Philip Cardiff

Philip Cardiff
University College Dublin | UCD · School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

B. E. (Mech) Ph.D.

About

146
Publications
132,698
Reads
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908
Citations
Introduction
I am interested in the finite volume, finite element and related numerical methods, with a particular interest in the finite volume method for solid mechanics and fluid-solid interaction. In parallel, I am also interested in novel methods for combining machine learning with traditional computational methods, as well as other nascent technologies.
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - present
University College Dublin
Position
  • Lecturer
January 2015 - August 2015
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • PostDoc Position
March 2012 - February 2015
University College Dublin
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
November 2008 - November 2012
University College Dublin
Field of study
  • Mechanical engineering

Publications

Publications (146)
Preprint
Full-text available
The modelling of wave-structure interaction (WSI) has significant applications in understanding natural processes as well as securing the safety and efficiency of marine engineering. Based on the technique of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the open-source simulation framework - OpenFOAM, this paper provides a state-of-the-art review of WSI...
Presentation
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This presentation details how to use a machine learning model as an initialiser for the iterative solver in OpenFOAM. The results for three test cases in linear elasticity demonstrate the speedup and effectiveness of such an approach.
Presentation
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This presentation outlines the development and verification of an implicit vertex-centred finite volume method in OpenFOAM. Nonlinearities are resolved using a Newton-Raphson loop with line search and the linear system is solved in parallel using PETSc.
Presentation
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Introductory training for solids4foam demonstrating the wobblyNewton and flexibleDamBreak cases.
Presentation
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Overview of the solids4foam toolbox with examples and comments on future directions for solids4foam-v2.0.
Preprint
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Numerical simulations have been extensively used in the past two decades for the study of intracranial aneurysms (IAs), a dangerous disease that occurs in the arteries that reach the brain. They may affect up to 10 % of the world's population, with up to 50 % mortality rate, in case of rupture. Physically, the blood flow inside IAs should be modele...
Article
Full-text available
High energy density advanced manufacturing processes, such as power beam welding and additive manufacturing, are notoriously difficult to simulate. Such processes initiate fusion, and vapourisation, state transitions in their respective (normally metallic) substrates generating complex metallic flows over incredibly short time scales. To mathematic...
Article
This paper presents a novel total Lagrangian cell‐centred finite volume formulation of geometrically exact beams with arbitrary initial curvatures undergoing large displacements and finite rotations. The choice of rotation parametrisation, the mathematical formulation of the beam kinematics, conjugate strain measures and the linearisation of the st...
Preprint
Full-text available
As the overlap between traditional computational mechanics and machine learning grows, there is an increasing demand for straight-forward approaches to interface Python-based procedures with C++-based OpenFOAM. This article introduces one such general methodology, allowing the execution of Python code directly within an OpenFOAM solver without the...
Conference Paper
The powder bed fusion (PBF) process, an additive manufacturing technique, uses a laser/electron beam to selectively melt and fuse metal powder in a layer-wise manner to fabricate products. The complexities that arise during fabrication can be modeled using numerical methods, aiding experiments to provide a better understanding of the process. Here...
Presentation
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PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
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PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
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PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
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PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
Presentation
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PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
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PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
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PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
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PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
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Full-text available
PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
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Full-text available
PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
Presentation
Full-text available
PhD Interdoctoral Course at Politecnico di Milano COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS WITH OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE 2-4 February 2022 / 15-17 February 2022
Article
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Despite its wide acceptance in various industries, CFD is considered a secondary option to wind tunnel tests in bridge engineering due to a lack of confidence. To increase confidence and to advance the quality of simulations in bridge aerodynamic studies, this study performed three-dimensional RANS simulations and DESs to assess the bridge deck aer...
Article
Full-text available
