Petter Bae Brandtzaeg

Petter Bae Brandtzaeg
University of Oslo · Department of Media and Communication

PhD

About

93
Publications
201,599
Reads
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4,192
Citations
Citations since 2016
39 Research Items
3173 Citations
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Introduction
Petter Bae Brandtzaeg currently works at the University of Oslo and SINTEF Digital. Petter does research in HCI and media communication, focusing on usage patterns and user experiences of chatbots powered by AI. Brandtzaeg are project leader in the Social Health Bots project granted by the Norwegian Research Council.
Additional affiliations
May 2000 - present
SINTEF
Position
  • Senior Researcher
May 2000 - February 2017
SINTEF
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
Organizations aiming to foster civic engagement, such as government bodies, news outlets, political parties and non-governmental organizations, struggle to purposefully use social media to engage young people. To meet this challenge and to inform future design, we interviewed 17 innovators in engaging youth, that is, frontrunners in using social me...
Article
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Little research has been conducted on the two most important criteria for the success of social network sites (SNS), that is, content sharing and sociability, and how these affect privacy experiences and usage behavior among SNS users. This article explores these issues by employing in-depth interviews and explorative usability tests, comparing the...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to better understand the digital divide by identifying the variety of ways in which people in Europe use the Internet. First, by using cluster analysis on survey data (N=12,666/age: 16-74 years) from Eurostat on Internet usage in Norway, Sweden, Austria, the UK, and Spain, we identified five user types: Non-Users (42%),...
Article
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Social chatbots have become more advanced, paving the way for human–chatbot relationships (HCRs). Although this phenomenon has already received some research attention, the results have been contradictory, and there is uncertainty regarding how to understand HCR formation. To provide the needed knowledge on this phenomenon, we conducted a qualitati...
Article
Full-text available
Use of conversational artificial intelligence (AI), such as humanlike social chatbots, is increasing. While a growing number of people is expected to engage in intimate relationships with social chatbots, theories and knowledge of human–AI friendship remain limited. As friendships with AI may alter our understanding of friendship itself, this study...
Article
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Depression is a common illness worldwide with potentially severe implications. Early identification of depressive symptoms is a crucial first step towards assessment, intervention, and relapse prevention. With an increase in data sets with relevance for depression, and the advancement of machine learning, there is a potential to develop intelligent...
Article
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No studies we are aware of have explored youth’s experiences of the association between their Internet use and well-being during the COVID-19 lockdown. To fill this void, we used survey data of a representative sample (N = 734) of young Norwegians (16–26 years) collected a few weeks into the lockdown in May 2020. Findings show a substantial increas...
Article
Full-text available
Chatbots are increasingly becoming important gateways to digital services and information—taken up within domains such as customer service, health, education, and work support. However, there is only limited knowledge concerning the impact of chatbots at the individual, group, and societal level. Furthermore, a number of challenges remain to be res...
Article
Organizations aiming to foster civic engagement, such as government bodies, news outlets, political parties, and NGOs, struggle to purposefully use social media to engage young people. To respond to this challenge we conducted five group-interviews with 27 youth, 16–26 years, about their experiences of and barriers to civic engagement in social med...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although social support is important for health and well-being, many young people are hesitant to reach out for support. The emerging uptake of chatbots for social and emotional purposes entails opportunities and concerns regarding non-human agents as sources of social support. To explore this, we invited 16 participants (16–21 years) to use and re...
Preprint
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BACKGROUND Symptoms of depression are frequent in youth and may develop into more severe mood disorders, suggesting interventions should take place during adolescence. However, young people tend not to address their mental problems to friends, family or professionals. Many do also receive misleading information when searching the Internet. Among se...
Article
Full-text available
Background Symptoms of depression are frequent in youth and may develop into more severe mood disorders, suggesting interventions should take place during adolescence. However, young people tend not to share mental problems with friends, family, caregivers, or professionals. Many receive misleading information when searching the internet. Among sev...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a recent surge of interest in social chatbots, and human–chatbot relationships (HCRs) are becoming more prevalent, but little knowledge exists on how HCRs develop and may impact the broader social context of the users. Guided by Social Penetration Theory, we interviewed 18 participants, all of whom had developed a friendship with a s...
