Petra Guasti

Petra Guasti
Charles University in Prague | CUNI · Institute of Political Studies

About

79
Publications
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Introduction
I am an Associate Professor of Democratic Theory at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, and a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences (on leave). Between 2016 and 2021 I served as a senior researcher, an Interim Professor, and adjunct lecturer at Goethe University. My research focuses on the reconfiguration of the political landscape and evolves around three themes – populism, democratization, and representation.

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
The main focus of this article is the role of organized civil society in facilitating citizen engagement in Central and East European new EU member states after the EU accession and the recent economic crises. Using international comparative methodologies and data this article analyses democratic processes in the new member states focussing on the...
Article
Full-text available
Scholars are coming to terms with the fact that something is rotten in the new democracies of Central Europe. The corrosion has multiple symptoms: declining trust in democratic institutions, emboldened uncivil society, the rise of oligarchs and populists as political leaders, assaults on an independent judiciary, the colonization of public administ...
Article
Why, when, and how does populism emerge in a stable democracy? This article investigates the political logic and ideological appeal of a rarely explored form of populism: technocratic populism. Technocratic populism uses the appeal of technical expertise to connect directly with the people, promising to run the state as a firm, while at the same ti...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic represents a new and unparalleled stress-test for the already disrupted liberal, representative, democracies. The challenges cluster around three democratic disfigurations: technocracy, populism, and plebiscitarianism—each have the potential to contribute to democratic decay. Still, they can also trigger pushback against illib...
Article
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What are the effects of populists in power on democracy during a pandemic? The paper seeks to distinguish the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic can (not) be traced to democratic erosion and democratic resilience. Are the changes in the quality of democracy resulting from political leaders' actions or rather a path-dependent continuation of prev...
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This introductory article to Democratic Theory's special issue on the marginalized democracies of the world begins by presenting the lexical method for understanding democracy. It is argued that the lexical method is better than the normative and analytical methods at finding democracies in the world. The argument then turns to demonstrating, mainl...
Chapter
In den vergangenen 30 Jahren erlebte die Tschechische Republik eine Demokratisierung, ökonomische Transformation und Neudefinition des Nationalstaates. Sie verfügt heute über konsolidierte demokratische und marktwirtschaftliche Institutionen, die jedoch durch die Ballung ökonomischer, politischer und medialer Macht bei dem amtierenden Ministerpräsi...
Article
This review follows the structure of the book, exploring the key elements raised by the author, starting with the introduction and proceeding through each of the three sections. The introduction discusses the limits of the friend versus foe narrative in the absence of clarity by drawing upon the theoretical lit- erature on populism and its relation...
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This article seeks to build a bridge between the empirical scholarship rooted in the traditional theory of political representation and constructivist theory on representation by focusing on the authorization of claims. It seeks to answer how claims can be authorized beyond elections - selecting three democratic innovations and tracing claims throu...
Article
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Populism and technocracy reject vertical accountability and horizontal accountability. Populism and technocracy can combine to form 'technocratic populism.' The study assesses the extent to which democratic decay can be traced to the actions of technocratic populists as opposed to institutional factors, civil society, fragmentation and polarization...
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This article focuses on the roots and mechanisms of Macron's success, arguing that in 2017 two conditions were essential in Macron's rise-the implosion of the established system of the French Fifth Republic in which the two main parties were alternating in power; and the rise of anti-establishment populist challengers on the right and on the left (...
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This thematic issue, "Varieties of Technocratic Populism around the World," investigates ideological origins of technocratic populism and situates it among other types of populism. It is composed of 11 articles that bring together 18 scholars from around the world with a wide variety of perspectives. Technocratic populism is an output-oriented popu...
Book
Full-text available
This thematic issue, “Varieties of Technocratic Populism around the World,” investigates ideological origins of technocratic populism and situates it among other types of populism. It is composed of 11 articles that bring together 18 scholars from around the world with a wide variety of perspectives. Technocratic populism is an output-oriented popu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Using historical institutionalism for a comparison of domestic processes around minority rights in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, this chapter shows that the European Union’s effect on the conflicts over minority rights is much weaker than suspected. While the EU and the Council of Europe provide a framework of LGBT rights and gender equality, th...
Data
Czechia is grappling with a combination of low levels of public trust and high political polarization. Citizens do not trust established political parties, and the membership base of major political parties has shrunk significantly over the past three years. On both the left and the right, established political parties are increasingly facing two k...
