Philip A Fine

Philip A Fine
The University of Buckingham | UB · Department of Psychology

DPhil (Experimental Psychology)

About

26
Publications
16,655
Reads
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291
Citations
Introduction
Applied cognitive psychologist. Module leader: Cognition; Perception; Cog Neuro. Co-founder/director of CREATE research hub at UniOfBuckingham with Dr Kathryn Friedlander. Research interests: problem-solving, creativity and expertise - cryptic crosswords, sudokus, puzzles; music psychology - sung text intelligibility, mental rehearsal, sight-reading; time perception - estimating duration, IDs in time-related behaviours I am a member of the BPS (and Cognitive Psy Section), SEMPRE and ESCOM.
Additional affiliations
September 1996 - present
The University of Buckingham
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Psychology

Publications

Publications (26)
Article
Full-text available
Social distancing policies have been implemented around the world to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These measures have included temporary restrictions on mass gatherings and the closure of public facilities, limiting the pursuit of leisure activities such as travel while allowing more time for at-home pursuits, including...
Article
Full-text available
British-style cryptic crossword solving is an under-researched domain of expertise, relatively unburdened by confounds found in other expertise research areas, such as early starting age, practice regimes, and high extrinsic rewards. Solving cryptic crosswords is an exercise in code-cracking detection work, requiring the segregation and interpretat...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity can be observed across multiple domains of human behavior including problem solving, artistic and athletic engagement, scientific reasoning, decision making, business and marketing, leadership styles, and social interactions. It has a long history of research in many disciplines, and involves a variety of conceptual and methodological ap...
Article
Full-text available
A new protocol for eliciting insight (“Aha!”/Eureka) moments is proposed, involving the solving of British-style cryptic crosswords. The mechanics of cryptic crossword clues are briefly explained, and the process is set into the insight literature, with parallels being drawn between several different types of cryptic crossword clues and other insig...
Chapter
Given the ever-increasing concern about cyberaggression and cyberbullying, the Information- Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model was used to develop an exploratory intervention to increase adolescents' online risk perception and enhance online safety. The intervention workshops were piloted with 177 females in grades 8-10 (13-16 years) in South...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: Qualitative, semi-structured interviews. Objectives: Neuropathic pain (NP) can be psychologically and physically debilitating, and is present in approximately half of the spinal cord injured (SCI) population. However, under half of those with NP are adherent to pain medication. Understanding the impact of NP during rehabilitation i...
Article
Objectives: Metaphorical expressions of persistent pain play an influential role in the modulation of pain. This may be particularly distressing for those with physical disabilities such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Neuropathic pain (NP) after SCI is often described using metaphorical expressions such as burning and electricity. This study explore...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a relatively unexplored area of expertise research which focuses on the solving of British-style cryptic crossword puzzles. Unlike its American “straight-definition” counterparts, which are primarily semantically-cued retrieval tasks, the British cryptic crossword is an exercise in code-cracking detection work. Solvers learn to...
Article
Full-text available
Musicians commonly speak of mental practice and score analysis in referring to strategies widely used by performers. However, these terms may not be universally understood in the same way. To address this, 89 experienced musicians were surveyed as to their views and experiences concerning mental practice and score analysis, using a mixture of close...
Article
Purpose: This article presents an in-depth, idiographic study examining the lived experience of chronic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI). Neuropathic pain (NP) occurs in a large majority of the SCI population and is particularly intractable to treatment. It can be both psychologically and physically debilitating. This study examines how the...
Article
Full-text available
Singing is universal, and understanding sung words is thought to be important for many listeners’ enjoyment of vocal and choral music. However, this is not a trivial task, and sung text intelligibility is probably affected by many factors. A survey of musicians was undertaken to identify the factors believed to have most impact on intelligibility,...
Article
Full-text available
Many factors affect people’s time estimation abilities, such as estimating how long a particular task took to complete. Most time estimation research to date has investigated individuals, but many tasks for which timing could be relevant are performed by groups. This study investigated how individuals’ prospective time estimates differ from those o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The intelligibility of sung text is an important component of listeners’ enjoyment of vocal music, and a central concern for singers and, for example, choral conductors. Expert listeners such as singers and singing teachers may be better than non-singers at perceiving sung text. We replicated and extended an earlier study investigating the intellig...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the link between practice and level of expertise in cryptic crossword solvers. A survey was conducted of 241 expert solvers, which established that, even among crossword experts, the range and frequency of cryptics solved and the time spent upon this varied greatly. The link between practice and level of expertise was theref...
Article
Full-text available
One important aspect of much musical performance is the ability to keep a beat or tactus going generally at a fairly steady rate, expressive variations in tempo aside. In larger groups a conductor will often act as an external time- keeper by dictating a self-paced beat, trying to make it as steady and constant as possible. It is the responsibility...
Article
Full-text available
Background in psychology. Language is one of the primary human modes of communication, and cognitive psychology has investigated how we segment and understand the almost continuous flow of speech (e.g. Butterfield & Cutler, 1988). It is assumed that we use many of the same cognitive mechanisms when we listen to sung text but the fact that it is sun...
Article
Singers differ from other instrumental performers in that they generally combine words with music, as song. Diction is an important aspect of vocal pedagogy, since the singer's foremost responsibility is perhaps to communicate the text and its meaning to the listener, whatever the language being sung. This study investigated the factors that are pe...
Article
This study investigated the role of concurrent musical parts in pitching ability in sight-singing, concentrating on the effects of melodic and harmonic coherence. Twenty-two experienced singers sang their part twice in each of four novel chorales. The chorales contained either original or altered melody and original (tonal) or altered (atonal) harm...
Article
Full-text available
Fifty-one tonal and atonal classical melodies were evaluated by 29 students on 10 bipolar adjective scales that focused on emotional evaluation along four factors: valence, aesthetic judgment, activity, and potency. Significant predictors for each factor were obtained through ridge regression analyses. Predictors were quantified characteristics of...
Article
Full-text available
Soderquist (Psychonomic Science, 1970, 21,117–119) found that musicians were better than nonmusicians at separating out ("hearing out") partials from complex tones and proposed that this might be explained by the musicians having sharper auditory filters. In Experiment 1, the auditory filters of two groups, musicians and nonmusicians, were measured...
Article
Full-text available
An important aspect of perceiving sung music is understanding the words. Previous research has suggested several factors affecting the in- telligibility of sung text. This study investigates two of those factors: the number of singers and the singing expertise of the listener. We expected more singers to cause greater variability in the acoustic si...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research into sight-singing suggests that hearing the accompaniment can improve pitching accuracy (Fine, Berry & Rosner, in preparation). This study additionally investigated the effect of seeing the accompaniment. Using an objective measure of accuracy and a within-subjects design, 48 singers were tested, but no significant effect of the...
Article
BLDSC reference no.: D201448. Thesis (D. Phil.)--University of Oxford, 1998. Includes bibliographical references.