Book
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Chatbot Research and Design, CONVERSATIONS 2020, which was held during November 23-24, 2020, hosted by the University of Amsterdam. The conference was planned to take place in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, but changed to an online format due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The 14 pa...
Article
Full-text available
The coronavirus crisis really gives us a glimpse into what it means when more or less all personal connections are digital. Relationships are hypermediated, but they are still relationships. There is no magic place called online. We are all trying to have relationships however we can. But at what cost?
Article
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For chatbots to be broadly adopted by users, it is critical that they are experienced as useful and pleasurable. While there is an emerging body of research concerning user uptake and use of chatbots, there is a lack of theoretically grounded studies detailing what constitutes good or poor chatbot user experiences. In this paper, we present finding...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Chatbot Research and Design, CONVERSATIONS 2019, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in November 2019. The 18 revised full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 31 submissions. The papers are grouped in the following topical sec...
Article
In April 2016, Facebook launched Facebook Live. Yet, how and why people stream on Facebook Live is poorly understood. Guided by the uses and gratifications theory, we analyzed public, individual live stream videos on Facebook Live (N = 1118) from the USA, Europe and Asia and applied a questionnaire to Facebook Live users (N = 246) in the USA. We fo...
Article
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System 1 på Facebook Facebook fremmer det spontane og ofte tankeløse. Slik fordummes og polariseres det offentlige ordskiftet. Hvordan kan vi komme oss videre?
Chapter
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Hva om identiteten til barn og unge i fremtiden blir formet av en algoritme? De siste to tiårene har sosiale medier blitt en del av hverdagslivet, og de er nå med på å forme identiteten vår livet igjennom-fra unnfangelse til død. Til forskjell fra tidligere styres nå internett og sosiale medier i stadig større grad av dataprogrammer som laerer av s...
Chapter
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The increasing usage of chatbots is fundamentally changing the way people interact with new technology. Instead of clicking buttons to functionally navigate on a web page, people can access content and services by the use of natural language in interaction with an artificial agent (e.g., chatbot). This change toward human–chatbot interaction is typ...
Chapter
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Chatbots are emerging as interactive systems. However, we lack knowledge on how to classify chatbots and how such classification can be brought to bear in analysis of chatbot interaction design. In this workshop paper, we propose a typology of chatbots to support such classification and analysis. The typology dimensions address key characteristics...
Article
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The process of self-presentation is significantly complicated for people growing up with social media. Many individuals have time-stamped digital footprints in social media from early youth to adulthood. However, little is known about long-term consequences for these individuals, their experience of time and their identity transition from youthful...
Article
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Advances in artificial intelligence strengthen chatbots' ability to resemble human conversational agents. For some application areas, it may be tempting not to be transparent regarding a conversational agent's nature as chatbot or human. However, the uncanny valley theory suggests that such lack in transparency may cause uneasy feelings in the user...
Chapter
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Reaching out to young people with important information and services, such as health services, is more difficult than ever. 1 Efficient information providers targeting young people concerning health issues have been among the first priorities of the public health agenda in Europe over the past few decades. Social Health Bots, 2 a research project i...
Chapter
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What makes some experiences enjoyable, and other experiences not? How can we understand enjoyment in human factors design; what components should we consider when we are designing for enjoyment? This chapter explores a theoretical model for understanding the components and nature of enjoyment, and how HCI (Human Computer Interaction) professionals...
Article
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Several recent studies have examined how professional journalists use social media at work. However, we know little about the differences between younger and older journal-ists' use of social media for newsgathering. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews comparing eight young journalists (median age = 24) with eight older journalists (median age = 50...
Preprint
Full-text available
Personal data from mobile apps are increasingly impacting users’ lives and privacy perceptions. However, there is a scarcity of research addressing the combination of (1) individual perceptions of mobile app privacy, (2) actual dataflows in apps, and (3) how such perceptions and dataflows relate to actual privacy policies and terms of use in mobile...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chatbots are emerging as an increasingly important area for the HCI community, as they provide a novel means for users to interact with service providers. Due to their conversational character, chatbots are potentially effective tools for engaging with customers, and are often developed with commercial interests at the core. However, chatbots also...
