Phil Reed

Phil Reed
Swansea University | SWAN · Department of Psychology

D.Phil.

About

309
Publications
60,620
Reads
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4,894
Citations
Introduction
Professor Phil Reed holds a Chair in the Department of Psychology at Swansea University. Phil's research interests fall into three broad categories: Learning and Memory, Autism and Educational Interventions, and Psychology and Medicine including Internet Addiction.
Additional affiliations
September 2003 - present
Swansea University
Position
  • Chair in Psychology
September 2003 - present
Swansea University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 1991 - August 2003
University College London
Position
  • Reader in Learning and Behaviour
Education
October 1985 - September 1988
The University of York
Field of study
  • Psychology
October 1981 - July 1984
University of Leeds
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (309)
Article
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Background Little is known about university students’ views regarding online teaching, one year after COVID restrictions. Objective The current study examined predictors of satisfaction with online teaching and differences in views and predictors between those exposed or not exposed to COVID. Methods 340 university students (144 males; 194 female...
Article
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The current study examined the impact of using social media in English on associations between social media dependency and self-esteem, depression, social anxiety, and loneliness for Welsh speakers. A total of 836 pupils (317 Welsh speakers; 519 non-Welsh speakers), with a mean age of 13.44 (± .943), attending state-maintained Welsh/bilingual-mediu...
Article
The current study explored similarities and differences in parenting stress (PSI) and behaviours in parent reports of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attachment disorder (AD). 155 parents whose children had developmental delays and disorders completed the social communication questionnaire, Randolph attachment questionnaire, strengths and diffic...
Article
on behalf of the Guideline Committee What you need to know • Modifications to lifestyle, such as increasing physical activity, having a healthy diet, losing weight, stopping smoking, and controlling diabetes can help prevent and treat symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction • Encouraging women to start and continue training of the pelvic floor muscles...
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Patients with complications following mesh removal risk a variety of symptoms, and can view medical intervention negatively. This study explored the patient-acceptability of a Multidisciplinary Team (MDT), and whether the presence of a Counsellor would be accepted and effective. Twenty consecutively referred women, who had undergone mesh-removal bu...
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Individual differences in behaviors are seen across many species, and investigations have focused on traits linked to aggression, risk taking, emotionality, coping styles, and differences in cognitive systems. The current study investigated whether there were individual differences in proactive interference tasks in rats (Rattus Norvegicus), and te...
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Two experiments examined the impact of depression and anxiety on the microstructure of human schedule responding. Human participants responded by pressing a computer key for points on a multiple random ratio (RR) random interval (RI) schedule. The RI schedule was yoked to the RR schedule in terms of reinforcement rate within subject. Overall respon...
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Patient engagement with treatments potentially poses problems for interpreting the results and meaning of Randomised Control Trials (RCTs). If patients are assigned to treatments that do, or do not, match their expectations, and this impacts their motivation to engage with that treatment, it will affect the distribution of outcomes. In turn, this w...
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Patient engagement with treatments potentially poses problems for interpreting the results and meaning of Randomised Control Trials (RCTs). If patients are assigned to treatments that do, or do not, match their expectations, and this impacts their motivation to engage with that treatment, it will affect the distribution of outcomes. In turn, this w...
Article
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Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is effective, acceptable to patients, and cost efficient as a treatment for Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (PFD). However, PFMT outcomes are mediated by patient variables, such as depression, anxiety, motivation, and health values. The current study examined whether multi-disciplinary provision of PFMT involving a psyc...
Article
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The consequences of loneliness include anxiety, depression, and chronic illnesses, but little is known about its association with cognitive distortions. Three experiments investigated the effect of loneliness, and current context, on the content of false perceptions. A total of 446 participants completed psychometric tests (University of California...
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Lay abstract: Early intensive applied behaviour analysis-based interventions are designed to support young autistic children's learning and development. Unfortunately, the available evidence about the effectiveness of these interventions remains unclear. Several reviews have focused on the published findings rather than contacting the authors to c...
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Differentiation of speech is predictable from abilities to discriminate the speed at which a sound reaches its optimum amplitude (rise time). This study investigated whether rise time identification of an affricate–fricative continuum would be impacted upon by dyslexia. Children between 10 and 14 years old identified sounds along a continuum of fri...
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This study explored differential relationships between assertive self-presentational strategies and social media behaviour between females and males, and these are the same for selfie and non-selfie images. Four hundred and thirty six participants completed the study (253 females, 183 males; mean age = 21.24 years, range 18–30). They completed the...
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Objectives Physiotherapeutic treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction in women has variable outcomes, and identification of the predictors of outcomes is important in developing service provision and treatment planning. This study explored whether patient motivation affects treatment compliance and outcomes of physiotherapeutic treatment in a cohort o...
