Phaedra Budy

Phaedra Budy
Utah State University | USU · Department of Watershed Sciences

PhD

About

163
Publications
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Publications

Publications (163)
Article
1. Dams can be operated to mimic components of the natural flow regime to minimize impacts on downstream ecosystems. However, infrastructure, societal needs, water management, and watershed runoff constrain which and when flow regime attributes can be mimicked. 2. We compared fish assemblage responses, including native and nonnative species, over...
Article
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Invasive species are a leading cause for native species declines, yet it remains unclear whether maintenance of high native densities influence native persistence in freshwater systems. We designed complementary laboratory and field experiments to test whether high native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) densities affect competition with inva...
Article
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Desert riverscape rehabilitation practitioners must contend with compounding effects of increasing human water demand, persistent drought, non-native species establishment, and climate change, which further stress desert riverine ecosystems such as rivers in the Colorado River basin, USA. Herein, we provide our perspective on the importance of natu...
Article
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Wildlife translocations alter animal movement behavior, so identifying common movement patterns post-translocation will help set expectations about animal behavior in subsequent efforts. American and Eurasian beavers (Castor canadensis; Castor fiber) are frequently translocated for reintroductions, to mitigate human-wildlife conflict, and as an eco...
Article
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Understanding the relative strengths of intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulating populations is a longstanding focus of ecology and critical to advancing conservation programs for imperiled species. Conservation could benefit from an increased understanding of factors influencing vital rates (somatic growth, recruitment, survival) in small, trans...
Article
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Research on fishes sometimes requires that individual fish be captured and subjected to invasive procedures multiple times over a relatively short time span. Electrofishing is one of the most common techniques used to capture fish, and it is known to cause injury to fish under certain circumstances. We evaluated the relationship of growth rates in...
Technical Report
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In this report we present a conservation, restoration and monitoring plan for the lower White River, a major tributary of the Green River. The plan is intended to help guide conservation, restoration and management of the lower White River over the next several decades and is also developed as an adaptive management plan to facilitate learning.
Article
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Plain Language Summary Lakes are an important component of arctic ecosystems. Arctic lake thermal processes have recently experienced dramatic changes due to climate warming. Thorough integration of observations and modeling results at the whole‐lake scale is needed to better understand warming effects on arctic lakes. We chose an arctic lake to co...
Article
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Water development has threatened the ecological integrity of riverine ecosystems. Increasing water demand, persistent drought, and climate change exacerbate the effects of habitat degradation and loss in altered systems such as the Colorado River basin. Today, biologists are challenged to identify management actions that benefit native fishes while...
Presentation
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Widespread introductions of invasive fishes have led to continental-scale homogenization of fish assemblages and biodiversity loss. Once established in new habitats, invasive fishes are costly and difficult to remove. Salmonids are damaging introduced predators that can exert top-down controls on ecosystem function by altering food web dynamics and...
Article
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Effects of climate change-driven disturbance on lake ecosystems can be subtle; indirect effects include increased nutrient loading that could impact ecosystem function. We designed a low-level fertilization experiment to mimic persistent, climate change-driven disturbances (deeper thaw, greater weathering, or thermokarst failure) delivering nutrien...
Article
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Instream barriers can constrain dispersal of nonnative fishes, creating opportunities to test their impact on native communities above and below these barriers. Deposition of sediments in a river inflow to Lake Powell, USA resulted in creation of a large waterfall prohibiting upstream movement of fishes from the reservoir allowing us to evaluate th...
Article
Increasing water demand, water development, and on-going climate change have driven extensive changes to the hydrology, geomorphology and biology of arid-land rivers globally, driving an increasing need to understand how annual hydrologic conditions affect the distribution and abundance of imperiled desert fish populations. We analyzed the relation...
Article
Lahontan Cutthroat Trout (LCT) Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi have experienced some of the most marked reductions in abundance and distribution among Cutthroat Trout subspecies. The population of LCT in Pyramid Lake, Nevada has returned from the brink of extirpation, and although it is highly managed via stocking, the population is thriving and has...
Article
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Polymorphism facilitates coexistence of divergent morphs (e.g., phenotypes) of the same species by minimizing intraspecific competition, especially when resources are limiting. Arctic char (Salvelinus sp.) are a Holarctic fish often forming morphologically, and sometimes genetically, divergent morphs. In this study, we assessed the morphological an...
Article
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Stream habitat changes affecting primary consumers often indirectly impact secondary consumers such as fishes. Blooms of the benthic algae Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo) are known to affect stream macroinvertebrates, but the potential indirect trophic impacts on fish consumers are poorly understood. In streams of the Kootenai River basin, we quant...
Presentation
Full-text available
