Petr Klapetek

Petr Klapetek
Czech Metrology Institute | ČMI · Nanometrology

PhD

About

141
Publications
20,275
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Introduction
Working on field of quantitative scanning probe microscopy, i.e. scanning probe microscopy data processing, modeling, and instrumentation. Different research topics include nanoscale dimensional, mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties, from experimental point of view including instruments line AFM, EFM, SThM or SNOM.

Publications

Publications (141)
Preprint
Periodic structures are often found in various areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology with many of them being used for metrological purposes either to calibrate instruments, or forming the basis of measuring devices such as encoders. Evaluating the period of one or two-dimensional periodic structures from topography measurements, e.g. performed us...
Article
Plasma-polymer thin films were prepared under dusty plasma conditions. Due to their nanocomposite structure, the films showed unique mechanical properties including high elastic recovery resulting in a behaviour similar to superelasticity. The work is mainly focused on the characterization of the films by means of analytical scanning electron micro...
Article
We study the effect of Coulomb correlation on the emission properties of the ground state exciton in zincblende CdSe/ZnS core–shell and in wurtzite ZnO quantum dots (QDs). We validate our theory model by comparing results of computed exciton energies of CdSe/ZnS QDs to photoluminescence and scanning near-field optical microscopy measurements. We us...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional spectroscopic ellipsometry is a powerful tool in optical metrology. However, when it comes to the characterization of non-periodic nanostructures or structured fields that are much smaller than the illumination spot size, it is not well suited as it integrates the results over the whole illuminated area. Instead, imaging ellipsometry c...
Article
Full-text available
Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of 7-mercapto-4-methylcoumarin (MMC) on a flat gold surface were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, reference-free grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to determine the maximum monolayer density and to investigate the nature of the molecule/surface inte...
Article
An inhomogeneous polymer-like thin film was deposited by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition onto silicon single-crystal substrate whose surface was roughened by anodic oxidation. The inhomogeneous thin film with randomly rough boundaries was created as a result. This sample was studied using the variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study the effect of Coulomb correlation on the emission properties of the ground state exciton in zincblende CdSe/ZnS core-shell and in wurtzite ZnO quantum dots. We validate our theory model by comparing results of computed exciton energies of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots to photoluminescence and scanning near-field optical microscopy measurements. We...
Preprint
The impact of surface roughness on conductive heat transfer across nanoscale contacts is investigated by means of scanning thermal microscopy. Silicon surfaces with out-of-plane rms roughness of ~0, 0.5, 4, 7 and 11 nm are scanned both under air and vacuum conditions. Three types of resistive SThM probes spanning curvature radii over orders of magn...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of surface roughness on conductive heat transfer across nanoscale contacts is investigated by means of scanning thermal microscopy. Silicon surfaces with the out-of-plane rms roughness of ∼0, 0.5, 4, 7, and 11 nm are scanned both under air and vacuum conditions. Three types of resistive SThM probes spanning curvature radii over orders of...
Article
Full-text available
Synthetic data are of increasing importance in nanometrology. They can be used for development of data processing methods, analysis of uncertainties and estimation of various measurement artefacts. In this paper we review methods used for their generation and the applications of synthetic data in scanning probe microscopy, focusing on their princip...
Article
Surface and volume imperfections can significantly affect the performance of nanoscale or microscale devices used in photonics, optoelectronics or scientific instrumentation. In this article we present an open source software package for Finite-Difference Time-Domain electromagnetic field calculations suitable for calculations on graphics cards. It...
Article
We assess Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) with a self-heated doped silicon nanoprobe as a method for determining the local phase transition temperature of polymeric materials by means of nano-thermomechanical analysis (nano-TA). Reference semi-crystalline samples and amorphous test samples, characterized first using differential scanning calorim...
Article
Full-text available
Surface roughness plays an important role in various fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. However, the present practices in roughness measurements, typically based on some Atomic Force Microscopy measurements for nanometric roughness or optical or mechanical profilometry for larger scale roughness significantly bias the results. Such biased va...
