Philip Asherson

Philip Asherson
King's College London | KCL · MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre

About

568
Publications
150,741
Reads
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36,592
Citations
Citations since 2017
139 Research Items
16708 Citations
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000

Publications

Publications (568)
Article
Full-text available
Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor educational outcomes that can have long-term negative effects on the mental health, wellbeing, and socio-economic outcomes of university students. Mental health provision for university students with ADHD is often inadequate due to long waiting times for access to di...
Article
Full-text available
Background ADHD in adults is a common and debilitating neurodevelopmental mental health condition. Yet, diagnosis, clinical management and monitoring are frequently constrained by scarce resources, low capacity in specialist services and limited awareness or training in both primary and secondary care. As a result, many people with ADHD experience...
Article
Full-text available
Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report increased spontaneous mind wandering (MW) compared to control adults. Since MW is associated with ADHD severity and functional impairment, elucidating the brain mechanisms underlying MW may inform new interventions targeting MW and point to neural markers to monitor their efficacy....
Article
Background It is estimated that 20–30% of prisoners meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate reduces ADHD symptoms, but its effect among prisoners remains uncertain. Objectives The primary objective was to estimate the efficacy of osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate in reducing AD...
Article
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a possible alternative to psychostimulants in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but its mechanisms of action in children and adolescents with ADHD are poorly understood. We conducted the first 15-session, sham-controlled study of anodal tDCS over right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) c...
Article
ADHD is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder presenting to child and adolescent mental health, paediatric, and primary care services. Timely and effective interventions to address core ADHD symptoms and co-occurring problems are a high priority for healthcare and society more widely. While much research has reported on the benefits and adver...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) share impairments in top-down and bottom-up modulation of attention. However, it is not yet well understood if co-occurrence of ASD and ADHD reflects a distinct or additive profile of attention deficits. We aimed to characterise alpha oscillatory activit...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine effective diagnostic and treatment pathways for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in prison settings given the high prevalence of ADHD and comorbidities in the prison population. Design/methodology/approach Two studies were carried out in two separate prisons in London. Firstly, data were collected...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a possible neurotherapeutic alternative to psychostimulants in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of action of tDCS in children and adolescents with ADHD. We conducted the first multi-session, sham-controlled study of anodal tDCS o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could be a side-effect-free alternative to psychostimulants in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although there is limited evidence for clinical and cognitive effects, most studies were small, single-session and stimulated left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). No sham-c...
Article
Full-text available
Background Prevalence studies among prisoners have found rates of 1–4% for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autistic traits. However, little is known about those prisoners with high levels of autistic traits. Aim This aim of this study was to compare the mental health characteristics of prisoners with autistic traits with neurotypical prisoners n...
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms which are dynamic in nature: states of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity as core symptoms, and emotion dysregulation as associated feature. Although tremendous work has been done to investigate between-subject differences (how patients with ADHD differ from healthy...
Article
Full-text available
Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or bipolar disorder (BD) may display similar cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms, which might reflect shared mechanisms. Initial evidence indicates disorder-specific and overlapping neurophysiological alterations using event-related potentials (ERPs) in individuals with BD or ADHD...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Some studies have suggested alterations of structural brain asymmetry in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but findings have been contradictory and based on small samples. Here, we performed the largest ever analysis of brain left-right asymmetry in ADHD, using 39 datasets of the ENIGMA consortium. Methods: We analyzed...
Article
Background: despite evidence-based national guidelines for ADHD in the United Kingdom (UK), ADHD is under-identified, under-diagnosed, and under-treated. Many seeking help for ADHD face prejudice, long waiting lists, and patchy or unavailable services, and are turning to service-user support groups and/or private healthcare for help. Methods: a gr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite evidence-based national guidelines for ADHD in the United Kingdom (UK), ADHD is under-identified, under-diagnosed, and under-treated. Many seeking help for ADHD face prejudice, long waiting lists, and patchy or unavailable services, and are turning to service-user support groups and/or private healthcare for help. Methods: A gro...
Article
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Family and twin studies of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) have found familial aggregation and genetic propensity for BPD, but estimates vary widely. Large-scale family studies of clinically diagnosed BPD are lacking. Therefore, we performed a total-population study estimating the familial aggregation and heritability of clinically diagnosed...
Article
Full-text available
There is an extensive body of literature linking ADHD to overweight and obesity. Research indicates that impulsivity features of ADHD account for a degree of this overlap. The neural and polygenic correlates of this association have not been thoroughly examined. In participants of the IMAGEN study, we found that impulsivity symptoms and body mass i...
Article
Increasing evidence shows that unintentional mind wandering is linked to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and that its frequency contributes to symptom severity and functional impairment in ADHD. However, empirical data on mind wandering in adult ADHD are still scarce, and a validated scale to assess mind wandering in German adult AD...
Article
Full-text available
Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,07...
Article
Full-text available
