Philip Hulme

Philip Hulme
Lincoln University New Zealand · Bio-Protection Research Centre

Doctor of Philosophy

About

349
Publications
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33,915
Citations

Publications

Publications (349)
Article
Full-text available
The enemy release hypothesis states that introduced plants have a competitive advantage due to their release from co-evolved natural enemies (i.e., herbivores and pathogens), which allows them to spread rapidly in new environments. This hypothesis has received mixed support to date, but previous studies have rarely examined the herbivore community,...
Article
Pines (genus Pinus) are cultivated extensively for forestry purposes, particularly in regions that are outside the genus’ native range. The most common forestry species are also typically those most likely to escape cultivation and spread rapidly, and thus pines constitute a substantial weed problem in many regions. However, there is limited knowle...
Article
Nature-based management aims to improve sustainable agroecosystem production, but its efficacy has been variable. We argue that nature-based agroecosystem management could be significantly improved by explicitly considering and manipulating the underlying networks of species interactions. A network perspective can link species interactions to ecosy...
Article
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To prevent and effectively manage the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of invasive non-native species it is essential that the underpinning scientific knowledge is widely disseminated and understood by scientists, the public, and other stakeholders. A key need for the public understanding of science is that technical information is easy to r...
Article
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Background: The number of herbicide resistant weeds differs across the globe but the reasons for this variation are poorly understood. Taking a macroecological approach, the role of six drivers of herbicide resistance in a country was examined for barley, maize, rice and wheat crops worldwide. Drivers captured agronomic measures (crop harvested ar...
Article
The competition–colonisation trade‐off is recognised as a key mechanism for diversity maintenance, whereby weak competitors can avoid competition with stronger competitors due to their greater dispersal ability. To date, most theoretical and empirical work has focused on trade‐offs among different species yet a within‐species perspective is crucial...
Article
Quantifying the spatial extent, location, and habitat associations of invasive tree species is critical to predict their future spread and prioritise areas for management. Species‐environment relationship analyses are useful tools for understanding and predicting the potential geographic distribution of these species, however such tools require rig...
Article
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BACKGROUND The number of weed species resistant to multiple herbicide modes of action has increased over the last 30 years and may in the future render existing herbicide modes of action obsolete for many cropping systems. Yet few predictive tools exist to manage this risk. Using a worldwide dataset of weed species resistant to multiple herbicide m...
Article
Pathogen damage is responsible for a considerable reduction in profit to the New Zealand forest industry. An assessment of pathogen prevalence, propagation and production methods, and phytosanitary/biosecurity protocols at the forest nursery level was conducted in order to identify predictor variables for pathogen acquisition and potential spread....
Article
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Context dependence is widely invoked to explain disparate results in ecology. It arises when the magnitude or sign of a relationship varies due to the conditions under which it is observed. Such variation, especially when unexplained, can lead to spurious or seemingly contradictory conclusions, which can limit understanding and our ability to trans...
Article
BACKGROUND Herbicide resistant weeds pose one of the most significant global challenges to sustainable food and fibre production. Plant traits are assumed to play a significant role in determining whether a weed is likely to evolve herbicide resistance but there have been few quantitative assessments to date. There is therefore an urgent need to in...
Article
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Scenario analysis has emerged as a key tool to analyze complex and uncertain future socio-ecological developments. However, currently existing global scenarios (narratives of how the world may develop) have neglected biological invasions, a major threat to biodiversity and the economy. Here, we use a novel participatory process to develop a diverse...
Article
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Imports of seeds for sowing are a major pathway for the introduction of contaminant seeds, and many agricultural weeds globally naturalised originally have entered through this pathway. Effective management of this pathway is a significant means of reducing future plant introductions and helps minimise agricultural losses. Using a national border i...
Article
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Phenotypic plasticity is an essential mechanism by which plants respond to changes in their environment, but our understanding of the evolution of plasticity is still limited. Comparing plasticity of introduced alien species across native and introduced provenances can indicate potential evolution of adaptive plasticity. We examined reaction norms...
