shows that excessive stock market trading can contribute to financial losses --- just like in any other casino. While gambling research has documented the adverse consequences of problem gambling, there has been comparativel...
Article
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Individuals benefit from smoothing consumption over time, a fact well illustrated in the domain of pension spending. But many potential benefits from consumption smoothing are lost in practice due to an overconsumption in the present and near-future compared to the far-future, which is known as “present bias”. Present bias’s impact on pensioner wel...
Article
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Objective: Some gambling product messages are designed to inform gamblers about the long-run cost of gambling, for example, “this game has an average percentage payout of 90%.” This message is in the “return-to-player” format and is meant to convey that for every £100 bet about £90 will be paid out in prizes. Some previous research has found that r...
Article
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Gambling problems are increasingly understood as a health-related condition, with harms from excessive time and money expenditure contributing to significant population morbidity. In many countries, the prevalence of gambling problems is known with some precision. However, the true severity of gambling problems in terms of their impact on health an...
Preprint
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Firms can help consumers by structuring choices in a way that helps them make better decisions --- via nudges. However, firms may instead prefer to profit by making it harder for consumers to make good decisions --- via sludge. We explore evidence for these contrasting strategies with respect to warning label regulations in the world’s largest regu...
Preprint
Objective: Some gambling product messages are designed to inform gamblers about the long-run cost of gambling, e.g., “this game has an average percentage payout of 90%.” This message is in the “return-to-player” format and is meant to convey that for every £100 bet about £90 will be paid out in prizes. Some previous research has found that restatin...
Article
Full-text available
Information messages that communicate the average cost of play are a helpful consumer protection tool in gambling. In Australia and the United Kingdom, cost of play information is typically communicated via the ''return-to-player'' statistic, e.g., ''This game has an average percentage payout of 90%.'' Through a sample recruited through a gambling...
Preprint
The UK is rare in allowing a number of gambling forms to be used legally by children under the age of 18. Some previous research indicates that adult problem gamblers are more likely to recollect using these products as children. However, no research has as yet assessed recollected levels of use irrespective of adult gambling status, or investigate...
Article
Full-text available
The UK is rare in allowing a number of gambling forms to be used legally by children under the age of 18. Some previous research indicates that adult problem gamblers are more likely to recollect using these products as children. However, no research has as yet assessed recollected levels of use irrespective of adult gambling status, or investigate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Paid loot boxes provide randomised rewards in video games; their use is linked to disordered gambling and they are present in approximately half of UK video games. The relative novelty of loot boxes means that regulators and policymakers in various jurisdictions are still deciding how to regulate them. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is the fi...
Article
Full-text available
The UK’s Premier League and Championship are two of the most well attended soccer leagues worldwide; however, little is known regarding exposure to gambling marketing through the matchday experience. The current study sought to quantify exposure to gambling and alcohol marketing, and responsible gambling messages within matchday programmes. Program...
Article
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Background and aims: The UK allows a number of gambling products to be legally used by people under the age of 18. The aim of this study was to explore associations between recalled legal usage of five youth gambling products and adult disordered gambling. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 1,057 adult UK gamblers, aged 18-40. Rec...
Preprint
The UK is rare in allowing a number of gambling forms to be used legally by children under the age of 18. Some previous research indicates that adult disordered gamblers are more likely to recollect using these products as children. However, no research has as yet assessed recollected levels of use irrespective of adult gambling status, or investig...
Preprint
Background and aims: The UK allows a number of gambling products to be legally used by people under the age of 18. The aim of this study was to explore associations between recalled legal usage of five youth gambling products and adult disordered gambling.Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 1,057 adult UK gamblers, aged 18 – 40. Recal...
Preprint
Background: The expansion of online gambling in the UK has been accompanied by an increase in the number of novel betting products, particularly for soccer. The present research investigates which types of sports bettors are the most likely to use novel gambling products called ‘custom sports bets’ (CSBs), which allow gamblers to create their own u...
Article
Full-text available
Background:The expansion of online gambling in the UK has been accompanied by an increase inthe number of novel betting products, particularly for soccer. The present research investigates whichtypes of sports bettors are the most likely to use novel gambling products called‘custom sports bets’(CSBs), which allow gamblers to create their own unique...
Preprint
Full-text available
“Return-to-player” warning labels are used to display the long-run cost of gambling on electronic gambling machines in several jurisdictions. For example, a return-to-player of 90% means that for every $100 bet on average $90 is paid out in prizes. Some previous research suggests that gamblers perceive a lower chance of winning and have a better ob...
Article
Full-text available
All commercial gambling games are constructed so that the gamblers will on average lose money over time. This fact is often communicated to gamblers on virtual gambling games as the “return-to-player.” A return-to-player of 90% means that for every £100 bet, on average £90 is paid back out in prizes. In previous work, gamblers were better informed,...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The inclusion and design of age restriction warnings, harm reduction messages, and terms and conditions (T&Cs) in gambling advertising is self-regulated in the United Kingdom. Our study examines the visibility and nature of this information in a sample of paid-for gambling adverts. Study design Content analysis of a stratified random sam...
Preprint
The potential effects of exposing children aged under 18 to gambling is an area of concern for researchers and policy-makers around the world. The UK is rare in that it allows for a number of gambling products to be legally used by people under the age of 18. The present research is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 1,052 adult UK gamblers,...
Preprint
All commercial gambling games are constructed so that the average gambler will lose money over time. This fact is often communicated to gamblers on virtual gambling games as the “return-to-player.” A return-to-player of 90% means that for every £100 bet, on average £90 is paid back out in prizes. In previous work, gamblers were better informed, and...
Preprint
Background: The expansion of online gambling in the UK has been accompanied by an increase in the number of novel betting products, particularly for soccer. The prese