Toe caps are one of the most important components in safety footwear, but have a significant contribution to the weight of the shoe. Efforts have been made to replace steel toe caps by polymeric ones, since they are lighter, insulated and insensitive to magnetic fields. Nevertheless, polymeric solutions require larger volumes, which has a negative...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article examines the effect of braid angle on the mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy braided tubes in tension and compression. Vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding is used to produce a variety of tubes with several combinations of 15◦ and 20◦ braid angles. As uniaxial tensile testing of cylindrical tubes is not trivial, two tensile test...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although intracranial aneurysms (IAs) have been extensively investigated in the last three decades by using numerical techniques, the bulk of these works have been focused on using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate the blood flow, since substantial evidence shows that hemodynamics plays a crucial role in this pathology. However, most w...
Presentation
Full-text available
Finite element and related methods have seen significant success in the analysis of complex metal forming problems, however, when large elasto-plastic strains are present the ability of the constitutive model to accurately describe the material behaviour can be a limiting factor. There is no universal expression that describes the observed stress-s...
Presentation
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This presentation describes two different machine learning models for the solution of problems in linear elasticity: Physics-Informed Neural Network (PINN) and Finite Volume (FV) informed model. While both approaches define loss in terms of the residual of the governing equations, they are different in application. The PINN aims to solve a single c...
Presentation
Full-text available
The implementation of two damage models and the phase field fracture model in OpenFOAM
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents a novel total Lagrangian cell-centred finite volume formulation of geometrically exact beams with arbitrary initial curvature undergoing large displacements and finite rotations. The choice of rotation parametrisation, the mathematical formulation of the beam kinematics, conjugate strain measures and the linearisation of the str...
Article
This paper presents a new contact boundary condition for finite volume simulations of frictional contact problems involving geometrical and material non-linearities. Deformation of bodies in contact is described by the updated Lagrangian form of the momentum equation which is discretised in space using the cell-centred finite volume method. The pro...
Poster
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This work presents a novel supervised regression machine learning model which has been trained to predict the converged (final iteration) interface deflection values from the initial iteration values. This model has been implemented into solids4foam, an open-source toolbox for solid mechanics and fluid-solid interactions in OpenFOAM built by Cardif...
Presentation
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Describes the implementation of damage mechanics and fracture models in OpenFOAM
Presentation
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A FV-Informed Machine Learning technique is presented. This ML model can learn numerical solution procedures in linear elastic solvers without requiring prior solutions (ground-truth data). As a result, it can be used as either surrogate or initialiser for the conventional solvers. OpenFOAM libraries are used to generate organized data, required fo...
Poster
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In this work, extension of finite volume solver for geometrically exact Simo-Reissner beam to model polygonal cross sectional wire geometries is presented
Poster
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This work presents the penalty based implicit coupling between the deformable body and rigid analytical surface. With implicit coupling, it is expected that calculated contact force can be prescribed at contact boundary without under-relaxation which means that optimal convergence rate can be achieved for any user-defined penalty factor. The presen...
Presentation
Full-text available
The motion of (nearly) incompressible solids is normally hard to solve numerically due to volumetric locking. In this preliminary work, we explore the suitability of a "mixed finite volume" formulation, originally used to solve small-strain motion of incompressible linear elastic solids, to solve large-strain motion of incompressible hyperelastic m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The motion of (nearly) incompressible solids is normally hard to solve numerically due to volumetric locking. In this preliminary work, we explore the suitability of a "mixed finite volume" formulation, originally used to solve small-strain motion of incompressible linear elastic solids, to solve large-strain motion of incompressible hyperelastic m...
Poster
Full-text available
This project aims to develop machine learning (ML) based elastoplastic stress -strain relations (constitutive laws) for finite volume OpenFOAM solid mechanics solvers. Initially, the project focuses on capturing the theoretical behaviour of the 1D isotropic hardening deformation of a typical steel by ML methods.
Presentation
Full-text available
Different approaches for simulating powder AM processes, and the benefits of each
Conference Paper
A phase field (PF) model is developed to simulate the growth and morphology of a representative number of solidifying grains, predicting microsegregation and local impingement dynamics. The effects of various processing-related parameters, including local temperature gradient and cooling rate, on cell/dendrite morphology and growth velocity are pre...
Chapter
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This document aims to disseminate the results of the 3rd UCL OpenFOAM Workshop, which was held during 24-26 February 2021. It gives a summary of the event and presents links to all recorded videos. The author list is organisers and then speakers in the order of presenting. Keynote Speeches: (1) Bayesian Optimisation with OpenFOAM (2) The finite vo...