Chapter
This chapter takes a deeper look at the consolidation of democracy in the Czech Republic and contrasts the picture of Czech Republic as a poster child for economic transition in the early 1990s with the decreasing quality of the Czech democracy in recent years. This paradox, it argues, makes the Czech Republic a compelling case for democratisation...
Chapter
Populism is an anti-establishment, anti-elite ideology and political strategy. Populism as an ideology adopts a discursive approach and focuses on the tensions between the “pure people” and the “corrupt elite.” The “people” can be subsumed into three discursive frames: the nation, the (economic) underdog, and the ordinary people (Canovan 1981, cite...
Article
This article explores the mechanisms of accommodation and backlash against a new identity group in the Czech Republic and Slovakia-LGBT. Minority demands spark political backlash because societal consensus lags behind the actual accommodation of sexual minorities. The legal framework of the European Union and international pressure groups further a...
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One of the key problems of our time is how much security we want, what price we are willing to pay to feel safe and whether safety leads to satisfaction. Security has a financial and political cost. The article focuses on the relationship between security and privacy from the point of view of a citizen. It examines Czech and Slovak citizen attitude...
Data
Executive Summary The October 2017 parliamentary elections were the culmination of the meteoric rise of billionaire-turned-politician Andrej Babiš, who emerged victorious with almost 30% of the vote. However, accusations against him of fraud for misuse of EU funds and of conflict of interest for retaining effective control over his business and med...
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Representation is a process of making, accepting, or rejecting representative claims (Disch, 2015; Saward, 2014). This groundbreaking insight challenged the standard assumption that representative democracy can be reduced to elections and activities of elected representatives (Pitkin, 1967). It broadened the scope of representative democracy to enc...
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The system of representative democracy is under considerable strain. Its institutions are struggling to maintain legitimacy, and its elected representatives are failing to keep their monopoly on (formal) political representation. An emerging multitude of (new) claim makers contests the authority of elected representatives as well as the functioning...
Article
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The established notion of political representation is challenged on multiple accounts-theoretically, conceptually, and empirically. The contributions to this thematic issue explore the constructivist turn as the means for rethinking political representation today around the world. The articles included here seek to reconsider representation by theo...
Research
Full-text available
Based on our research on technocratic populism and civil society, we introduce the concept of social accountability - active civil society as a firewall against democratic erosion.
Chapter
In the Czech Republic, the economic crisis is mirrored in deepening gover- nance issues and a decline in the quality of democracy. In the evaluation of government’s steering capability and its performance during the economic crisis, the Czech Republic significantly lags behind some countries in the re- gion regarding the capacity of its political a...
Chapter
This introduction proceeds as follows. First, we briefly outline the main arguments of the contemporary literature regarding the diagnosis and the causes of the decline in democratic quality in contemporary democracies. We then turn to the contributions in this volume, divided into three sets. The first set of contributions focuses on analysing the...
Research
Full-text available
Policy Analysis of Populism in CEE, In: Benz, A. Populismus als Herausforderung fuer Wissenschaft und Praxis. (pp. 35-38). Science Policy Paper 1. Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programm.
Book
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Democracy, defined as liberal pluralism, is under stress worldwide. Pluralistic democratic institutions: a free press, civil society and the rule of law all seem to be under attack. Democracies are being hollowed out from within while preserving the fundamental facade of elections. The strength of this book is in providing a range of perspectives...
Data
From January 2014 to the parliamentary elections in October 2017, the Czech Republic was governed by a coalition government led by Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka of the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD). Junior coalition partners included the Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens (ANO), led by billionaire Andrej Babiš, and the Christian Democrats (...
Data
In the period from November 2015 to November 2016, the Czech Republic was governed by a coalition government. The government was led by Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka of the Czech Social Democratic Party (Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD ). Junior coalition parties included the Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens (ANO), led by billionaire me...
Chapter
The text takes a deeper look at the consolidation of democracy in the Czech Republic and contrasts the picture of Czech Republic as a poster child for economic transition in the early 1990s with the decreasing quality of the Czech democracy in the past years. This paradox, it argues, makes the Czech Republic a compelling case for democratization re...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the interaction between government and opposition in the Czech Parliament. It shows that weak and unstable governing coalitions grapple with the presence of two types of opposition – permanent and mainstream opposition. Drawing on the example of the recent economic crisis, this chapter explains the variation in behavior of b...