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Background There is evidence of hypnosis being effective in reducing both emotional distress, anxiety, and depression. Hypnosis as a technique promotes enhanced mental mastery over the body. This may result in hypnosis being particularly salient in treating distress associated with somatic and psychological symptoms. Objective This research aims a...
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The current study explored effects of psychopathic personality traits on micro-structure of free-operant responding. Non-clinical participants were recruited, and responded on a multiple random-ratio (RR) random-interval (RI) schedule for points, prior to being placed into extinction. They completed the TriPM to measure psychopathic personality, an...
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Stimulus over-selectivity is said to have occurred when only a limited subset of the total number of stimuli present during discrimination learning controls behavior, thus, restricting learning about the range, breadth, or all features of a stimulus. The current study investigated over-selectivity of 100 typically developing children, aged 3–7 (mea...
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Stimulus over-selectivity describes a phenomenon in which an individual responds only to a subset of the stimuli present in the environment and, thus, may restrict learning. This study aimed to develop understanding of the nature and role of over-selectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by analyzing the relationship of over-selectivity to core...
Article
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The current study explored the relationship between problematic internet use (PIU) and motivation to learn, and examined psychological and social factors mediating this relationship. Two hundred and eighty‐five students in an Italian University were recruited for the current study. There was a negative relationship between PIU and motivation to stu...
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The current study examined the relationship between coping strategies and parenting stress, and explored whether child behaviour problems moderated any relationships. 311 mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), whose child had been diagnosed within the last three years, completed a set of questionnaires relating to coping strategie...
Preprint
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There are many known barriers to reading comprehension for children on the autism spectrum. However, research has tended to focus on children who are verbal or considered to be high functioning in terms of their language ability. Therefore, very little is known about comprehension abilities of the nonverbal cohort, who make up around 30% of the ASD...
Preprint
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Approximately 30% of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are nonverbal (i.e. individuals of school age with little or no spontaneous spoken language). Little is known about the reading abilities of this cohort due to the challenges presented for assessment. There has been growing interest in the use of eye gaze tracking as an observatio...
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Two experiments examined factors controlling human free-operant performance in relation to predictions based on the nature of bout-initiation and within-bout responding. Overall, responding was higher for a random ratio (RR) than a random interval (RI) schedule, with equal rates of reinforcement. Bout-initiation rates were not different across the...
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Three experiments examined human rates and patterns of responding during exposure to various schedules of reinforcement with or without a concurrent task. In the presence of the concurrent task, performances were similar to those typically noted for nonhumans. Overall response rates were higher on medium-sized ratio schedules than on smaller or lar...
Article
Objective: To determine whether patient values impact on compliance and outcome for physiotherapy treatment for pelvic floor dysfunction. Although studies have related 'health values' to behaviours in the laboratory, or to behaviours such as exercise, there have been no studies of the impact of patient values on actual medical treatments. Methods...
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Resurgence is the reappearance of a previously reinforced, but then extinguished behavior, when an alternative behavior that has been reinforced to replace it is also extinguished. This phenomenon has been suggested as important in the re-occurrence of many clinical problems, but little is known currently about the relationship between this process...
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This review examines the effectiveness of hypnotherapy for the relief of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Ten studies examining outcomes of hypnotherapy for OAB were located from searches of electronic databases. Most reports were case studies or observational, but there were two randomized, controlled trials. Hypnotherapeutic treatment regimens...
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Over-selectivity occurs when one element of a complex-stimulus controls behavior at the expense of other equally elements of that stimulus; a phenomenon common in populations subject to cognitive challenge. However, lack of theoretically-based analysis, may have hindered understanding and remediation of the practically-important over-selectivity ph...
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Approximately 30% of school‐aged individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are nonverbal (that is, they have little or no spontaneous spoken language). Most reading tests require verbalisation, which may under‐estimate reading ability in this group. To determine decoding abilities of nonverbal children with ASD (with an age range of 72 to 229...
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OBJECTIVE: The study assessed whether the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood of those who report more internet-based problem behaviors is moderated by autistic traits. It has been suggested that patterns of internet use may serve different functions in those with Autism Spectrum Disorders, which may protect them from internet addicti...
Article
The current study used YouTube as a data source in order to observe parents of children with ASD speaking about their experiences in a ‘naturalistic’ setting. Fifty videos made by parents of children with ASD were collected and qualitatively analysed using a content analytic procedure. This revealed a number of common themes expressed by the parent...
Article
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Reaction to a child’s diagnosis can strongly affect the parent, but little is known about the aspects of the diagnostic process associated with such reactions. The pre-diagnostic levels of anxiety, depression, and parenting stress of 67 volunteer mothers of children subsequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were assessed, along with the...
