Philip Hyland

Philip Hyland
National University of Ireland, Maynooth | NUI Maynooth · Department of Psychology

Professor

About

302
Publications
216,541
Reads
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8,898
Citations
Citations since 2017
232 Research Items
8445 Citations
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Introduction
I am an Associate Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology at Maynooth University, Ireland. I am also an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. My research focuses on psychological responses to traumatic life events and disorders associated with stress.
Additional affiliations
September 2018 - present
Maynooth University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
November 2015 - August 2018
National College of Ireland
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2013 - November 2015
National College of Ireland
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
September 2010 - February 2014
Ulster University
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 2007 - May 2010
Dublin Business School
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (302)
Article
Full-text available
Aims Current information about the prevalence of various mental health disorders in the general adult population of the Republic of Ireland is lacking. In this study, we examined the prevalence of 12 common mental disorders, the proportion of adults who screened positive for any disorder, the sociodemographic factors associated with meeting criteri...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The prevalence, construct validity, risk factors and psychopathological correlates associated with ICD-11 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD) as measured by the International Trauma Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ITQ-CA) were assessed in a sample of young people from Northern Ireland. Method: Par...
Article
Full-text available
The mental health consequences of the war in Ukraine will be enormous. Mental health professionals who are providing care for people in Ukraine, or those resettled elsewhere, may require access to standardized and validated assessment tools. We have developed a repository of mental health measures that are available in Ukrainian, Russian and Englis...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 continues to pose a threat to global public health. Multiple safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 are available with one-third of the global population now vaccinated. Achieving a sufficient level of vaccine coverage to suppress COVID-19 requires, in part, sufficient acceptance among the public. However, relatively high rates of he...
Article
Whether complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnoses differ substantially enough to warrant separate diagnostic classifications has been a subject of controversy for years. To contribute to the nomological network of cumulative evidence, the main goal of the present study was to explore, using ne...
Article
Unlabelled: Exposure to prolonged and/or multiple types of psychological trauma and stressors has been shown to be more strongly associated with ICD-11 complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans- and queer adults (LGBTQ+) are at a heightened risk of exposure to traumatic e...
Article
Background: High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been documented in war-affected populations. The prevalence of Complex PTSD (CPTSD) has never been assessed in an active war zone. Here, we provide initial data on war-related experiences, and prevalence rates of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD in a large sample of adults in Ukraine during...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Loneliness is linked to negative physical and mental health outcomes. Therefore, it is important to employ reliable and valid screening measures for early detection and treatment. A widely used scale for assessing loneliness is the shortened six-item Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS-6). Aims: To review and evaluate the factor str...
Preprint
A nationwide survey of 2,004 adult Ukrainian parents who reported on their experiences of the war, how their own mental health has changed since the invasion in February 2022, and how the mental health of their children has changed. These data were collected between July and September 2022.
Preprint
Background: It is expected that the ongoing war in Ukraine will have a considerable negative impact on the mental health of the country’s population. This study aims to provide a preliminary estimate of the degree of change in the mental health problems of Ukrainian children following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, and identify the...
Chapter
Systems-thinking is a useful approach to deepen our understanding of the linkages, relationships, interactions, and behaviours that, together, comprise and shape our health systems. Offering a comprehensive range of opinion and scholarship from experts located across the world (Europe, North-America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania), spanning a wide rang...
Article
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Paranoia and conspiracy are terms typically used interchangeably. However, although the underlying content of these types of beliefs might be similar (e.g., seeing others as powerful and threatening), recent research suggests that these constructs differ in important ways. One important feature shared by both constructs is excessive mistrust but th...
Article
Objectives: Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) can result from adverse interpersonal traumatic experiences. The ICD-11 updated the concept of disorders following traumatic experiences with the new disorder of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). There is now a need to develop and test interventions for CPTSD. An essential step in identifyi...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Established in March 2020, the C19PRC Study monitors the psychological and socio-economic impact of the pandemic in the UK and other countries. This paper describes the protocol for Wave 6 (August-September 2021). Methods: The survey assessed: COVID-19 related experiences; experiences of common mental health disorders; psychological...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The new International Classification of Diseases came into effect in 2022 (ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2022) and included updated descriptions and diagnostic rules for "Depressive Episode" and "Generalized Anxiety Disorder." No self-report measures align with these disorders so this study reports the development and initial vali...