Chapter
Simulationen, im Sinne von komplexen Rollenspielen, sind heutzutage in der (Hochschul-) lehre verbreitet. Ziel ist es, Studierende aktiv zu beteiligen, um inhaltsspezifisches interaktives Lernen, Verstehen und Kommunizieren zu fördern. Dieses Kapitel diskutiert einige wichtige Aspekte von EU-Simulationen als Einführung und Grundlage in Hinblick auf...
Book
Der Band diskutiert die Möglichkeiten, aber auch Grenzen und Probleme von EU-Simulationen und liefert wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse zur Konzeptualisierung, zum Simulationsdesign und zur systematischen Evaluation von Lernergebnissen. Ferner werden EU-Simulationen als Forschungsinstrument betrachtet, beispielsweise für den Bereich Didaktik und in de...
Chapter
Jugendhilfeeinrichtungen sind als Organisationen Teil der Freien Wohlfahrtspflege und ein wichtiger Bestandteil des aktivierenden Sozialstaats. Bei der Implementierung eines Handlungsmodells im stationären Bereich einer Jugendhilfeeinrichtung spielen unterschiedliche Dimensionen – innerhalb ein und derselben Arena, der Organisation – eine Rolle: di...
Chapter
Der Beitrag wird die Transformation des autoritären kommunistischen Regimes in der Tschechoslowakei in pluralistische (und schließlich unabhängige) Demokratien in der Tschechischen Republik und in der Slowakei vergleichen. Dabei soll vor allem die Funktionsweise der Demokratien im Rahmen der eingebetteten defekten Demokratie untersucht und der Einf...
Data
Full-text available
Executive Summary In the period from November 2014 to November 2015, a coalition government, headed by Social Democrat Bohuslav Sobotka, together with the Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens (ANO) party, led by billionaire Andrej Babiš, and the Christian Democrats has brought relative political stability, though ongoing tensions continued within and...
Data
In the period from May 2013 to November 2014, three separate governments cycled in and out of power in the Czech Republic. In July 2013, the centerright cabinet of Prime Minister Petr Nečas collapsed in ignominy following his resignation over the misuse of military intelligence services by his chief of staff. An interim government under Prime Minis...
Article
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The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is widely regarded as the most important human rights court worldwide. This article investigates the extent to which the court addresses cases from countries with the worst human rights performance. Using a new data set on all ECtHR judgments from 1995–2012, the analysis suggests that the ECtHR does not de...
Data
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In 2015 more than one million refugees were seeking protection in the EU, the majority fleeing war and violence in the Middle East and heading towards a few EU-member states like Austria, Germany and Sweden. This is a small number compared to the overall prob-lem of persons being forced to leave their homes because of war and persecution. In 2016 t...
Article
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Published in the framework of the Jean Monnet Multilateral Research Group “EU-Russia Relations: Developing a Transnational Perspective”, March 2016.
Data
The Czech Republic was governed during the review period by a coalition of three parties of the center-right. Although they started with a secure majority, they were left weak in the face of a vocal opposition by internal conflicts and the removal of ministers for apparent incompetence, reluctance to stick to prior agreements within the government...
Article
Simulations, understood as complex role plays, are nowadays widely used in (university) teaching to actively engage students and promote content-specific interactive learning, understanding, and communication. There is a growing debate about the functions and benefits of simulations in the university teaching context. Simulating the EU is not yet a...
Article
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New technologies represent opportunities (to ensure safety) and threats (to privacy and freedom), and also emphasize key tensions - between security and freedom/privacy and between security and its various costs (economic, health, public support, etc.). The dilemma of our times, for civil society, governments, the media, and individual citizens, is...
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The legal documents drafted in April 2013 to enable the EU's accession to the European Charter of Human Rights represented a further confirmation of the unprecedented victory of democracy and human rights in Europe. However, with the outbreak and evolution of the armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine in 2014, the victory of democracy and human rights i...
Article
Political and scholarly debates abound as regards the nature and conditions of the legitimacy of European governance. Assuming that civil society “is a space in which the citizens can be empowered and take on the role of political subjects, as well as a forum testing the legitimacy of political power as regards ‘the will of the people’” (Eriksen 20...
Chapter
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The study focuses on development of democracy in the Czech Republic after the EU accession with special attention paid to successes and failures and to their possible structural causes. The democratic processes in the Czech Republic are analysed with help of accepted international comparative methodology. The main emphasis is placed on the basic as...
