Phil Zimbardo

Phil Zimbardo
Stanford University | SU · Department of Psychology

About

69
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting individuals in all stages of their lives and leading to a variety of negative quality of life outcomes. The disorder is associated with marked differences related to time perception and time perspectives, and this area of...
Chapter
Increased attention has been focused on the experience of an expanded present time perspective, but there has been no assessment tool to measure this particular time orientation. An established measure of time perspective, the ZTPI, assesses only two present-oriented perspectives: Present-Hedonistic and Present-Fatalistic. Two studies were conducte...
Article
Full-text available
Heroism as an expression of self-actualization and a pinnacle social state is of fundamental interest to humanistic psychology and the field more broadly. This review places the growing discussion on heroic action in a humanistic perspective, as heroism aligns with ethical self-actualization in its highest form, personal meaning making, and social...
Article
The goal of this research was to explore the relationship pattern of individual differences in time perspective and the frequency of self-reported academic cheating behavior among Hungarian high school students (N1 = 252, Mage = 16.46, SDage = 1.16; N2 = 371, Mage = 16.56, SDage = 1.18). According to the results of structural equations modeling, Fu...
Article
It is a great honor for me to receive this honor in the name of my professional model and idol, Kurt Lewin. I want to begin by sharing some of his unique history, which may not be widely known. Then, I will outline some of my research programs that were influenced by Lewin's pioneering thinking, experiments, and social applications. Part of my gene...
Article
Full-text available
The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present He...
Article
Considering purely climate, Southern countries are less harsh and more predictable than Northern countries. From a historical perspective, freezing winters resulting in less available resources contribute to the development of strong future orientation (FO). The paradox is that FO contributes to accumulation of resources in the long run, making ind...
Chapter
Full-text available
The philosophical roots of eudaimonia lie in “Aristotle’s view of the highest human good involving virtue and the realization of one’s potential … It begins with Aristotle’s emphasizing choice and suggesting that virtue, which is central to eudaimonia, involves making the right choices” (Deci and Ryan, J Happiness Stud 9(1):1–11, 2008, pp. 4, 7). A...
Article
Full-text available
The psychological investigation of heroism is relatively new. At this stage, inductive methods can shed light on its main aspects. Therefore, we examined the social representations of Hero and Everyday Hero by collecting word associations from two separate representative samples in Hungary. We constructed two networks from these word associations....
Data
Minimal data set for Hero. This is the English translation of the raw data. We translated from Hungarian to English only those associations which occurred at least twice. (XLS)
Data
Minimal data set for Everyday Hero. This is the English translation of the raw data. We translated from Hungarian to English only those associations which occurred at least twice. (XLS)
Data
Hero normalized node strengths. (XLS)
Data
Everyday Hero normalized node strength. (XLS)
Data
Everyday Hero normalized intra-modular node strength. (XLS)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the Hawaiian language, Pohakea means “to bring forth light.” At Hawaii Pacific University, in coordination with our Pohakea* Heroic Imagination Project, I have begun incorporating “heroism” as a theme in my Introduction to Psychology class sections. In this session, I will briefly describe the weekly conversations we have about what heroism mean...
Article
This paper critically reflects back on culture, militarism, and the heroic. We see a need for greater attention to militarism, as well as re-evaluation of the heroic, on the part of cultural researchers. The heroic involves not just extraordinary physical action, but also acting with moral courage to end injustices, to support human rights, and the...
Chapter
Dealing with time is a fundamental feature of the human experience, both objective, or so-called clock time, and subjective, personal constructions of time. The focus of this chapter is the construct of time perspective (TP), which is viewed as an integral part of the subjective or personal experience of "lived time". Time perspective is considered...
Article
Dealing with time is a fundamental feature of the human experience, both objective, or so-called clock time, and subjective, personal constructions of time. The focus of this chapter is the construct of time perspective (TP), which is viewed as an integral part of the subjective or personal experience of “lived time”. Time perspective is considered...
Article
The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives. The article introduces the Czech version of the ZTPI-Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. The results of 2030 respondents are compared to those from the original American version as well as to results of translated versions, namely, the Lithuanian, French and Spanish translations of ZTPI. The attention is focused on the psychometric qua...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter explores the social shyness and social anxiety disorder and its prevalence and treatment. Social anxiety is defined as a cognitive and affective experience that is triggered by the perception of possible evaluation by others. However, the constructs of social anxiety, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and shyness share much common ground....
Article
Full-text available
Circumstances can force almost anyone to be a bystander to evil, but they can also bring out our own inner hero. Zeno Franco and Philip Zimbardo show how we’re all capable of everyday heroism.
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in time perspective were predicted to determine when students sign-up for studies and how faithfully they meet the time obligations of research. As predicted, future-oriented students initiated and completed their research participation sooner than did present-oriented students, and females signed up sooner than did males. Th...
Article
The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors reflect on the lessons of their Stanford Prison Experiment, some 25 years after conducting it. They review the quarter century of change in criminal justice and correctional policies that has transpired since the Stanford Prison Experiment and then develop a series of reform-oriented proposals that still can be drawn fr...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-eight "practiced" dreamers (Study 1) and 50 "novice" dreamers (Study 2) completed questionnaires assessing the cognitive, metacognitive, and emotional qualities of recent waking and dreaming experiences. The present findings suggest that dreaming cognition is more similar to waking cognition than previously assumed and that the differences b...