Article
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Objective To identify patient values and concerns related to choice of bladder reconstruction following removal, in order to provide understanding of factors important in making surgical decisions. Subjects and methods Sixty-two patients treated for advanced bladder cancer (grade pT1 and above), and choosing either ileal conduit or orthotopic neob...
Article
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The effects of brief mindfulness induction on a central trait of autism spectrum disorder (over-selective attention) were examined in order to assess whether different mechanisms act in those with lower and higher levels of autism traits, and determine which intervention may be most appropriate for individuals with different sets of symptoms. Two h...
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Two independent experiments (N = 30 and N = 24) investigated the effects of concurrent task loads on the recognition of faces displaying emotions. The study aimed to explore a possible resolution for an apparently discrepant finding in the literature regarding the impact of such loads on recognition of facial emotions. Faces displaying different em...
Article
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The current study assessed whether reactions to diagnosis are associated with health status for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder at the time of diagnosis, and whether such diagnostic-reaction resolution status is associated with changes in health status over time. A total of 84 mothers of children newly diagnosed with autism spectr...
Article
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Background: The phenomenon whereby behavior becomes controlled by one aspect of the environment at the expense of other equally-salient aspects of the environment (stimulus over-selectivity) is extremely common in many with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the theoretical mechanisms underpinning over-selectivity and its remediation are not...
Article
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Inflexibility is taken to be a key characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), although it is unclear which aspect of cognitive functioning is critical in this context. The current study investigated task-switching problems and inflexibility with a group of children with ASD, and a mental-aged matched control group. Participants (n ¼ 50; mean...
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The current study examined the effects of a brief mindfulness induction on over‐selectivity. Participants were randomly assigned to a mindfulness, unfocused attention (relaxation), or no‐intervention group. Participants experienced their designated intervention for 10min, and they underwent simultaneous discrimination training (AB+ CD‐) followed by...
Article
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Background Little is known about the temporal directionality of relationships between problematic internet use and personality disorders such as narcissism. Objective Although these two constructs are related at a single time, no existent study has determined whether initial problematic internet use is more strongly associated with subsequent narc...
Article
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This study explored the relationship between response cost and the responding maintained by free-operant schedules of reinforcement for participants with lower and higher levels of schizotypy. The ‘discounting’ hypothesis suggests that those with higher levels of schizotypy should be less sensitive to the negative consequences of their behavior. Th...
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This study adopted a novel approach to relating nonhuman and human studies of anxiety and latent inhibition, by exploring the degree to which rats’ “temperaments” in relation to anxiety predicted the development of latent inhibition. It investigated whether anxiety levels in one situation (i.e., an elevated-plus maze) involving 38 intact, mature ra...
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The phenomenon whereby behavior becomes controlled by one aspect of the environment at the expense of other aspects of the environment (stimulus overselectivity) is widespread across many intellectual and developmental disabilities. However, the theoretical mechanisms underpinning overselectivity are not understood. Given similarities between overs...
Article
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Four experiments explored the factors controlling human responding on random interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. All experiments identified 2 types of responding: “bout-initiation” and “within-bout” responding. Responding on RI schedules was related to the interval value rates, being higher on an RI-30s than on an RI-60s or RI-120s schedule,...
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The ratio of index to ring finger length (2D:4D) is used as a proxy for prenatal sex hormone exposure. It has been hypothesised to correlate with religiosity, though no published research has explored this possibility. Here, we initially examined 2D:4D in relation to self-reported religious affiliation and questionnaire measures of general religios...
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Two experiments were designed to investigate differences in rule-governed responding between participants who scored either higher or lower on obsessive-compulsive trait measures. In Experiment 1, participants were required to move a marker through a matrix, whereby schedule-sensitive behavior was reinforced on a fixed-ratio 18 or differential-rein...
Article
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Objective: To assesses the efficacy of a brief telephone call to patients on a waiting list for physiotherapy treatment for pelvic floor dysfunction on initial attendance. Design: A three-armed randomized control study. Setting: An outpatient physiotherapy clinic at a hospital. Participants: 130 consecutively referred women patients (mean ag...
Article
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Hungry rats were trained in a two-lever conditioning chamber to earn food reinforcement according to either a win–shift/lose–stay or a win–stay/lose–shift contingency. Performance on the two contingencies was similar when there was little delay between the initial, information part of the trial (i.e., win or lose) and the choice portion of the tria...
Article
The effectiveness of several community-based early intervention programs for young children (2.5–6.5 years old) with autism spectrum disorder in Greece were compared, as they occurred in a community setting over a nine-month period. There were few differences in functioning change between programs, but applied behavior analysis (ABA) was most e...