Article
Full-text available
The 2019 update to the Mise en Pratique for the metre adopted the lattice parameter of silicon as a secondary realisation of the metre for dimensional nanometrology. One route for this realisation is the use of amphitheatre like monoatomic steps of silicon. In response, in this paper we present new algorithms for one- and two-dimensional analysis o...
Article
Full-text available
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) often relies on the assumption that cantilever bending can be described by simple beam theory and that the displacement of the tip can be evaluated from the cantilever angle. Some more advanced metrological instruments use free-space or fibre interferometers for measuring the position of the cantilever apex directly, t...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) can be considered as a standard tool for nano-scale investigation of magnetic domain structures by probing the local stray magnetic field landscape of the measured sample. However, this generally provides only qualitative data. To quantify the stray magnetic fields, the MFM system must be calibrated. To that end, a t...
Article
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In recent years, there has been growth in the development of high-speed AFMs, which offer the possibility of video rate scanning and long-range scanning over several hundred micrometres. However, until recently these instruments have been lacking full traceable metrology. In this paper traceable metrology, using optical interferometry, has been add...
Article
Magnetic force microscopy (MFM), which allows mapping of the magnetic field distribution with nanoscale resolution, is a well‐known tool. However, for the last two decades, calibration was available only to a few labs. Now, after a few years of active research, the calibration protocols have been reviewed and improved, making it available to every...
Article
Full-text available
The future of consumer electronics depends on the capability to reliably fabricate nanostructures with given physical properties. Therefore, techniques to characterize materials and devices with nanoscale resolution are crucial. Among these is magnetic force microscopy (MFM), which transduces the magnetic force between the sample and a magnetic osc...
Preprint
When measuring the roughness of rough surfaces, the limited sizes of scanned areas lead to its systematic underestimation. Levelling by polynomials and other filtering used in real-world processing of atomic force microscopy data increases this bias considerably. Here a framework is developed providing explicit expressions for the bias of squared m...
Article
Nanoindentation is a popular tool for the study of hardness and elasticity of materials at the nanoscale. However, the roughness of such samples may violate the basic assumptions under which these parameters can be evaluated. In this article we study the effects of roughness on the reduced modulus of contact. A systematic study using 3D FEA modelin...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic force microscopy has unsurpassed capabilities in analysis of nanoscale and microscale magnetic samples and devices. Similar to other Scanning Probe Microscopy techniques, quantitative analysis remains a challenge. Despite large theoretical and practical progress in this area, present methods are seldom used due to their complexity and lack...
Article
Full-text available
We present a numerical approach for estimation of the probe–sample elastic deformation for higher contact forces and/or smaller probe apex radii in Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) measurements. It is based on a mass-spring model implemented on a graphics card in order to perform very high numbers of individual force–distance curves calculations in...
Article
Full-text available
Nanopositioning stages are used in many areas of nanotechnology and advanced materials analysis, often being integrated into analytical devices such as scanning probe and optical microscopes and manufacturing devices (e.g. lithographic systems). We present a metrological instrument, together with software, designed for traceable evaluation of stage...
Article
Full-text available
In today's highly integrated microelectronic systems there is a need for high-resolution spatial temperature measurement on chips. The resolution requirements are higher than the infrared imaging systems are capable of, and the investigated areas of the chips are often too large for most common scanning thermal microscopes. In this article we prese...
Article
With the improvement of depth-sensing instruments nanoindentation has become a standard tool for the study and design of thin film systems, nanocomposites and other nanostructured materials and devices. Mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus and hardness can be measured at scales in the depth range of tens of nanometers. The correct determi...
Chapter
Scanning Probe Microscopy is a technique very frequently used for thin film surfaces measurements at different stages of their preparation and/or characterization. It provides information about the surface morphology and can also be used to measure locally various physical quantities. In this chapter we discuss typical quantities measured and evalu...