Article
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This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases i...
Article
Full-text available
Conducted a longitudinal study of hypnotizability, as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A, that yielded a relatively high degree of stability in hypnotic responsiveness over repeated testings spanning a 25-year period. The 50 Ss were retested in 1985, after tests when they were students, between 1958-1962 and again in 197...
Article
It has been proposed that classroom seating behavior predicts brain functioning involved in hypnotizability and in other cognitive processes. The present authors attempted to test this hypothesis and to replicate some earlier findings. The relationships between classroom seating preference, actual seating location, and hypnotizability in male and f...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the attributional style of psychoanalysts, behavior therapists, and nontherapists by using a mail survey. Respondents listed causal explanations for three hypothetical problems experienced by either themselves, their friends, or their clients. Results indicated that (a) psychoanalysts gave more dispositional explanations than situationa...
Article
An experimental misattribution paradigm proved to be a significant intervention treatment of altering social participation among dispositionally shy women. When specific arousal symptoms previously associated with their social anxiety were misattributed to a nonpsychological source, high-frequency noise, these extremely shy women behaved as if they...
Article
The development of paranoid reactions was investigated in normal people experiencing a temporary loss of hearing. In a social setting, subjects made partially deaf by hypnotic suggestion, but kept unaware of the source of their deafness, became more paranoid as indicated on a variety of assessment measures. The results support a hypothesizes cognit...
Article
Two social-psychological theories can be applied to the effect of potentially aversive surveillance on opinion inhibition. The deindividuation position predicts that people will avoid opinion expression, while the reactance position predicts opinion assertion and/or attack upon threatening agents. To test these notions, 41 female and 35 male underg...
Article
Full-text available
The objective precision of operant conditioning methodology validates the power of hypnosis to induce alterations in time perception. Personal tempo was systematically modified by instructions to trained hypnotic subjects, with significant behavioral effects observed on a variety of response rate measures.
Article
In an exploratory study on the specificity of autonomic control, subjects attempted to simultaneously change the skin temperature of their two hands in opposite directions. Subjects who were trained in hypnosis were successful in achieving this bilateral difference, while waking control subjects were not. These findings demonstrate the powerful inf...
Article
We are excited to welcome you to New Orleans and the 6th Annual meeting of SPSP. This year's meeting boasts the largest and most diverse program ever offered, including more than 50 invited and referred symposia, talks, and workshops on a wide range of topics, as well as over 1000 posters. We are particularly excited to be in New Orleans, with its...
Article
The Council for the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) in response to A. R. Jensen (see record 1969-09740-001) states that little definitive evidence exists to confirm that racial differences in intelligence test scores (ITSCs) are innate. When Blacks and Whites of comparable cultural and educational background are compar...
Article
An experimental design based upon an explication of Schachter's theory of emotion demonstrated that fear reduction through induced misattribution of the physiological concomitants of fear could be accomplished. A test situation was utilized in which reduced fear would be reflected by 40 female undergraduates willingness to work on a puzzle which wo...
Article
4 GROUPS OF 2ND- AND 3RD-GRADERS WITH VARYING IQ STATUS AND TEST ANXIETY STATUS WERE RATED BY THEIR TEACHERS ON 24 PERSONALITY AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS. NO RELATIONSHIPS WERE FOUND BETWEEN THE TEACHERS' RATINGS OF THEIR CHILDREN ON THESE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE CHILDRENS' TEST ANXIETY STATUS: SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS WERE FOUND BETWE...
Article
Responses by humans to painful electric shocks are significantly modified at subjective, behavioral, and physiological levels by verbal manipulations of degree of choice and justification for further exposure to the aversive stimuli. Pain perception, learning, and galvanic skin resistance are altered under these conditions of "cognitive dissonance,...
Article
The present study reports on the use of a projective measure which in 2 independent replications appeared to be a valid measure of level of induced fear, and which showed a high correlation (+.75) with a direct response scale. However, the data suggest that despite the magnitude of their relationship, the 2 measures are differentially sensitive to...
Article
A previous investigation (Schachter, 1959) had concluded that the arousal of any strong emotion tends to create the need to compare this reaction with that of the others and, hence, produce a need for social affiliation. This study attempts to corroborate or refute this hypothesis with regard to fear and anxiety, a distinction the previous researc...
Article
This research studied the relationship between conformity and (a) the extent of the discrepancy between the opinions of a communicator and a recipient and (b) the degree of involvement of the recipient. These variables are central to a dissonance theory analysis of the social influence process, as well as to many previous investigations of attitude...
Article
While Freudian theory emphasizes the importance of infantile experience upon adult behavior, "Much if not most of the presently available evidence bearing upon this problem is equivocal and of undetermined reliability" (3, pp. 256-7). Although some effects of early experience on later behavior have been adequately demonstrated (cf. 3, 7, 8), confli...
Article
With running speed from a start compartment into a 2nd compartment of a learned-drive type apparatus as the index of exploratory tendency, a comparison was made between hungry and satiated rats that either were given immediate access to the 2nd compartment or were delayed in the start compartment for 2 min. With the immediate procedure, the satiate...
Article
Measurement of exploratory and consumatory behavior of thirsty, hungry, and satiated rats in a complex maze showed that (a) Food and water deprivation decrease exploration. (b) Equal durations of food and water deprivation yield unequal consumatory responses. (c) Conflict between exploratory and consummatory motivation leads to alternation of incip...