Background Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a core diagnostic symptom in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an associated feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to investigate differences in dynamical indices of ED in daily life in ADHD and BPD. Methods We used experience sampling method (ESM) and multilevel mod...
Article
Full-text available
Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resource...
Article
Full-text available
Background ADHD is neurodevelopmental disorder which persists into adulthood. Presently, therapeutic approaches are mainly pharmacological and psychological whilst the role, scope and approaches of occupational therapists have not been adequately described. Results In this consensus statement we propose that by assessing specific aspects of a pers...
Article
Full-text available
Background A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci significantly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from the GWAS, can be used to assess genetic overlap between ADHD and other traits. Using ADHD samples from several international sites, we derive...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Misconceptions about ADHD stigmatize affected people, reduce credibility of providers, and prevent/delay treatment. To challenge misconceptions, we curated findings with strong evidence base. Methods: We reviewed studies with more than 2,000 participants or meta-analyses from five or more studies or 2,000 or more participants. We exclu...
Article
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Background Consistent research findings indicate that parents and teachers observe genuinely different Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) behaviours in their respective settings.Objective To evaluate the utility of information provided by teacher informant assessments (INFAs) of ADHD symptoms, and the implications of aggregation algori...
Article
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adults are often undiagnosed and overlap in psychopathology. Here we investigated the transdiagnostic traits of emotion recognition and mind wandering in a sample of 103 adults (43 with ADHD and 14 with ASD). The ability to correctly identify a facial expression o...
Article
Full-text available
We recently reported increased mind wandering (MW) frequency in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to controls during high demands on sustained attention, reflecting deficient context regulation of MW. Studies on community samples previously linked context regulation of MW with attenuation in brain sensory processe...
Article
Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was previously seen as a childhood developmental disorder, so adult mental health services were not set up to support attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients who became too old for child services. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth study of the transition of attention deficit h...
Article
Full-text available
For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international da...
Article
Importance Large-scale neuroimaging studies have revealed group differences in cortical thickness across many psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurobiology behind these differences is not well understood. Objective To determine neurobiologic correlates of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls in 6 disorders: atten...
Article
Full-text available
Objective We aimed to understand the association between MW frequency and clinical measures, context regulation of MW and group differences in task performance. Method 27 adults with ADHD and 29 controls performed tasks manipulating demand on working memory and sustained attention, and recorded their MW frequency using probes. Results A significa...
Chapter
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive or impairing levels of inattention or hyperactivity. It is most comprehensively defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria, which recognizes its clinical heterogeneity by grouping it a...
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) have overlapping symptoms. We proposed that excessive spontaneous mind wandering (MW-S) might reflect a component of psychopathology that distinguishes ADHD from BPD. Using a questionnaire measure of MW-S and an experience sampling method, we investigated MW-S...
Article
Full-text available
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adolescence and adulthood, but the processes underlying persistence and remission remain poorly understood. We previously found that reaction time variability and event-related potentials of preparation-vigilance processes were impaired in ADHD persisters and represented...
Article
Full-text available
Low levels of childhood inhibitory control (IC) are phenotypically and genetically associated with externalizing behavior problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Unfortunately, there is little research on this topic in early childhood, when IC first emerges. This investigation extends the previous findings of contemporaneous g...
Article
Full-text available
Background UK clinical guidelines recommend treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults by suitably qualified clinical teams. However, young people with ADHD attempting the transition from children's to adults’ services experience considerable difficulties in accessing care. Aims To map the mental health services in the...
Article
Full-text available
Background.: We investigated whether adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show pseudoneglect-preferential allocation of attention to the left visual field (LVF) and a resulting slowing of mean reaction times (MRTs) in the right visual field (RVF), characteristic of neurotypical (NT) individuals -and whether lateralization of...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. The authors sought to directly compare these disorders using structural brain imaging data from ENIGMA consortium data. Methods: Structural T1-weight...
Preprint
Full-text available
Delineating age-related cortical trajectories in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behaviour. Previous research has shown that deriving robust estimates of age-related brain morphometric changes requires large-scale studies. In response, we conducted a large-scale analysis of cortical thi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalised on the resource...
Article
Full-text available
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that persist into adulthood in the majority of the diagnosed children. Despite several risk factors during childhood predicting the persistence of ADHD symptoms into adult...
Article
Full-text available
We recently hypothesised that increased spontaneous mind wandering (MW-S) reflects a core process underlying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies show that individuals with ADHD and neurotypical individuals with increased MW-S display similar cognitive-performance and electrophysiological (EEG) impairments in attentiona...
Article
Full-text available
Background.: Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently suffer from sleep problems and report high levels of daytime sleepiness compared to neurotypical controls, which has detrimental effect on quality of life. Methods.: We evaluated daytime sleepiness in adults with ADHD compared to neurotypical controls using an ob...
Preprint
Full-text available
For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international da...