Preprint
Background: There is currently limited information on how Russia’s war on Ukraine has affected the mental health of people living in Ukraine. Understanding the mental health effects of the war, and identifying who has been worst affected, is critical to informing mental health responses. A nationwide sample of parents in Ukraine were surveyed to (1...
Preprint
Background: High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been documented in war-affected populations. The prevalence of CPTSD has never been assessed in an active war zone. Here, we provide initial data on war-related experiences, and estimated prevalence rates of ICD-11 PTSD and Complex PTSD (CPTSD) in the general adult population of Uk...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to determine the moderating effect of perceived social support on the relationships between ACEs and depression/anxiety, and CPTSD symptoms in older adults in Ireland. Moderated regression analysis was used to evaluate these relationships in a sample of 535 residents of Ireland, aged 50 or above. The results show statistica...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study examined the association between perceived manageability of debt and risk of depression, anxiety, and mental health help-seeking among a nationally representative sample of adults living in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods Data was derived from the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study Wave 6 (August/Septe...
Article
As COVID-19 vaccination for children becomes commonplace in Ireland, it is important to understand parent’s willingness to vaccinate their children and factors associated with hesitancy and resistance. Amongst a nationally representative sample of parents from Ireland, surveyed in March/April 2021, 52.1% had, or were intending to have their child v...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Understanding how pandemics differentially impact on the socio-protective and psychological outcomes of males and females is important to develop more equitable public health policies. We assessed whether males and females differed on measures of major depression and generalized anxiety during the COVID-19 the pandemic, and if so, whic...
Article
Full-text available
Background The International Trauma Questionnaire—Child and Adolescent version (ITQ-CA) is a self-report measure that assesses posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) based on the diagnostic formulation of the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This study aimed to provide a Chinese translati...
Article
Full-text available
Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have various deleterious effects on mental health but few studies have been conducted in Ireland. Objective The primary objective was to determine if there were significant differences in occurrences of ACEs in U.S. and Irish adults. We also sought to determine if there were unique associations betwe...
Article
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There is a burgeoning evidence base highlighting the positive influence of benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs), even in the context of adversity. However, few measures are available to assess BCEs. The current study sought to develop and validate a measure which assesses positive recollections of experiences and emotions at home and with family...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To assess the factorial validity and internal reliability of the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) among a treatment-seeking sample of survivors of sexual violence in Ireland. In addition, to assess the diagnostic rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) among the samples. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the way many individuals go about their daily lives. This study attempted to model the complexity of change in lifestyle quality as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and its context within the UK adult population. Methods Data from the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium Study (Wave 3, July 2020; N...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study was established in March 2020 to monitor the psychological and socio-economic impact of the pandemic in the UK and other countries. This paper describes the protocol for Wave 5 (March-April 2021). Methods: The survey assessed: COVID-19 related experiences; experiences of c...
Article
Full-text available
The 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases has endorsed substantial changes in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and has introduced Complex PTSD (cPTSD). The objective of this study was to assess the symptom and network structure of PTSD and cPTSD using the International Trauma Questionnaire- Italian version (ITQ) and the...
Article
Background In 2018, Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) was accepted into the International Classification of Diseases, edition 11 (ICD-11) to capture symptoms associated with exposure to chronic, inescapable trauma. Thereafter, the disorder's links with interpersonal trauma have been established. Objective Within a sample of homeless a...
Article
Full-text available
High risk of mental health problems is associated with loneliness resulting from social distancing measures and “lockdowns” that have been imposed globally due to the COVID‐19 pandemic. This study explores the interconnectedness of loneliness, anxiety and depression on a symptom level using network analysis. A representative sample of participants...
Article
Full-text available
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a multidimensional and hierarchical model of the latent structure of psychopathology. While HiTOP has received much support in child/adolescent community samples, fewer studies have assessed this model in clinical samples of children/adolescents. Here, we modelled the latent structure of 45 sy...
Preprint
Objectives: The COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study was established in March 2020 to monitor the psychological and socio-economic impact of the pandemic in the UK and other countries. This paper describes the protocol for Wave 6 (August-September 2021). Methods: The survey assessed: COVID-19 related experiences; experiences of...
