Philip W. Bateman

Philip W. Bateman
Curtin University · School of Molecular and Life Sciences

About

163
Publications
52,292
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4,146
Citations
Citations since 2017
69 Research Items
2439 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500

Publications

Publications (163)
Preprint
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Invasive plants are a threat to natural ecosystems worldwide with urban wetlands being some of the most susceptible and highly modified environments of all. The tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) is a top predator that persists in urban wetlands in south-western Australia, many of which have been degraded by introduced kikuyu grass (Cenchrus clandesti...
Article
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Urbanisation modifies natural landscapes resulting in built-up space that is covered by buildings or hard surfaces and managed green spaces that often substitute native plant species with exotics. Some native bee species have been able to adapt to urban environments, foraging and reproducing in these highly modified areas. However, little is known...
Article
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The red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) is one of the most adaptable carnivorans, thriving in cities across the globe. We used GPS-tracking of five suburban foxes across high-density residential suburbs of Perth, Western Australia to quantify (1) their habitat selection and (2) home range area. All five foxes showed statistically significant avoidance of res...
Article
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Global food production, food supply chains and food security are increasingly stressed by human population growth and loss of arable land, becoming more vulnerable to anthropogenic and environmental perturbations. Numerous mutualistic and antagonistic species are interconnected with the cultivation of crops and livestock and these can be challengin...
Article
Patchy resource distribution can cluster predator activity around areas of the highest productivity in ecosystems. For the endangered Western Spiny‐tailed Skink (Egernia stokesii badia) in Western Australia, the log piles that they permanently inhabit in an otherwise patchy, arid landscape, represent a potentially reliable, high abundance food sour...
Article
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Fauna monitoring often relies on visual monitoring techniques such as camera trapping , which have biases leading to underestimates of vertebrate species diversity. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has emerged as a new source of biodiversity data that may improve biomonitoring; however, eDNA-based assessments of species richness remain relati...
Article
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Abstract Tree hollows are essential for many vertebrate species, providing both nesting sites and shelter. Globally, old hollow‐bearing trees are in decline resulting in many dependent species being under threat. It is, therefore, imperative that vital hollow‐bearing trees are preserved, but it is logistically difficult to rapidly determine which h...
Article
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Many lizard species use caudal autotomy, the ability to self-amputate a portion of the tail, as an effective but costly survival strategy. However, as a lizard grows, its increased size may reduce predation risk allowing for less costly strategies (e.g., biting and clawing) to be used as the primary defence. The King’s skink (Egernia kingii) is a l...
Article
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A central principle of threatened species management is the requirement for detailed understanding of species habitat requirements. Difficult terrain or cryptic behaviour can, however, make the study of habitat or microhabitat requirements difficult, calling for innovative data collection techniques. We used high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR imagin...
Article
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As snakes are limbless, gape-limited predators, their skull is the main feeding structure involved in prey handling, manipulation and feeding. Ontogenetic changes in prey type and size are likely to be associated with distinct morphological changes in the skull during growth. We investigated ontogenetic variation in diet from stomach contents of 16...
Article
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Loss of natural habitat through land‐use change threatens bees. Urbanisation is a major, increasing form, of habitat loss, and a novel, pervasive form of disturbance known to impact bee diversity and abundance in a variety of often inconsistent ways. We conducted a comprehensive, semi‐quantitative review, involving 215 studies, on responses of bees...
Preprint
Full-text available
Urbanisation modifies natural landscapes resulting in built-up space and managed green spaces that often substitute native plant species with exotics. Some native bee species have been able to adapt to urban environments, foraging and reproducing in these highly modified areas. However, little is known on how the foraging ecology of native bees is...
Article
Native bees are declining in many regions, often associated with loss of natural habitat. Urbanisation replaces natural vegetation with a highly-modified landscape, where residential gardens are a major component of urban greenspace. While many cities retain native vegetation remnants within the urban matrix, these are often small, isolated and deg...
Article
Context Accidental poisoning of domestic dogs is a potential risk when using baits to control invasive animals. We developed and trialled an electrical device attached to a non-toxic bait to assess whether we could induce a learned aversion towards baits in conservation-working dogs. Aims We tested the device on conservation-working dogs licenced t...
Article
Urban ecosystems and remnant habitat 'islands' therein, provide important strongholds for many wildlife species including those of conservation significance. However, the persistence of these habitats can be undermined if their structure and function are too severely disrupted. Urban wetlands, specifically, are usually degraded by a monoculture of...
Article
Full-text available
Caudal autotomy, the ability to shed a portion of the tail, is a widespread defence strategy among lizards. Following caudal autotomy, and during regeneration, lizards face both short- and long-term costs associated with the physical loss of the tail and the energy required for regeneration. As such, the speed at which the individual regenerates it...