Article
Full-text available
Engineers, architects, planners and designers must carefully consider the effects of wind in their work. Due to their slender and flexible nature, long-span bridges can often experience vibrations due to the wind, and so the careful analysis of wind effects is paramount. Traditionally, wind tunnel tests have been the preferred method of conducting...
Article
Full-text available
Training reinforcement learning agents at solving a given task is highly dependent on identifying optimal sets of hyperparameters and selecting suitable environment input/output configurations. This tedious process could be eased with a straightforward toolbox allowing its user to quickly compare different training parameter sets. We present rl_rea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Training reinforcement learning agents at solving a given task is highly dependent on identifying optimal sets of hyperparameters and selecting suitable environment input / output configurations. This tedious process could be eased with a straightforward toolbox allowing its user to quickly compare different training parameter sets. We present rl_r...
Article
Since early publications in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the finite volume method has been shown suitable for solid mechanics analyses. At present, there are several flavours of the method, which can be classified in a variety of ways, such as grid arrangement (cell-centred vs. staggered vs. vertex-centred), solution algorithm (implicit vs. expl...
Article
This reflective paper outlines an advising session conducted online as part of the assessment for an advising in language learning certification at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS). Specifically, the author focuses on the use of an advising tool (Wheel of Language Learning) combined with metaphor in an attempt to deepen a learner’s...
Article
Full-text available
High energy density advanced manufacturing processes, such as power beam welding and additive manufacturing, are notoriously difficult to simulate. Such processes initiate fusion, and vapourisation, state transitions in their respective (normally metallic) substrates generating complex metallic flows over incredibly short time scales. To mathematic...
Article
Full-text available
Reinforcement learning has shown great promise in robotics thanks to its ability to develop efficient robotic control procedures through self-training. In particular, reinforcement learning has been successfully applied to solving the reaching task with robotic arms. In this paper, we define a robust, reproducible and systematic experimental proced...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reinforcement learning has shown great promise in robotics thanks to its ability to develop efficient robotic control procedures through self-training. In particular, reinforcement learning has been successfully applied to solving the reaching task with robotic arms. In this paper, we define a robust, reproducible and systematic experimental proced...
Preprint
Full-text available
A nonlinear block-coupled Finite Volume methodology is developed for large displacement and large strain regime. The new methodology uses the same normal and tangential face derivative discretisations found in the original fully coupled cell-centred Finite Volume solution methodology for linear elasticity, meaning that existing block-coupled implem...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wind actions can have a great impact on both bridges and traffic on bridges. However, structures designed to shelter the traffic from wind can influence the aerodynamic performance of the bridge deck, especially for long-span bridges. This study compares the effect of non-perforated walls and perforated walls used as wind barriers for traffic by co...
Article
Full-text available
Whilst climate change is transforming the Arctic into a navigable ocean where small ice floes are floating on the sea surface, the effect of such ice conditions on ship performance has yet to be understood. The present work combines a set of numerical methods to simulate the ship-wave-ice interaction in such ice conditions. Particularly, Computatio...
Article
Full-text available
The ever increasing size of wind turbines has given rise to a need for robust glass to carbon joint designs. This study investigates the effect of different ply layups on the static and fatigue behaviour of hybrid glass/carbon fibre composite joints. Uni-directional carbon fibre prepreg was co-cured to 8H glass prepreg using an overlap to thickness...
Article
A patient-specific numerical model of the ankle joint has been developed using open-source software with realistic material properties that mimics the physiological movement of the foot during the stance phase of the gait cycle. The patient-specific ankle geometry has been segmented as a castellated surface using 3DSlicer from the computed tomograp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Deep learning is transforming many areas of society, from self-driving cars to cognitive medical assistants and energy- efficient buildings. The application of such groundbreaking approaches to the computational mechanics field is in its infancy. A primary reason is that deep learning methods are typically developed and implemented by computer scie...
Presentation
Full-text available
This work was presented in the 15th OpenFOAM Workshop held by Virginia Tech, Arlington, VA, USA, between 22-26 June, 2020.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The interest in simulating the behavior of soft tissues has grown over the past two decades. Intracranial aneurysms, for example, represents a dangerous disease and can be fatal. The evolution and outcome of this disease is related to the hemodynamics of blood flowing inside the vessels. However, to correctly characterize the hemodynamics environme...
Article
This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the impact of helicopter downwash on pedestrian comfort. The initial stage of the study involves the development of a helicopter downwash model, where downstream air velocity predictions are validated against experimental measurements. The initial stage was used to find suitable mode...