Article
Full-text available
The mental health consequences of the war in Ukraine will be enormous. Mental health professionals who are providing care for people in Ukraine, or those resettled elsewhere, may require access to standardized and validated assessment tools. We have developed a repository of mental health measures that are available in Ukrainian, Russian, and Engli...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The ICD-11 includes a new grouping for "disorders specifically associated with stress" that contains revised descriptions of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AjD) and new diagnoses in the form of complex PTSD (CPTSD) and prolonged grief disorder (PGD). These disorders are similar in that they each require...
Article
Full-text available
Two theoretical perspectives have been proffered to explain changes in alcohol use during the pandemic: the ‘affordability-availability’ mechanism (i.e., drinking decreases due to changes in physical availability and/or reduced disposable income) and the ‘psychological-coping’ mechanism (i.e., drinking increases as adults attempt to cope with pande...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) are self-report measures of major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. The primary aim of this study was to test for differential item functioning (DIF) on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 items based on age, sex (males and females), and country....
Article
Full-text available
It is well recognised that there is an intimate relationship between sleep and depression, with poor quality or short duration sleep associated with greater symptoms of depression. However, it is not clear from the current evidence base what the temporal relationship is between symptoms of insomnia and depression. Further, it is also unclear how th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper serves to alert IJPDS readers to the availability of a major new longitudinal survey data resource, the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study, which is being released for secondary use via the Open Science Framework. The C19PRC Study is a rich and detailed dataset that provides a convenient and valuable foundation fro...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: We investigated the potential impact of a cohort traumatic exposure, the Troubles in Northern Ireland, on memory functioning in later life, and the potential moderating effect of social activity engagement. Using data from 6571 participants aged 60 + in the Northern Ireland Cohort for the Longitudinal Study of Ageing (NICOLA) cohort, w...
Article
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The beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic had a profound effect on all aspects of daily life and triggered a swell of anxiety across the world. Some suggest this emotional response to the pandemic can be explained through death anxiety (DA), a transdiagnostic dimension associated with numerous psychological disorders. However, it remains unclear as to...
Article
Full-text available
This study sought to determine the public’s attitudes towards mental health services during the COVID-19 pandemic and examine the sociodemographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes to gain an understanding of the best course of action to increase favourable attitudes. Data from the Republic of Ireland arm of the COVID-19 Psy...
Article
The ICD-11 has introduced a new conceptualization of adjustment disorder (AjD) as a stress response syndrome with core symptoms of preoccupations and failure to adapt to the stressor. The current study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the International Adjustment Disorder Questionnaire (IADQ) in two culturally distinct samples from I...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Rates of torture are especially high among those seeking asylum, with global estimates of forced migrants having experienced torture exceeding 50%. Torture is the strongest predictor of PTSD amongst refugee populations. This study assesses the construct validity and diagnostic rate of the ICD-11 PTSD and Complex PTSD (CPTSD) within a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Numerous studies found robust associations between psychosis and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few have examined the relationships between psychosis and recently formulated ICD-11 Complex PTSD (CPTSD). Further, no known study has examined the effects of different traumatic life events on CPTSD and psychotic-like symptoms in a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Existing research on post-traumatic sequelae suggests a positive association between fatalism and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the associations between fatalism and the new ICD-11 diagnosis of complex PTSD (CPTSD) have never been explored before. Objective: The current study explored the association bet...
Article
Full-text available
Background Different types of childhood adversity often cluster and overlap, underlining the importance of studying likely patterns of adversity co-occurrences and their impact on child functioning. Further sex-specific investigations of adversity co-occurrences and their associations with child mental health are warranted. Objective To investigat...
Article
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Objectives: This paper outlines fieldwork procedures for Wave 4 of the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study in the UK during November-December 2020. Methods: Respondents provided data on socio-political attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours, and mental health disorders (anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress). In Phase 1...
Article
The validity of ICD-11 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD), as measured by the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ; Cloitre et al., 2018) has been supported in many factor analytic and mixture modelling studies. There is, however, a paucity of research investigating the latent structure of the ITQ using factor mixture...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is traditionally understood as a disorder that occurs more commonly in women than in men, and in younger age groups than in older age groups. The objective of this study was to determine if these patterns are also observed in relation to ICD-11 PTSD and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). Methods. Secondary data...