Article
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Context collapse, or the flattening of multiple audiences into a single context, has been an important notion in research on privacy experiences, self-performance, and changing user practices in social media. Yet, previous research has mainly addressed context collapse in spatial rather than temporal terms. The resulting lack of an understanding of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in chatbots, which are machine agents serving as natural language user interfaces for data and service providers. However, no studies have empirically investigated people’s motivations for using chatbots. In this study, an online questionnaire asked chatbot users (N = 146, aged 16–55 years) from the US to report their re...
Article
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While services for fact-checking and verification to counter fake news in social media have increased, little research has investigated how journalists and the public perceive such services. This study reflects the outcomes of REVEAL, a three-year European Union research project investigating the use and impact of services for fact-checking and ver...
Article
Full-text available
˽ Though fact-checking services play an important role countering online disinformation, little is known about whether users actually trust or distrust them. ˽ The data we collected from social media discussions—on Facebook, Twitter, blogs, forums, and discussion threads in online newspapers—reflects users’ opinions about fact-checking services. ˽...
Article
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Sosiale medier er en stadig viktigere kanal for kontakt med venner og familie. Likevel er eldre menneskers bruk og ikke-bruk av sosiale medier i liten grad forsket på. Ved hjelp av dybdeintervjuer (n=24), fokusgruppeintervjuer (n=39) og en spørreskjemaundersøkelse (n=290) undersøkte vi hvorfor noen eldre bruker, mens andre ikke bruker sosiale medie...
Article
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This special issue on "Social media use and innovations" of the Journal of Media Innovation provides an engaging view into innovative uses of social media as well as approaches for utilizing social media in innovation. With three papers included, we cover experiences with an online social network for children (Stephanie Valentine and Tracy Hammond)...
Article
Full-text available
Youth civic identities and social media practices are changing rapidly, and civic organisations are struggling to exploit the potential of social media to reach youth. One major challenge concerns the genera-tional culture gap between the networked culture of today's youth and the top–down culture characteristic of many civic organisations. This st...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the various user patterns among young people and their use of computers and the Internet in school. First, by using cluster analysis on survey data (N=1,850 /age: 9-16 years), we identified four distinct user types: Sporadic Users (38%), Video Users (11%), Socialisers (41%), and Ad...
Article
Full-text available
Facebook is expected to facilitate more equal participation in civic engagement across genders and countries. With the use of a big data tool (Wisdom), we explored gender disparities in various Facebook liking practices concerning expressions of civic engagement among 21,706,806 Facebook users in ten countries across Asia, Africa, the Americas, and...
Article
Full-text available
The verification of social media content and sources are increasingly critical to journalists and news organisations. In this study we report on findings from qualitative interviews conducted with 24 journalists working with social media in major news organizations in Europe. Our findings contribute to new knowledge on journalists' social media wor...
Article
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While there has been a great deal of research on younger people using Social Networking Sites (SNSs), there has been less work on older people and non-users. We present a mixed-methods design with a technology-acceptance survey and focus-group interviews to study older Norwegian non-users’ perceptions of SNSs. Our study reveals that most non-users...
Article
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Civic engagement on Facebook has evolved, but there are still few studies of people's motivations and reasons for liking humanitarian causes on Facebook. Introduced in 2009, the 'like' button has become a part of users' daily Facebook routines and a way for them to engage in humanitarian causes. Content analysis from a survey (N = 405) revealed six...
Article
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Biographical notes: Piet Kommers is an Associate Professor at the University of Twente, The Netherlands. His specialty is social media for communication and organisation. As conference co-chair of the IADIS multi-conference he initiated the conferences of web-based communities and social media, e-society, mobile learning and international higher ed...