Article
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Urbanisation alters landscapes, introduces wildlife to novel stressors, and fragments habitats into remnant ‘islands’. Within these islands, isolated wildlife populations can experience genetic drift and subsequently suffer from inbreeding depression and reduced adaptive potential. The Western tiger snake ( Notechis scutatus occidentalis ) is a pre...
Article
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Mineral extraction activities are intensely disruptive to ecosystems and their associated fauna. Few countries globally have comprehensive legislation surrounding mine site restoration, but within Australia, restoration of discontinued mine sites is a legislative requirement. However, substantial ambiguity regarding the optimal techniques for resto...
Preprint
Full-text available
As snakes are limbless, gape-limited predators, their skull is the main feeding structure involved in prey handling, manipulation and feeding. Ontogenetic changes in prey type and size are likely to be associated with distinct morphological changes in the skull during growth. We investigated ontogenetic variation in diet from stomach contents of n...
Article
Full-text available
Human-wildlife conflicts with 'nuisance' snakes are becoming more frequent around the world as urbanisation continues to encroach on remaining habitats. In an attempt to mitigate this issue, snakes are often translocated in an uncontrolled fashion, with little to no conservation value. To determine the most appropriate methods of translocation we r...
Preprint
Full-text available
The red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) is one of the most adaptable carnivorans, thriving in cities across the globe. Understanding movement patterns and habitat use by urban foxes will assist with their management to address wildlife conservation and public health concerns. Here we tracked five foxes across the suburbs of Perth, Western Australia. Three fe...
Article
European honey bees have been introduced across the globe and may compete with native bees for floral resources. Compounding effects of urbanization and introduced species on native bees are, however, unclear. Here, we investigated how honey bee abundance and foraging patterns related to those of native bee abundance and diversity in residential ga...
Preprint
Urban wildlife often suffer poorer health than their counterparts living in more pristine environments due to exposure to anthropogenic stressors such as habitat degradation and environmental contamination. As a result, the health of urban versus nonurban snakes might be assessed by differences in their plasma biochemistries. We compared the plasma...
Article
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The direct impacts of anthropogenic habitat loss on fauna have attracted considerable global research focus. However, it is not only these overt impacts of human activities that are contributing to the global biodiversity crisis. Other disturbances, such as artificial light, anthropogenically generated noise, dust, vibrations, and physical visual d...
Chapter
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Invertebrates comprise an estimated 80% of all multicellular animals. Understanding their antipredator responses therefore makes a substantial contribution to our knowledge of animal responses to predators. The diversity of invertebrates, including a range of lifestyles, body forms, and habitat use, means that day-to-day, they encounter a similarly...
Chapter
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Escaping from predators - Fish and amphibians Although at first glance there seems to be significant differences between fish and amphibians in their habitat and therefore predation risk, they share many similar biological features (particularly fish and larval amphibians (tadpoles) that govern their escape responses.
Article
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Mitigation translocation is a subgroup of conservation translocation, categorised by a crisis‐responsive timeframe and the immediate goal of relocating individuals threatened with destruction. However, the relative successes of conservation translocations with longer timeframes and broader metapopulation and ecosystem level considerations have been...
Article
Abnormal caudal regeneration, the production of additional tails through regeneration events, occurs in lepidosaurs as a result of incomplete autotomy or sufficient caudal wound. Despite being widely known to occur, documented events generally are limited to opportunistic single observations – hindering the understanding of the ecological importanc...
Article
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Human-wildlife conflicts are influenced by the public’s ability to identify dangerous species. We determined the snakes most commonly involved in conflicts by comparing types of “problem snakes” by location (urban/non-urban) for 9,627 calls to a Western Australian helpline. Of the 21% of cases identifying problem snakes, most urban sightings (82%)...
Article
Habitat loss is a leading cause of biodiversity declines globally, and there has been increasing recognition in recent years of the importance of restoring degraded habitats to functional ecosystems to ameliorate this loss. Despite the critical roles animals play in ecosystems, animals are often overlooked in assessments of ecological restoration s...
Article
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Wetlands and their biodiversity are constantly threatened by contaminant pollution from urbanisation. Despite evidence suggesting that snakes are good bioindicators of environmental health, the bioaccumulation of contaminants in reptiles is poorly researched in Australia. We conducted the first broad-scale analysis of 17 metals and trace elements,...
Article
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Sacrificing body parts is one of many behaviors that animals use to escape predation. This trait, termed autotomy, is classically associated with lizards. However, several other taxa also autotomize, and this trait has independently evolved multiple times throughout Animalia. Despite having multiple origins and being an iconic antipredatory trait,...
Article
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Tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) in wetlands of South-West Western Australia (SW WA) are commonly parasitised by the nematode Ophidascaris pyrrhus. Host-parasite interactions are complex and can potentially be impacted by factors such as urbanisation or climate. We assessed whether urbanisation, distance to wetland sites, and climatic factors have...