Preprint
This paper serves to alert IJPDS readers to the availability of a major new longitudinal survey data resource, the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study, which is being released for secondary use via the Open Science Framework. The C19PRC Study is a rich and detailed dataset that provides a convenient and valuable foundation fro...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about unprecedented global changes in individual and collective behaviour. To reduce the spread of the virus, public health bodies have promoted social distancing measures while attempting to mitigate their mental health consequences. The current study aimed to identify cognitive predictors of social distancing adh...
Preprint
Objective: Emerging evidence indicates that the mental health consequences of COVID-19 may not be as deleterious as initially feared. We analyzed the levels of symptom expression and rates of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and COVID-19 related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (C19-PTSD) in the adult population of...
Preprint
Objective: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) are self-report measures of major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. The primary aim of this study was to test for differential item functioning (DIF) on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 items based on age, sex (males and females), and country.M...
Preprint
Shevlin et al. (2021) recently demonstrated heterogeneity in mental health and psychological responses to the COVID-19 pandemic over time from a nationally representative sample of UK adults (March–July 2020). Five subpopulations representing either stability, deterioration or improvement in both anxiety-depression and COVID-19 PTSD were identified...
Article
Full-text available
Background : Longitudinal data indicates that the mental health of the general population may not have been as badly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic as some had feared. Most studies examining change in mental health during the pandemic have assumed population homogeneity which may conceal evidence of worsening mental health for some. In this stud...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) study was established to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the population of multiple countries. Here, we provide a methodological overview, cohort profile, data access, and summary of key findings from the Republic of Ireland arm of the C19PRC study. A longitudinal internet pan...
Preprint
Objectives: This paper describes fieldwork procedures for the fifth wave of the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study, conducted during March-April 2021. The C19PRC Study was established in March 2020 to monitor the psychological and socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK and other countries. Methods: The surve...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The new International Classification of Diseases was published in 2018 (ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2018) and now includes 'Mixed depressive and anxiety disorder' (6A73: MDAD) designated as a mood disorder. This disorder is defined by symptoms of both anxiety and depression occurring more days than not, for a period of two weeks...
Article
Background While research demonstrates that somatisation is highly correlated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the relationship between International Classification of Diseases 11th edition (ICD-11) PTSD, complex PTSD (CPTSD) and somatisation has not previously been determined. Objective To determine the relationship between frequency a...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Research examining the relationship between loneliness and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) is scarce, particularly among older adults. CPTSD includes the core symptoms of PTSD along with additional symptoms reflecting "disturbances in self-organisation" (DSO). This study examined the cross-sectional relationships between...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) is a validated measure that assesses ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD). An important task is to determine whether the ITQ is an appropriate evaluative measure for clinical trials. Objective: To assess the psychometric properties of the ITQ in the context of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dissociation is commonly reported by individuals who meet criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). However, the association between the age of trauma exposure, dissociation, and CPTSD is not well understood. This study aimed to test whether dissociation mediated the relationshi...
Article
Full-text available
Conspiracy theories about COVID-19 have proliferated during the global pandemic, and their rapid spread among certain groups in the population has important implications for policy attitudes (e.g., motivation to engage in social distancing and willingness to vaccinate). Using survey data from two waves of a nationally representative, longitudinal s...
Article
Full-text available
Background : In this study, we compared the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic across nationally representative samples of Irish adults. Methods : Participants were sampled in February 2019 (N = 1,020), April 2020 (N = 1,041), May 2020 (N =...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Little is known about the lifetime prevalence of different indicators of suicidality in the Irish general population; whether suicidality has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic; and what factors associated with belonging to different points on a continuum of suicidality risk. Methods A nationally representative sample of Irish adu...
Preprint
Two theoretical perspectives have been proffered to explain changes in alcohol use during the pandemic: the ‘affordability-availability’ mechanism (i.e., drinking decreases due to changes in physical availability and/or reduced disposable income) and the ‘psychological-coping’ mechanism (i.e., drinking increases as adults attempt to cope with pande...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the adult population in multiple countries. This paper describes the third wave of the UK survey (the 'parent' strand of the Consortium) during July-August 2020. Methods: Adults (N = 2025) who participated in the baseli...