Data
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Online communities are changing how companies and non-profits innovate, lower costs, tap talent, and realize new socio-economic opportunities. In this paper, online communities are predicted to be an important resource in open innovation processes, based on the emerging online community trend of sharing and collaboration among non-professional user...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores privacy challenges in Enterprise 2.0 (E2.0) in a large-scale multinational knowledge-intensive company. The study focuses on the dilemma of sociability vs. privacy likely to arise under E2.0 models, applying both social capital and privacy regulation theory. A qualitative approach has been selected to gain deeper insights into t...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid adoption of social networking sites (SNSs) raises important questions about the social implications of such usage. Drawing on unique longitudinal data, surveying a representative sample of Norwegian online users (N = 2,000, age 15–75 years) in 3 annual waves (2008, 2009, and 2010), this study found a significantly higher score among SNS u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we identify different forms and meanings of civic participation found among young people in social media. This is key knowledge for the design and evaluation of social media applications that support youth engagement in society. Such knowledge is particularly useful for stakeholders who aim to create online arenas where youth can exp...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid adoption of social networking sites (SNSs) raises important questions about the social implications of such usage. Drawing on unique longitudinal data, surveying a representative sample of Norwegian online users (N=2,000, age 15-75 years) in 3 annual waves (2008, 2009, and 2010), this study found a significantly higher score among SNS use...
Article
This chapter aims to understand cyber behavior in terms of Internet usage patterns in Europe. It presents both an historical introduction to the term and insight into the different approaches to understanding cyber behavior, such as the user typology approach, by which European citizens are classified according to their Internet usage patterns. It...
Article
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Dissemination is defined as "the act of diffusing knowledge". The traditional ways of research dissemination, is through the publications of papers and to attend conferences. Traditional dissemination is important, but not very accessible, transparent or visible. However, the principles and possibilities of disseminating research have changed with...
Article
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There is a lack of research on the role that new media play in the life of young children under the age of 13 years. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between distinct media user types and social displacement among children under the age of 13. A sample of 1,117 Norwegian schoolchildren from the age of 7 to 12...
Article
Full-text available
Social networking sites (SNSs) are said to be new important means of participating, communicating, and gaining social capital. Thus, increasingly fragmented user population and user behaviours in SNSs make it important to achieve more knowledge about SNS users and their participation inequality. This article proposes a user typology for SNSs, which...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How does the use of social networking sites (SNSs) affect social capital offline and online? The increasing popularity of SNSs such as Facebook (FB) implies a significant change in the way we interact with others. In an extensive longitudinal study (N = 311), carried out in Norway between 2008 - 2010, we examined the relationship between FB use and...
Chapter
The last few years have seen a substantial growth in online communities such as MySpace and Facebook. In order to survive and increase in size, online community systems must enhance social interaction and participation. This chapter analyzes participation in new online communities, using a combination of the socio-technical perspective and the huma...
Article
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This study explores the relationship between three distinct dimensions of social capital (bridging, peer-bonding and family-bonding capital) in social network sites (SNSs). We ask what kinds of social relations are sought by SNS users and whether the usage of new SNSs contributes to family bonding. A representative sample of the Norwegian internet...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract. Online communities are changing how companies and non-profits innovate, lower costs, tap talent, and realize new socio-economic opportunities. In this paper, online communities are predicted to be an important resource in open innovation processes, based on the emerging online community trend of sharing and collaboration among non-profess...
Article
Full-text available
Cyberbullying is an emerging threat to children in Europe. However, European research into this topic is scant and knowledge of it incomplete. In this study, “cyberbullying” involves the use of different technological platforms to support hostile behavior by an individual or group that harm others. The article examines whether children's experience...
Article
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The gaming industry has dramatically increased the range of choices for different game genres and content. Despite this, research on psychosocial factors in children and electronic gaming has primarily focused on time spent on games rather than on content preferences. The present study goes beyond the traditional focus on electronic game frequency...
Chapter
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One of the anxieties regarding children's internet use relates to the potential for risky contacts. This chapter critically reviews the latest findings and theories on children's risky contacts with adults and children – grooming, harassment, and meetings – in order to identify who is really at risk from what. Two primary types of risks are discuss...
Chapter