The presentation included an annual update of 2020 activities related to translocations of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) in tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. A summary of preliminary analyses of hypothesized drivers of demographic rates (e.g., survival, recruitment) and somatic growth rates of translocated hum...
Article
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1. Lakes are vulnerable to climate change, and warming rates in the Arctic are faster than anywhere on Earth. Fishes are sensitive to changing temperatures, which directly control physiological processes. Food availability should partly dictate responses to climate change because energetic demands change with temperature, but few studies have simul...
Article
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Despite low species diversity and primary production, trophic structure (e.g., top predator species, predator size) is surprisingly variable among Arctic lakes. We investigated trophic structure in lakes of arctic Alaska containing arctic char Salvelinus alpinus using stomach contents and stable isotope ratios in two geographically-close but hydrol...
Article
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The ability of PIT tag data to improve demographic parameter estimates has led to the rapid advancement of PIT tag systems. However, ghost tags create uncertainty about detected tag status (i.e., live fish or ghost tag) when using mobile interrogation systems. We developed a method to differentiate between live fish and ghost tags using a random fo...
Article
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Recovery of imperiled fishes can be achieved through suppression of invasives, but outcomes may vary with environmental conditions. We studied the response of imperiled desert fishes to an invasive brown and rainbow trout suppression program in a Colorado River tributary, with natural flow and longitudinal variation in thermal characteristics. We i...
Article
Fishes that evolutionarily demonstrated a fluvial life history expression and migrated to spawning and rearing habitat using lotic corridors are increasingly impacted by fragmentation. The overall goal of this study was to identify the contemporary importance of mainstem connectivity and tributaries to maintaining life history expression, populatio...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Stream habitat changes that affect primary consumers often indirectly impact secondary consumers such as fishes. Blooms of the benthic algae Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo) represent one such habitat change known to affect stream macroinvertebrates. However, the potential indirect trophic impacts on fish consumers via modifications to their diet ar...
Presentation
Full-text available
A summary of a knowledge assessment of the status and trends of native fish (razorback sucker, flannelmouth sucker, bluehead sucker, speckled dace) in the Colorado River and its major tributaries within Grand Canyon, Arizona.
Article
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Abstract Understanding how populations respond to spatially heterogeneous habitat disturbance is as critical to conservation as it is challenging. Here, we present a new, free, and open‐source metapopulation model: Dynamic Habitat Disturbance and Ecological Resilience (DyHDER), which incorporates subpopulation habitat condition and connectivity int...
Presentation
Full-text available
Predation and competition by invasive species are among the most pervasive threats to aquatic biodiversity, particularly in arid-land rivers where human water demand is intense. Once established, invasive fishes are difficult and costly to remove, and environmental variation can confound attempts to quantify population-level responses of native fis...
Chapter
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Native trout are threatened worldwide by introductions of nonnative trout that in many cases are themselves threatened within their native range and historical habitats. This chapter focuses on this paradox and addresses how information gained to protect and restore a species in its native range can be used to suppress the same species outside its...
Article
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• Changes in seasonality associated with climate warming (e.g. temperature, growing season duration) are likely to alter invertebrate prey biomass and availability in aquatic ecosystems through direct and indirect influences on physiology and phenology, particularly in arctic lakes. However, despite warmer thermal regimes, photoperiod will remain u...
Article
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In the Intermountain West, USA, fry of fall‐spawning brown trout (Salmo trutta) are susceptible to scour‐related mortality because they are still in the gravel during spring snowmelt run‐off events. The goal of our research was to understand patterns of gravel scour on the Logan River, Utah, in relation to brown trout spawning and whether mobility...
Article
Management actions aimed at eradicating exotic fish species from riverine ecosystems can be better informed by forecasting abilities of mechanistic models. We illustrate this point with an example of the Logan River, Utah, originally populated with endemic cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii utah), which compete with exotic brown trout (Salmo tru...
Article
Pyramid Lake, Nevada, remains one of the last strongholds for lacustrine‐strain Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (LCT) following historical declines throughout their native range. Historically the apex predator in this aquatic ecosystem, LCT in Pyramid Lake are now entirely dependent on hatchery programs and are potentially th...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time se...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time se...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community led open-source database of biodiversity time se...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the conservation potential of tributaries in the upper Colorado River basin by modeling native fish species richness as a function of river discharge, temperature, barrier‐free length, and distance to nearest free‐flowing main‐stem section. We investigated a historic period prior to large‐scale water development and a contemporary perio...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time se...
Chapter
Full-text available
Brown trout are one of the most pervasive and successful invaders worldwide and are ubiquitous across the Intermountain West, USA (IMW). This species is the foundation of extremely popular and economically significant sport fisheries despite well-established negative effects on native fishes and ecosystems, resulting in very challenging, and often...