Book
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Publikace nabízí pohled na proměny české veřejné sféry a české politiky v kontextu přípravy Smlouvy o Ústavě pro Evropu a ratifikace Lisabonské smlouvy a následných voleb do Evropského parlamentu (2009). Období přípravy a ratifikace Lisabonské smlouvy (2004-2009) je velmi podnětné, protože představovalo v České republice klíčový posun hlavního prou...
Book
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As an outcome of a five-year international research project “RECON – Reconstituting democracy in Europe”, this volume presents country case studies of Central and East European countries and comparative findings from research on the transformation of collective identities in Central and Eastern Europe under the conditions of an enlarging Europe. Th...
Article
The participation and representation of women in decision-making bodies is an important factor in evaluating the level of political culture and the quality of democracy in a country. In the Czech Republic, and in post-communist countries in general, the representation of women in decision-making is imbalanced when compared with the representation o...
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Based on a discourse analysis of Czech media coverage of EU Constitutional ratification and rejection between October 2004 and October 2005, this article identifies and analyses the following aspects of the Czech debate: (1) A shift from substantive towards procedural issues within the ratification period; (2) the involvement of a relatively low nu...
Book
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Civil society represents a concept, an issue of debate and a social reality commonly encountered in the media, in academic debates and in everyday life. Civil society can also be compared to a black box or as a suitcase. The content of this suitcase and its use changes according to actors’ interests or value-orientations. In normative theory, which...
Book
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Abstrakt: Studie přehledně mapuje účast žen ve vrcholové politice a průřezově také v politických stranách. Na základě analýzy empirických dat nabízí také pohled na postoje veřejnosti k zapojení žen do politiky v České republice. Hlavním cílem studie je analyzovat důvody nižšího zastoupení žen v politických funkcích v Česku. Z tohoto důvodu se zaměř...
Book
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Tato studie se zaměřuje na vztah mezi participací a občanstvím a jejich vlivem na formování a fun- gování efektivní reprezentativní demokracie. V první části práce je vytvořen teoretický rámec zkou- mání otázek demokracie, participace a občanství. Druhá část studie se zaměřuje na analýzu demo- kracie v České republice. Jejím cílem je po vytvoření t...
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The paper will concentrate on analysing existing institutional structures for interest mediation between individuals, social groups, organisations and the State, and the influence of these structures on the legal system. The increasing specialisation of the structures of modern democratic societies has resulted in the creation of a growing number o...
Book
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This study defines the space of civic participation based on a differentiation between the terms “civil society” and the “third (non-governmental) sector”. Establishing this terminology and theoret- ical framework appears to be key, as these two terms are often confused. Notwithstanding its long tradition and topicality, the term “civil society” is...
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The article aims to explain voting unity in the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic based on data from the years 1998–2002. It introduces the basic terminology and theoretical framework used in literature on the behaviour of parties in parliament and the basic institutional rules that should result in the unity of political...
Article
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The article aims to explain voting unity in the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic based on data from the years 1998-2002. It introduces the basic terminology and theoretical framework used in literature on the behaviour of parties in parliament and the basic institutional rules that should result in the unity of political...
Article
vod Přestože v České republice stejně jako ve většině jiných států Evropské unie existuje rovnoprávnost mužů a žen před zákonem, a že zákon nejen zakazuje diskriminaci z hlediska pohlaví, ale rovněž definuje rovnost šancí mužů a žen v usilování o volené i delegované funkce ve sférách politiky a ekonomiky, existují i nadále bariéry, které tomuto pro...
Article
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The main aim of the paper is to assess the quality of democracy in the Czech Republic. The functioning of the Czech democracy is evaluated according to the international comparative methodology – Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI). This method has allowed the authors to analyse democratic processes in the Czech Republic in terms of comparative...
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The role and functioning of the upper chambers of Central and Eastern European (CEE) parliaments have for a long time been a minor topic on the research agenda of legislative specialists. This paper seeks to fill the gap in existing research by aiming to determine the main effects caused by the process of Europeanisation on the relationships betwee...
Article
Nízká míra reprezentace žen v politice je úzce spojena se statusem žen, které jsou vnímány spíše jako sociální skupina, než jako jednotlivci. Zároveň je jejich sociální status výrazně nižší než sociální status mužů. V rozporu s tímto konstruktem je chápání občanství vymezené v rámci teorie radikální demokracie francouzskou teoretičkou Chantal Mouff...
Article
1600 výt. Vydáno v rámci projektu Vyrovnané šance v politice
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Vyd. 1. Vydáno ve spolupráci se Sociologickým ústavem Akademie věd České republiky

Projects

Projects (8)