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Introduction: To examine the impact of cessation of an internet session on skin conductance responses and anxiety of higher and lower problem internet users, in order to explore possible physiological withdrawal effects. Method: Participants were measured in terms of their skin conductance before (15min), during (15min), and after (15min) an int...
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Medical diagnoses are often made on the basis of the presence of multiple symptoms. However, little is known about how the presence of multiple simultaneous symptoms may influence a bias in determining which symptoms are identified, in part due to a lack of an experimental analogue of this process. The current article presents a laboratory analogue...
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Problematic internet use (PIU) has been suggested as in need of further research with a view to being included as a disorder in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, but lack of knowledge about the impact of internet cessation on physiological function remains a major gap in knowledge and a barrier...
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The relationships of autism quotient (AQ), systematizing (SQ), and empathizing (EQ), with over-selectivity were explored to assess whether over-selectivity is implicated in complex social skills, which has been assumed, but not experimentally examined. Eighty participants (aged 18–60) were trained on a simultaneous discrimination task (AB+CD−), and...
Article
Introduction: Stimulus overselectivity describes a phenomenon where an individual responds only to a subset of the stimuli present in the environment, and, thus, may restrict learning regarding the range, breadth, or number of features, of a stimulus (Farber, Dickson, & Dube, 2017; Kelly, Leader, & Reed, 2015; Reed, 2017). Instances of overselecti...
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Background: Drug-resistance for depression and anxiety is a major limitation in the treatment of these common disorders, and adjunct support interventions may be beneficial in the treatment of these patients. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a short-term (8 session) Relaxation Response Skills Training (RRST) program...
Article
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Background: Two procedures were developed to teach individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders labels (tacts) for various private events (emotions): Study 1 attempted to distinguish them from pure tacts and mands (requests); and Study 2 attempted to train initiating a conversation with grammatically correct subject-verb-comment construction. Metho...
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The literature dealing with the inclusion of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mainstream schools has increased over recent years, propelled by the argument that it will improve the quality of life, educational performance and social development of ‘included’ children. This area of research is currently an important one for the develo...
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Pupils with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) received 6 months of intensive interaction or treatment as usual. They were assessed for behaviour problems at the start and end of the period, and changes were related to child and parent factors. Intensive interaction did not offer any greater advantages to child behaviour than treatment as usual. Howeve...
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Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mephedrone and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), as reported by young recreational polydrug users. Methods: 152 MDMA users and 81 mephedrone users were recruited through snowballing on social network sites. They completed a standard online questionnaire for either mephedrone...
Article
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First-line treatment recommended for pelvic floor disorders is pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), which is effective, acceptable to patients, and cost efficient. However, PFMT outcomes are mediated by patient variables, such as depression, anxiety, motivation, and health values. The current study examined whether provision of an adjunct values-ba...
Article
Full-text available
The current study assessed the relationship between problematic internet behaviors, as measured by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and schizotypal personality traits, measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE(B)). One hundred participants (aged between 20 and 30) were given a battery of psychometric assessmen...
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Traits associated with autism, along with depression, anxiety, loneliness, quality of life, and social anxiety were investigated by self-report questionnaires in a university student population (N = 413). In the sample, which was recruited online, 8 % had scores above cut-off on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) self-report questionnaire. There wer...
Article
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Two experiments examined acquisition of win-stay, win-shift, lose-stay, and lose-shift rules by which hungry rats could earn food reinforcement. In Experiment 1, two groups of rats were trained in a two-lever operant task that required them to follow either a win-stay/lose-shift or a win-shift/lose-stay contingency. The rates of acquisition of the...
Article
Objectives: Obtaining a diagnosis of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for a child is a pivotal point in developing the treatment plan for the child but can also be regarded as highly stressful by parents. The current study examined the impact of different aspects of the diagnosis process on the self-reported mental health of mothers of children u...
Article
Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips o...
Article
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Stimulus over-selectivity describes a phenomenon where only a subset of the relevant stimuli present in the environment, control an individual’s behavior. The current experiment explored the degree to which over-selectivity increases in old age. The level of over-selectivity in a visual discrimination task in 60 individuals aged 60–89 years was ass...
Article
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Schools have an obligation to assess the literacy skills of their students, and the provision of reading instruction to students includes the ability to measure progress in this area. However, the design of reading tests includes the ability not only to read words, but also the ability to verbalise them. This presents a particular challenge for pra...
Article
Objective Choice of reconstruction following bladder removal is often between neobladder or ileal conduit diversion. Identifying patient concerns about this little understood choice should provide better understanding of factors important in making surgical decisions. The current study used a qualitative technique to identify patient concerns and v...