Article
Invasive non‐native species are important drivers of ecosystem change yet the driving forces of biological invasions themselves are poorly understood. There is limited information regarding which direct and indirect drivers of ecosystem change have received most attention and the extent of any geographic biases in research effort. Such information...
Article
Seed size and seed number are key functional traits that can affect invasion success and evolve in the introduced range. With finite resources, seed size and number are expected to trade off. If trade‐offs are relaxed in the introduced range, this could promote invasion. Few studies have compared life‐history trade‐offs between ranges, so these dyn...
Article
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Determining population growth across large scales is difficult because it is often impractical to collect data at large scales and over long timespans. Instead, the growth of a population is often only measured at a small, plot-level scale and then extrapolated to derive a mean field estimate. However, this approach is prone to error since it simpl...
Preprint
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Climatic niche shifts occur when species occupy different climates in the introduced range than in their native range. We know that climatic niche shifts are common occurrences, however we do not currently understand whether climatic niche shifts can consistently be predicted across the globe. Using three congeneric weed species, we investigate whe...
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Aim The number of alien species has been increasing for centuries world-wide, but temporal changes in the dynamics of their inter-regional spread remain unclear. Here, we analyse changes in the rate and extent of inter-regional spread of alien species over time and how these dynamics vary among major taxonomic groups. Location Global. Time period...
Preprint
Full-text available
Imports of seeds for sowing are a major pathway for the introduction of contaminant seeds, and many agricultural weeds globally naturalised originally have entered through this pathway. Effective management of this pathway is a significant means of reducing future plant introductions and helps minimise agricultural losses. Using a national border i...
Article
Pine (genus Pinus) species are planted extensively for forestry purposes in areas where they are non‐native, with the result that biological invasions by many of these species are of considerable concern in many regions. Owing to the economic importance of the species, management approaches must focus on reducing the risk that species will spread f...
Article
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Invasion biology examines species originated elsewhere and moved with the help of humans, and those species’ impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being. In a globalized world, the emergence and spread of many human infectious pathogens are quintessential biological invasion events. Some macroscopic invasive species themselves...
Article
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Aim: Plant invasions pose a serious risk to biodiversity, and living collections in bo- tanic gardens are recognized as a potentially important source of alien plant introduc- tions. However, it is not yet known how the risks from botanic gardens compare with other socioeconomic and environmental factors in influencing the regional distribu- tion o...
Article
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Biological invasions are synonymous with international trade. The direct effects of trade have largely been quantified using relationships between imports and the number of alien species in a region or patterns in the global spread of species linked to shipping and air traffic networks. But trade also has an indirect role on biological invasions by...
Article
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Designing and implementing long-term management strategies for chronic biological invasions is amongst the most vexing ecological research problems. Two key challenges to resolving this problem are: (a) integrating science-based and values-based (e.g. spiritual, cultural, economic and ethical) knowledge sources and (b) developing durable knowledge...
Article
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The New Zealand flora has a high proportion of endemic species but has been invaded by almost the same number of non-native plant species. To support management of invasive plant species, we provide an updated inventory of New Zealand’s naturalised flora and compare it with the native flora to identify key taxonomic and functional distinctions. We...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scenario analysis has emerged as a key tool to analyze complex and uncertain future socio-ecological developments. However, current global scenarios (narratives of how the world may develop) have neglected biological invasions, a major threat to biodiversity and the economy. We used a novel participatory process to develop a diverse set of global b...
Article
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Unprecedented rates of introduction and spread of non-native species pose burgeoning challenges to biodiversity, natural resource management, regional economies, and human health. Current biosecurity efforts are failing to keep pace with globalization, revealing critical gaps in our understanding and response to invasions. Here, we identify four pr...
Article
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Many invasion theories invoke resource competition as the primary mechanism of invader advantage. These include Darwin's naturalization hypothesis (DNH), which treats phylogenetic similarity as a proxy for niche overlap and competitive intensity, and the evolutionary imbalance hypothesis (EIH), which suggests the phylogenetic diversity (PD) of an i...