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I am creating a psychometric instrument. I have asked several hundred respondents to rate 49 items (which colleagues and I came up with) on a 5-point LIkert scale. My aim was to reduce these to a small number of factors, similar to personality traits on personality questionnaires.
I carried out the analysis using SPSS and obtained 5 factors after orthogonal varimax rotation on which 25 items loaded (and I discarded the other 24 items). I used Laerd Statistics (statistics.laerd.com) which give instructions for PCA (principal components analysis), so I assumed I was doing this.
However, according to other sources (e.g. Haas-Vaughn, 2017, http://www2.sas.com/proceedings/sugi30/203-30.pdf and https://www.theanalysisfactor.com/the-fundamental-difference-between-principal-component-analysis-and-factor-analysis/) I may have done EFA (exploratory factor analysis).
Haas-Vaughn (p. 364) states 'If your goal is to estimate underlying factors and attach some meaning to those factors (as a form of construct validity, for example), then EFA is required.' I thought this was my goal.
So have I done EFA or PCA? Thanks.
Philip

Network

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
The aim of this Research Topic is to advance our understanding of cognitive creativity, creative problem-solving, and creative art and artistic performance by showcasing novel and/or interdisciplinary methodological approaches for studying these areas. http://journal.frontiersin.org/researchtopic/6290/novel-approaches-for-studying-creativity-in-problem-solving-and-artistic-performance
Project
The study examined cyberaggression, cyberbullying, other online risks (content, contact and conduct risks) and parental mediation strategies reported by adolescents in the United Kingdom and South Africa. The study focused on comparing (i) adolescent reports of their behaviours and experiences with parents' perceptions of their child's online behaviours and experiences, (ii) adolescents and parents in a developed and developing country and (iii) gender and age differences of adolescents. The three-phase study included focus group findings from adolescents, parents and teachers in the two countries, a cross-sectional survey with adolescents and parents, as well as a longitudinal 1-year follow-up with a subset of the adolescent participants.