Article
Full-text available
We present an approach for simulation of topography related artefacts in local thermal conductivity measurements using Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM). Due to variations of the local probe-sample geometry while the SThM probe is scanning across the surface the probe-sample thermal resistance changes significantly which leads to distortions in th...
Article
The quantitative results obtained using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) are influenced not only by instrumentation factors, but also by humans - the SPM users that perform the data processing and the evaluation of statistical characteristics, dimensions and other parameters from the images. We investigate this user influence empirically by performi...
Article
We present a software library and related methodology for enabling easy integration of adaptive step (non-equidistant) scanning techniques into metrological scanning probe microscopes or scanning probe microscopes where individual x, y position data are recorded during measurements. Scanning with adaptive steps can reduce the amount of data collect...
Article
The development of nanotechnology gives rise to new demands on standards for dimensional measurements. Monoatomic steps on, e.g. silicon are a suitable length standard with a very low nominal value. The quantum-mechanical nature of objects consisting of only a few atomic layers in one or more dimensions can no longer be neglected and it is necessar...
Article
Full-text available
We have investigated surface layers on a monocrystalline float-zone, n-type (2400–2990 Ωcm) sphere with the diameter of 93.6004 mm. Ellipsometric spectra in the visible–ultraviolet range reveals the presence of thin layers of amorphous Si as well as oxide overlayer. We have also prepared a series of flat Si samples, polished using slurries with 1–6...
Article
In this paper a novel approach for the practical utilization of the 2D wavelet filter in terms of the artifacts removal from atomic force microscopy measurements results is presented. The utilization of additional data such as summary photodiode signal map is implemented in terms of the identification of the areas requiring the data processing, fil...
Poster
Full-text available
In this study a combination of scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) and finite elements modelling (FEM) was employed to assess the real thermal conductivity of two individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Individual nanotubes were taken from two different commercial chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) sources, denoted as S1 and S2. The morpho...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal conductivity contrast images in scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) are often distorted by artifacts related to local sample topography. This is pronounced on samples with sharp topographic features, on rough samples and while using larger probes, for example, Wollaston wire-based probes. The topography artifacts can be so high that they can...
Article
Full-text available
We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm(2) regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching...
Article
Radial junction solar cells with only ~100 nm thin amorphous Si absorber layer deposited on Si nanowires can be prepared by a relatively simple and low-cost thin film technology. Metal assisted Si nanowire growth leads to a disorder in nanowire orientations, lengths and shapes, which is then preserved by the conformal absorber layer. Interestingly,...
Article
The construction of a normal-incidence imaging spectrophotometer for mapping of thin film properties is described. It is based on an on-axis reflective imaging system, utilising a telescope-like arrangement. A charge-coupled device camera is used as the detector, permitting measurements in the spectral range of 275–1100 nm with resolution of 37 µm....
Article
Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is a scanning probe microscopy technique for mapping temperature and thermal properties of solid surfaces with very high resolution. It has been used for the determination of various thermophysical properties in the past and it delivers better lateral resolution than any other thermal technique. Absolute determina...
Article
Present atomic force microscopes are capable of acquiring large data volumes by point using point force–distance spectroscopic measurements. Even if different trade names and different technical implementations are used, for most of these techniques a force–distance curve in every image pixel is measured, this curve is immediately fitted by some th...
Article
We present an overview of approaches to the design of nanometrology coordinates measuring setup with a focus on methodology of nanometrology interferometric techniques and associated problems. The design and development of a nanopositioning system with interferometric multiaxis monitoring and control involved for scanning probe microscopy technique...
Article
Full-text available
We present a design of a nanometrology measuring setup which is a part of the national standard instrumentation for nanometrology operated by the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) in Brno, Czech Republic. The system employs a full six-axis interferometric position measurement of the sample holder consisting of six independent interferometers. Here we...
Article
Full-text available
Flat specimen of 316L steel was cyclically pre-deformed with constant plastic strain amplitude to early stage of fatigue life relevant to the period of cyclic strain localization and fatigue crack initiation. To document slip activity and reversibility/irreversibility of persistent slip bands (PSBs) in situ experiments in the high-resolution SEM–FE...