Article
Objective: The study aimed to identify early childhood risk factors for de novo and subthreshold late-onset ADHD. Method: ADHD symptoms were assessed in 9,875 participants from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) using the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale at ages 8, 12, 14, and 16 years, along with other childhood characteristics and adolescent ou...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder, seen in 20-30% of young adult prisoners. Pharmacoepidemiological studies, a small randomised controlled trial and open trial data of methylphenidate suggest clinically significant reductions in ADHD symptoms, emotional dysregulation, disruptive behaviour an...
Article
Full-text available
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) show certain overlapping features, such as increased reaction time variability. Here, we tested whether more detailed ex-Gaussian reaction time distribution measures identify shared or disorder-specific impairments in ADHD and BD. The total assessed sample consisted of 60 wom...
Article
Objectives: Mind-wandering (MW) is a commonly experienced phenomenon, characterized by focus of attention drifting away from the present situation to intrinsically originated thoughts. Studies in adults show that MW is related to ADHD symptoms, but this association is understudied in children. We set out to investigate the associations of MW in ch...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Research into neurodevelopmental disorders in adult offenders has tended to be disorder specific, so hindering service planning for a group of offenders with similar vulnerabilities. Aim: To examine vulnerabilities for mental illness and self-harming behaviours among male prisoners screening positive for a range of neurodevelopmental...
Article
Objective: This study investigates whether anxiety modulates cognitive-performance, electrophysiological and electrodermal processes that we previously found impaired in individuals with ADHD. Method: Self-reported anxiety symptoms, cognitive-electrophysiological measures of response inhibition, working memory, attention, conflict monitoring, error...
Preprint
Daylight is the strongest synchronizer of human circadian rhythms. The circadian pathway hypothesis posits that synchrony between daylight and the circadian system relates to (in)attention. The dopamine neurotransmitter system is implicated in regulating the circadian system as well as in (attention)-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]. We studie...
Preprint
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalence disorder, seen in 20-30% of young adult prisoners. Pharmacoepidemiological studies, a small randomised controlled, and open trial data suggest clinically significant reductions in ADHD symptoms, emotional dysregulation, disruptive behaviour and engagement with educat...
Article
Full-text available
To get additional insight into the phenotype of attentional problems, we examined to what extent genetic and environmental factors explain covariation between lack of dispositional mindfulness and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in youth, and explored the incremental validity of these constructs in predicting life satisfactio...
Preprint
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalence disorder, seen in 20-30% of young adult prisoners. Pharmacoepidemiological studies, a small randomised controlled, and open trial data suggest clinically significant reductions in ADHD symptoms, emotional dysregulation, disruptive behaviour and engagement with educat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: ADHD affects some individuals throughout their lifespan, yet service provision for adults in the United Kingdom (UK) is patchy. Current methods for mapping health service provision are resource intensive, do not map specialist ADHD teams separately from generic mental health services, and often fail to triangulate government data with...
Article
Full-text available
Background Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for cognitive-neurophysiological impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whether the associations are due to the preterm birth insult per se , or due to other risk factors that characterise families with preterm-born children, is largely unknown. Methods We empl...
Article
Objective: Neuroimaging studies show structural alterations of various brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although nonreplications are frequent. The authors sought to identify cortical characteristics related to ADHD using large-scale studies. Methods: Cortical thickness and surface area (b...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We previously provided initial evidence for cognitive and event-related potential markers of persistence/remission of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. Here, using a novel brain-network connectivity approach, we aimed to examine whether task-based functional connectivity reflects a...
Article
Full-text available
Preterm birth is associated with heightened risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms and neurocognitive impairments, including impairments in performance monitoring. Here, we investigate the cognitive and neurophysiological processes from a performance-monitoring task in preterm-born adolescents and examine whether the...
Data
Additional analyses. Appendix A–Excluding preterm-born individuals with a research diagnosis of ADHD from the analysis. Appendix B–Analysis controlling for IQ. Appendix C–Analysis of the males only. Appendix D–Analysis of the age-matched subsample. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
In youth, ADHD is more commonly diagnosed in males than females, but higher male-to-female ratios are found in clinical versus population-based samples, suggesting a sex bias in the process of receiving a clinical diagnosis of ADHD. This study investigated sex differences in the severity and presentation of ADHD symptoms, conduct problems, and lear...
Data
Mindwandering_and_ADHD_SupplementaryMaterial_JAD – Supplemental material for Validation of the Mind Excessively Wandering Scale and the Relationship of Mind Wandering to Impairment in Adult ADHD
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication is one of the most commonly prescribed medication classes in child and adolescent psychiatry, and its use is increasing rapidly in adult psychiatry. However, major questions and concerns remain regarding the benefits and risks of ADHD medication, especially in real-world settings. We conduc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity that persist into adulthood in the majority of the diagnosed children. Despite several risk factors during childhood predicting the persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulth...
Preprint
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalence disorder, seen in 20-30% of young adult prisoners. Pharmacoepidemiological studies, a small randomised controlled, and open trial data suggest clinically significant reductions in ADHD symptoms, emotional dysregulation, disruptive behaviour and engagement with educat...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common and impairing neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. The neurobiological mechanisms involved in ASD and ADHD are not fully understood. However, alterations in large-scale neural networks have been proposed as core deficits in both ASD and A...