Article
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In the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the world has woken up to the importance of biosecurity and the need to manage international borders. Yet strong sectorial identities exist within biosecurity that are associated with specific international standards, individual economic interests, specific research communities, and unique stakeholder involve...
Article
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Macroecology is the study of patterns, and the processes that determine those patterns, in the distribution and abundance of organisms at large scales, whether they be spatial (from hundreds of kilometres to global), temporal (from decades to centuries), and organismal (numbers of species or higher taxa). In the context of invasion ecology, macroec...
Article
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Alien species are introduced to new regions in many different ways and for different purposes. A number of frameworks have been developed to group such pathways of introduction into discrete categories in order to improve our understanding of biological invasions, provide information for interventions that aim to prevent introductions, enable repor...
Article
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Emerging microparasite (e.g. viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi) epidemics and the introduction of non-native pests and weeds are major biosecurity threats worldwide. The likelihood of these threats is often estimated from probabilities of their entry, establishment, spread and ease of prevention. If ecosystems are considered equivalent to hosts...
Article
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Sustainably managed non-native trees deliver economic and societal benefits with limited risk of spread to adjoining areas. However, some plantations have launched invasions that cause substantial damage to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while others pose substantial threats of causing such impacts. The challenge is to maximise the benefits o...
Article
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Sustainably managed non-native trees deliver economic and societal benefits with limited risk of spread to adjoining areas. However, some plantations have launched invasions that cause substantial damage to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while others pose substantial threats of causing such impacts. The challenge is to maximise the benefits o...
Article
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Understanding the likely future impacts of biological invasions is crucial yet highly challenging given the multiple relevant environmental, socio‐economic and societal contexts and drivers. In the absence of quantitative models, methods based on expert knowledge are the best option for assessing future invasion trajectories. Here, we present an ex...
Article
Much of the variation in dispersal potential among seeds of different plant species has been related to a putative trade‐off between dispersal potential and seed mass. Yet to date there are few taxonomically controlled comparisons that explore the generality of this relationship across and within multiple species. We measured the seed mass and disp...
Article
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Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size. The numbers of invasive alien species – the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods – are increasing. Synergies with other global changes are ex...
Article
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The number of non-native plant species established outside of cultivation in the New Zealand archipelago is higher than for any other islands worldwide. Faced with this scale of plant invasions, there has been considerable investment in the scientific and operational aspects of prevention, eradication and control. As a result, New Zealand is ideall...
Article
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The article Plant invasions in New Zealand: global lessons in prevention, eradication and control, written by Philip E. Hulme, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s Internet portal on 25 February 2020 without open access. With the author(s)’ decision to opt for Open Choice, the copyright of the article changed on 23 March 2020...
Article
According to the most recent (2005) compendium on the history of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in New Zealand, this small insectivorous mammal was first brought from Europe to the South Island in the 19th century. This introduction has been presumed to be the source of hedgehogs that subsequently spread to the North Island. This view...
Article
Agricultural stakeholders need a common set of metrics to evaluate plant pest impacts to facilitate transparency and harmonisation of pest management and prioritisation across spatial scales and jurisdictions. We propose a classification system that articulates, defines and classifies the magnitude of impacts (historical, current or potential) of p...
Article
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Biological invasions are a major driver of ecosystem change but causes of variation in their environmental impacts over space and time remain poorly understood. Most approaches used to quantify the impacts of non‐native species assume there are interactions among per capita (i.e., individual level) effects, species abundance and the area occupied b...
Article
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Background and aims: Since its emergence in the mid-20th century, invasion biol- ogy has matured into a productive research field addressing questions of fundamen- tal and applied importance. Not only has the number of empirical studies increased through time, but also has the number of competing, overlapping and, in some cases, contradictory hypot...
Article
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In pines, the release of seeds from serotinous cones is primarily considered a response to the high temperatures of a fire. However, the naturalization of serotinous pines in regions where fires are rare highlights the need to quantify environmental conditions that determine seed release to allow accurate prediction of dispersal and spread risk. We...