Article
We present an overview of approaches to the design of nanometrology measuring setups with a focus on methodology of nanometrology interferometric techniques and associated problems. The design and development of a positioning system with interferometric multiaxis monitoring and control involved for scanning probe microscopy techniques (primarily at...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there have been several advances in the development of high-speed atomic force microscopes (HSAFMs) to obtain images with nanometre vertical and lateral resolution at frame rates in excess of 1 fps. To date, these instruments are lacking in metrology for their lateral scan axes; however, by imaging a series of two-dimensional later...
Article
Accurate measurement at the nano-scale - nanometrology - is a critical tool for advanced nanotechnology applications, where exact quantities and engineering precision are beyond the capabilities of traditional measuring techniques and instruments. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) builds up a picture of a specimen by scanning with a physical probe; u...
Article
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) can be effectively used for evaluation of nanoscale roughness of surfaces obtained by different technological processes. Spectral properties of surface roughness can be evaluated using algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). For data that are not rectangular, this approach, however fails. In this paper we d...
Article
At present, local mechanical properties can be measured not only for macroscopic objects but also for nano-objects and thin films with dimensions of only a few tens of nanometers. For these purposes, special indentation devices can be used. In past decades, many special data measurement and processing methods for thin film characterization have bee...
Article
Full-text available
We present a novel system for large-area scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements based on minimum counter-force linear guidance mechanisms, voice coils, interferometers and fuzzy logic-based feedback loop electronics. It is shown that voice coil-based actuation combined with interferometry can be a good alternative to piezoceramic positioning...
Article
Full-text available
Long-range scanning probe microscope (SPM) measurements are usually extremely time consuming as many data need to be collected, and the microscope probe speed is limited. In this article, we present an adaptive measurement method for a large-area SPM. In contrast to the typically used line by line scanning with constant pixel spacing, we use an alg...
Article
Full-text available
Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology. Both experimental and modelling methods will be enhanced and...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles are often measured using atomic force microscopy or other scanning probe microscopy methods. For isolated nanoparticles on flat substrates, this is a relatively easy task. However, in real situations, we often need to analyze nanoparticles on rough substrates or nanoparticles that are not isolated. In this article, we presen...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the NanoScale 2010 seminar held in Brno, Czech Republic. It was the 5th Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 9th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized with the Czech M...
Article
A long-range scanning probe microscope (SPM) designed for the measurement of micro- and nanoscale forms, roughness and surface defects was constructed. It is based on commercial crossed roller bearing stages combined with piezoceramic actuators used to compensate the imperfections of the bearing mechanism. Three interferometers are used for all thr...
Article
Measurement of local mechanical properties is an important topic in the fields of nanoscale device fabrication, thin film deposition and composite material development. Nanoindentation instruments are commonly used to study hardness and related mechanical properties at the nanoscale. However, traceability and uncertainty aspects of the measurement...
Article
This work reports on the measurement at the nanoscale using local probe microscopy techniques, primarily atomic force microscopy. Recent applications using the atomic force microscope as a nanometrology tool require that not only the positioning of the tip has to be based on precise measurements but also the traceability of the measuring technique...
Article
The thickness measurement of transparent layers with optical techniques is very problematic. The observed deviations can easily reach 100% of the layer thickness to be measured. In order to analyse these deviations, tactile reference measurements have been developed. The proposed method is based on contact mode measurements with low contact pressur...
Article
Full-text available
A Si adatom on a Si(111)-(7 × 7) reconstructed surface is a typical atomic feature that can rather easily be imaged by a non-contact atomic force microscope (nc-AFM) and can be thus used to test the atomic resolution of the microscope. Based on our first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we demonstrate that the structure of t...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, an original method for the complete optical characterization of thin films exhibiting area thickness non-uniformity is presented. This method is based on interpreting experimental data obtained using an original imaging spectroscopic photometer operating in the reflection mode at normal incidence of light. A CCD camera is employed as...