Article
Understanding the behavioural responses of animals to habitat change is vital to their conservation in landscapes undergoing restoration. Studies of animal responses to habitat restoration typically assess species presence/absence; however, such studies may be restricted in their ability to show whether restoration is facilitating the return of sel...
Article
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Many species of lizard use caudal autotomy, the ability to self-amputate a portion of their tail, regenerated over time, as an effective anti-predation mechanism. The importance of this tactic for survival depends on the degree of predation risk. There are, however, negative trade-offs to losing a tail, such as loss of further autotomy opportunitie...
Article
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When approached by a predator, foraging animals should adjust escape behavior based on their current energetic status to minimize opportunity costs (foraging time) and maximize the chance of escape. Animals should therefore be more reluctant to leave a foraging patch when their energy reserves are low and should flee using low-energy escape tactics...
Article
Despite the evidence that fauna play complex and critical roles in ecosystems (e.g. pollination and nutrient cycling) and the knowledge that they need to be considered in restoration, fauna often remain poorly represented in restoration goal setting, monitoring and assessments of restoration success. Fauna clearly are integral to the aspirations of...
Article
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Groundwaters host highly adapted fauna, known as stygofauna, which play a key role in maintaining the functional integrity of subterranean ecosystems. Stygofaunal niche studies provide insights into the ecological dynamics shaping the delicate balance between the hydrological conditions and community diversity patterns. This work aims to unravel th...
Article
Autotomy, the self‐induced loss of a body part, occurs throughout Animalia. A lizard dropping its tail to escape predation is an iconic example, however, autotomy occurs in a diversity of other organisms. Octopuses can release their arms, crabs can drop their claws, and bugs can amputate their legs. The diversity of organisms that can autotomize bo...
Article
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The last decade has seen an exponential increase in the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to ecological monitoring research, though with little standardisation or comparability in methodological approaches and research aims. We reviewed the international peer-reviewed literature in order to explore the potential limitations on the feas...
Article
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Roads pose significant threats to reptiles, and understanding the varying perceptual biases of motorists to different taxa may help determine management strategies for urban roads around important refuges such as wetlands. We surveyed Western Australian motorists online, asking them to rank their degree of concern for animal welfare, vehicle damage...
Article
Ecosystem engineers are species that have a role in creating and maintaining certain habitat traits that are important for other species. Burrowing species do this by creating subterranean refugia from predation and thermal extremes, but also providing foraging opportunities through soil movement and by increasing local landscape heterogeneity. In...
Article
Roads present unavoidable challenges to wildlife, both in populated and in more remote regions. Both traffic infrastructure and road vehicles can have a detrimental impact on natural ecosystems and wildlife populations. This study aimed to gain a broad overview of the impacts of a stretch of road on native herpetofauna in North-Western Australia. R...
Article
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The mammalian penis is a complex hydraulic organ of cavernous (spongy) tissue supported by both smooth and skeletal muscle structures. In placental mammals, the paired ‎Musculus ischiocavernosi anchor the corpora cavernosa to the pelvis (at the ischium), and the paired M. bulbospongiosi converge as they envelop the base of the corpus spongiosum. Ma...
Article
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Context Temperament can affect an individual’s fitness and survival if it also influences behaviours associated with predator avoidance, interactions with conspecifics, refuge selection and/or foraging. Furthermore, temperament can determine an individual’s response to novel stimuli and environmental challenges, such as those experienced through tr...
Article
Caudal autotomy is an adaptive, but costly, anti-predation strategy used by many lizard species. As predation risk varies with ontogenetic life stage, it can be predicted that the use of costly anti-predation mechanisms would also change if they are no longer required. Here we assess ontogenetic change in relative tail length and degree of caudal a...
Article
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Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is often thought to be an indicator of developmental stability—an individual’s ability to resist environmental and genetic stress during development—and thus demonstrates phenotypic quality. Research on the influence of FA on locomotion has often found that high FA in legs and wings impedes locomotor performance. Crickets...
Article
Autotomy, the voluntary shedding of body parts, is a strategy employed by many organisms to evade predation and escape entanglement. Although this strategy may allow an individual to survive one threat encounter it can come at significant cost, with studies indicating that autotomized individuals exhibit reduced fitness and increased susceptibility...
Article
Full-text available
Prey can accurately assess predation risk via the detection of chemical cues and take appropriate measures to survive encounters with predators. Research on the chemical ecology of terrestrial invertebrate predator-prey interactions has repeatedly found that direct chemical cues can alter prey organisms’ antipredator behavior. However, much of this...