Article
For many species, human-induced environmental changes are important indirect drivers of range expansion into new regions. We argue that it is important to distinguish the range dynamics of such species from those that occur without, or with less clear, involvement of human-induced environmental changes. We elucidate the salient features of the rapi...
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Alien plant pathogens are a threat to native plants and are increasingly integrating into native plant‐pathogen networks, but how these novel plant‐pathogen networks are structured remains unclear. Theory predicts that novel antagonists are likely to be generalists, resulting in interaction networks with greater nestedness as well as lower modulari...
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The goal to make New Zealand predator-free by 2050 has drawn strong praise and criticism, but these critiques have focused largely on economic or technological feasibility of long-term large-scale eradication. We suggest that achieving this goal is not a simple ‘scaling-up’ of current eradication efforts, but requires enduring co-ordination and int...
Article
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To understand the demographic consequences of seed predation, it is essential to scale-up losses over space and time. We tested how individual tree characteristics, forest attributes, and the local environment affected rates of both pre- and post-dispersal seed predation in Scots pine Pinus sylvestris, in Scotland’s ancient native pinewoods. The sa...
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Determining whether an alien species is at environmental equilibrium is fundamental to understanding the risk of its continued range expansion, but this is rarely quantitatively assessed. We used experimental transplants within and beyond the current elevation range (~ 0–300 m a.s.l.) of two naturalized succulent plant species, Aeonium arboreum and...
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The native UK bluebell Hyacinthoides non-scripta is considered to be at risk from hybridization with naturalised non-native bluebells. The non-natives, likely to be hybrid themselves (H. x massartiana) between H. non-scripta and H. hispanica, occur in relatively small numbers throughout the UK range of natives. Full interfertility between taxa has...
Article
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Effective detection and monitoring tools are essential to manage the major ecological and economic problems posed by alien conifer invasions. Low-cost aerial imagery has been promoted as a promising tool for the detection of alien trees over large landscapes, but as yet there have been few attempts to assess its reliability for monitoring invasions...
Article
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The degree to which plant communities are vulnerable to invasion by alien species has often been assessed using the relationship between native and alien plant species richness (NAR). Variation in the direction and strength of the NAR tends to be negative for small plot sizes and study extents, but positive for large plots and extents. This invasio...
Article
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Aim Mutualisms are often disrupted for plants introduced to new ranges, yet many of these plants have managed to obtain effective mutualistic associations in their new ranges. There are two potential pathways for non‐native plants to reassemble mutualisms: cointroduction (i.e. familiar associations with cointroduced mutualists) or ecological fittin...
Article
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Global environmental change and humanity's growing demands for resources have generated concerns regarding how much pressure Earth systems can absorb without drastic, potentially irreversible consequences. In natural resource production systems, tipping points can generate immediate threats to human well-being. However, empirically exploiting conce...
Article
Seed or samara terminal velocity is a key trait affecting the dispersal potential of wind‐dispersed plants. However, this trait is often represented in dispersal models by a single mean value per species. This is despite considerable variation in dispersal traits within species and individuals that may have implications for both phenotypic selectio...
Article
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Socio-economic factors often determine the extent to which different global regions have been invaded by non-native plant species, yet few studies examine whether such variables are similarly important for native species richness. In contrast to previous studies that have assembled regional floras for comparison, we examine global patterns of non-n...
Preprint
Global environmental change and humanity's growing demands for resources have generated concerns regarding how much pressure Earth systems can absorb without drastic, potentially irreversible consequences. In natural resource production systems, tipping points can generate immediate threats to human well-being. However, empirically exploiting conce...
Article
Full-text available
The European Union (EU) has recently published its first list of invasive alien species (IAS) of EU concern to which current legislation must apply. The list comprises species known to pose great threats to biodiversity and needs to be maintained and updated. Horizon scanning is seen as critical to identify the most threatening potential IAS that d...
Article
1.The impacts of alien plants on native richness are usually assessed at small spatial scales and in locations where the alien is at high abundance. But this raises two questions: to what extent do impacts occur where alien species are at low abundance, and do local impacts translate to effects at the landscape scale? 2.In an analysis of 47 widespr...