Article
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Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has proven to be a valuable tool for detecting species in aquatic ecosystems. Within this rapidly evolving field, a promising application is the ability to obtain quantitative estimates of relative species abundance based on eDNA concentration rather than traditionally labor-intensive methods. We investigated the r...
Article
Stream habitat restoration and supplemental stocking of hatchery-reared fish have increasingly become key components of recovery plans for imperiled freshwater fish; however, determining when to discontinue stocking efforts, prioritizing restoration areas, and evaluating restoration success present a conservation challenge. In this study, we demons...
Article
Maintaining a balance between predator and prey populations can be an ongoing challenge for fisheries managers, especially in managing artificial ecosystems such as reservoirs. In a high-elevation Utah reservoir, the unintentional introduction of the Utah Chub Gila atraria and its subsequent population expansion prompted managers to experimentally...
Article
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Temporal symmetry models (TSM) represent advances in the analytical application of mark-recapture data to status assessments. For a population of char, we employed 10 years of active and passive mark-recapture data to quantify population growth rates using different data sources and analytical approaches. Estimates of adult population growth rate w...
Article
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Trout species often segregate along elevational gradients, yet the mechanisms driving this pattern are not fully understood. On the Logan River, Utah, USA, exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta) dominate at low elevations but are near-absent from high elevations with native Bonneville cutthroat trout (Onchorhynchus clarkii utah). We used a spatially-exp...
Article
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Unintentional and illegal introductions of species disrupt food webs and threaten the success of managed sport fisheries. Although many populations of Burbot Lota lota are declining in the species’ native range, a nonnative population recently expanded into Flaming Gorge Reservoir (FGR), Wyoming–Utah, and threatens to disrupt predator–prey interact...
Article
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Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may inc...
Article
Full-text available
In highly managed reservoir systems, species interactions within novel fish assemblages can be difficult to predict. In high-elevation Scofield Reservoir in Utah the unintentional introduction of Utah Chub Gila atraria and subsequent population expansion prompted a shift from stocking exclusively Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to include tiger t...
Article
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In reservoirs, seasonal drawdown can alter the physical environment and may influence predatory fish performance. We investigated the performance of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in a western reservoir by coupling field measurements with visual foraging and bioenergetic models at four distinct states (early summer, mid-summer, late summer, and...
Article
Full-text available
The efficient allocation of restoration resources is critical for the effective conservation of species. Here, we developed an ecological niche model to predict the response of three imperiled desert fishes to potential restoration actions along the longitudinal gradient of a desert river. The San Rafael River, Utah, is home to a complex of three e...
Article
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The popularity of reservoirs to support sport fisheries has led to the stocking of species that did not co-evolve, creating novel reservoir fish communities. In Utah, the Bear Lake strain of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah and tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) are being more...
Article
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Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of...
Article
Desert fishes are some of the most imperiled vertebrates worldwide due to their low economic worth and because they compete with humans for water. An ecological complex of fishes, 2 suckers (Catostomus latipinnis, Catostomus discobolus) and a chub (Gila robusta) (collectively managed as the so-called three species) are endemic to the U.S. Colorado...
Article
A critical decision in species conservation is whether to target individual species or a complex of ecologically similar species. Management of multispecies complexes is likely to be most effective when species share similar distributions, threats, and response to threats. We used niche overlap analysis to assess ecological similarity of 3 sensitiv...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We completed a multi-year synthesis of the data and analyses for the Walla Walla River to help broadly prioritize conservation actions and inform the conservation of bull trout. • The assessment provides fundamental and critical information on bull trout growth, movement patterns, and survival rates. At the population level we assess abundance, str...
Article
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Little is known about the variability in the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning potamodromous trout despite decades of research directed at salmonid spawning ecology and the increased awareness that conserving life history diversity should be a focus of management. We monitored a population of fluvial–resident Bonneville Cutthroat Trout...
Conference Paper
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Results from a recent meta-analysis of fishery data collected downriver of Western U.S. dams indicates that rapid increases or decreases in dam discharge resulting from alterations in electricity demand (termed “hydropeaking”) can have significant negative effects on the size and catch of a recreationally important introduced salmonid (rainbow trou...
Article
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Size dimorphism in fish populations, both its causes and consequences, has been an area of considerable focus; however, uncertainty remains whether size dimorphism is dynamic or stabilizing and about the role of exogenous factors. Here, we explored patterns among empirical vital rates, population structure, abundance and trend, and predicted the ef...