Article
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Canid Pest Ejectors (CPE) are a method of population management that has recently been approved for the control of wild dogs and foxes in Australia. A pilot trial of CPEs (n = 10) targeting wild dogs was conducted in the southern rangelands of Western Australia in the winter of 2017. CPEs were deployed for 81 days, which included periods of signifi...
Article
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Novel ecosystems (‘emerging ecosystems’) result when species occur in combinations and relative abundances that have not occurred previously within a given biome, due to deliberate or inadvertent human agency. Humans have changed the environment through disturbance, physical structures or additional resources. Many vertebrate predators inhabit citi...
Article
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Males may use tactics before, during and after mating to increase their reproductive success. With finite energy resources available, theory predicts that there should be a trade-off between investment in pre-copulatory traits (e.g. body size, armaments) and post-copulatory traits (e.g. testes size, spermatogenic efficiency). Western grey kangaroos...
Article
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Context Translocation as a tool for management of nuisance or 'problem' snakes near urban areas is currently used worldwide with limited success. Translocated snakes experience modified behaviours, spatial use and survivorship, and few studies have investigated the impacts of translocation within a metropolitan area. Aims In the present study, we i...
Article
Wildlife research is informed by human values and interests, and these are reflected in, and reinforced by, the language used to describe particular species and animals. Examining factors that influence the use of common names of contentious taxa such free-ranging dogs is important, as naming can influence the design and reception of scientific stu...
Article
Context Livestock predation is a worldwide phenomenon, causing financial losses and emotional strain on producers. Wild dogs (Canis familiaris) cause millions of dollars of damage to cattle, sheep and goat production in Australia every year, and despite on-going control (baiting, trapping, shooting, and fencing), they remain a significant problem f...
Article
Linear clearings, such as roads and tracks, are an obvious anthropogenic feature in many remote environments, even where infrastructure is sparse. Predator species have been shown to prefer moving down linear clearings, and therefore, clearings could increase predation risk for other species. We investigated whether tracks cleared for seismic surve...
Poster
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This investigation aims to assess the biogeochemical patterns within the stygofaunal community of two aquifers (Sturt Meadows and Laverton Downs) in the Yilgarn region of WA, by focusing on two main objectives: identify the energy sources within the ecosystem via δ13C of AAs, and recover quantified information about trophic position of various subt...
Poster
Full-text available
This study aims to measure the radiocarbon in the main potential food sources at the base of the food web and expand the knowledge of carbon flows within two contrasting aquifer sites in Western Australia. The first is a shallow groundwater calcrete aquifer at Sturt Meadows in the Raeside palaeochannel on the Yilgarn craton. The second site is on R...
Article
There is a general assumption that animal species that face anthropogenic disturbance through tourism suffer some negative impacts as a result. We carried out a meta-analysis of empirical studies of wildlife responses to tourism activities in natural areas to test this assumption. A literature review yielded effect size data for 102 studies represe...
Article
Urbanisation facilitates synanthropic species such as rodents, which benefit the diets of many predators in cities. We investigated how urbanisation affects the feeding ecology of dugites Pseudonaja affinis, a prolific elapid snake in south–west Western Australia. We predicted that urban snakes: 1) more frequently contain prey and eat larger meals,...
Article
Bite force is often used as a predictive indicator of an animal's feeding ecology, although the premise that there is a direct link between diet and cranial morphology can be difficult to test empirically. Studies that have examined this question tend to rely on generalizations of a species' diet, and age and sex differences are rarely considered....
Article
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Many species that inhabit anthropogenically altered landscapes also opportunistically use human food refuse. Gulls readily exploit anthropogenic food sources (e.g. rubbish dumps and other places of human refuse) and often ‘steal’ food from people eating out of doors. Their behaviour suggests that gulls perceive little risk around people and so we e...
Article
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‘Bait-resistance’ is defined as progressive decreases in bait efficacy in controlled pest species populations. Understanding the mechanisms by which bait-resistance can develop is important for the sustainable control of pests worldwide, for both wildlife conservation programs and agricultural production. Bait-resistance is influenced by both behav...
Article
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For decades, scientists have used threat conditioning (traditionally termed 'fear conditioning') to study the link between glucocorticoids and the consolidation of long-term memories (i.e. memories that last hours to weeks) in model organisms in the laboratory. We assessed this relationship in a free-living species, and examined a possible relation...
Article
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We review the use of clay models to explore questions about predation rates on small vertebrate taxa that are typically difficult to observe directly. The use of models has a relatively long history and we examine the range of taxa studied, which includes squamate reptiles, amphibians, mammals and birds. Within this review, we have also included st...
Article
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Islands play an important conservation role due to high rates of speciation as well as providing a predator-free refuge environment for species that are vulnerable to terrestrial predation on the mainland. Many animals show marked ‘island tameness’ on predator-free islands, reducing costly escape responses in the absence of predation threat. Island...