Peter Walkenhorst

Peter Walkenhorst
American University of Paris · Economics Department

14.24
 · 
PhD

About

57
Publications
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505
Citations

Publications

Publications (57)
Article
The Mano River Union of Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone is turning 40. The MRU was founded in October 1973 with the principal aim of advancing economic development through trade integration. The organisation largely ceased activities during the civil wars that engulfed its founding members Liberia and Sierra Leone from the late 1980...
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Over the past two decades, tourism exports have been a major driver of economic growth in many emerging and developing countries. Yet, increased tourism revenues do not automatically translate into structural transformation and broad-based economic development. Drawing on cross-sectional data, this paper gauges the extent to which tourism has contr...
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Despite the global financial and economic crisis, China has continued to experience strong export-driven growth and, indeed, became the world's largest exporting country in 2009. This rise of China in international markets presents African countries with growing competition in their home and export markets, but also with new opportunities. This pap...
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Tourism multipliers are widely used tools of services trade analysis. Yet, their derivation and interpretation has often been inconsistent and confusing. This article presents a unifying approach for calculating indicators of tourism linkages and leakages, derives these multipliers for a large sample of more than 150 countries and statistically ass...
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This study discusses potential economic implications for Nigeria of an Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union. It uses the World Bank’s Tariff Reform Impact Simulation Tool to assess the effects of preferential tariff liberalization with respect to the European Union. The results suggest that the impact of an Economic Partnership Ag...
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Many developing countries operate geographically delineated economic areas in the form of export processing zones, special industrial zones, or free trade zones. This paper provides an overview of the application of World Trade Organization disciplines to incentive programs typically employed by developing countries in connection with such special...
Chapter
Ce chapitre analyse l’impact économique de la facilitation des échanges ainsi que la distribution entre les pays des gains à espérer. Contrairement aux recherches précédentes, ce chapitre attire l’attention sur les différences en matière des coûts de transaction qui résultent de l’efficience et de l’intégrité des interactions entre les entreprises...
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This paper provides a survey on studies that analyze the macroeconomic effects of intellectual property rights (IPR). The first part of this paper introduces different patent policy instruments and reviews their effects on R&D and economic growth. This part also discusses the distortionary effects and distributional consequences of IPR protection a...
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Agricultural policy makers need detailed information on the effectiveness of past policies, in order to increase the efficiency of government interventions to foster agricultural development and poverty reduction. The indicators of policy distortions reported in this study aim to contribute to a better understanding of the direction and magnitude t...
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In comparison with other countries, Bolivia seems to face a gap in its capacity to take advantage of international market opportunities. Addressing the shortcomings in Bolivia’s export performance is a major challenge and requires attention to the incentives that actual and potential exporters face, the efficiency of service providers in the econom...
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The Euro-Med Agreement between Tunisia and the European Union resulted in free bilateral trade for industrial products from January 1st, 2008. The stepwise dismantling of industrial tariff barriers vis-à-vis Tunisia’s main trading partner without encountering major disruptions in the domestic market is a significant achievement. But now a new chall...
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While diversification of exports is often a desirable trade objective, it is far from clear how best to promote it. This paper builds on recent studies to argue that a narrow approach to export diversification -- perhaps focusing solely on discovery or promoting manufactures -- may miss other important opportunities for driving export growth that a...
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Morocco has made offshoring the number one economic development priority within its “Emergence” program. The government is heavily investing in human and physical capital and has undertaken important regulatory reforms in order to move the country towards becoming a knowledge economy. Many of these investments in, for example, telecommunication net...
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For countries that have weak domestic tax administrations and rely heavily on trade taxes for government finances, lowering or eliminating tariffs on trade with regional partners can pose a significant fiscal risk. To pursue regional integration despite that risk, provisions on revenue sharing have been added to several RIIs, although not all are o...
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For countries that have weak domestic tax administrations and rely heavily on trade taxes for government finances, lowering or eliminating tariffs on trade with regional partners can constitute a significant fiscal risk. In order to nevertheless pursue regional integration, provisions on revenue loss compensation have been introduced into a number...
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This article uses estimates of changes in frictional trading costs and the GTAP computable general equilibrium model to assess the effects of increased security concerns following the terrorist attacks of September 11 on international trade. As a result of additional security measures, trading companies have been confronted with additional costs re...
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A reduction of trade barriers will influence the overall scale of agricultural activities, the structure of agricultural production, the mix of inputs and outputs, the production technology, and the regulatory framework. These adjustments, in turn, will influence environmental quality by increasing or reducing environmental harm and creating or des...
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Jordan has realized the necessity to pursue opportunities through integration into international production networks and cross-border trade. The country has recently undertaken ambitious reforms of its trade regime. These initiatives comprise the accession to the WTO in 2000, the signing of several preferential trade agreements, notably with the Eu...
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Available quantitative studies on the effects of textiles market liberalization consistently indicate considerable shifts in production and trade, with output expanding particularly in Asian developing countries and contracting in industrialized countries. Even though all the reviewed studies foresee increases in global welfare as a result of liber...
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Over the past two decades, Tanzania has embarked on a marked liberalization of its trade regime. The Government wants this reform process to continue and sees international integration at the global and regional level as a means to achieve higher economic efficiency, productivity and international competitiveness. This study reviews the trade polic...
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Les précédentes évaluations quantitatives des effets de la libéralisation des échanges agricoles présumaient que les réductions négociées des tarifs consolidés se traduisent par une diminution correspondante des taux tarifaires effectivement appliqués. Toutefois, cette méthode surestime la réduction effective des tarifs appliqués et, partant, les a...
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The paper investigates the factors that influence the distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) across countries of investor-origin and manufacturing industries in Poland. The results confirm the general appropriateness of the basic gravity model formulation for FDI analysis in transition countries, as well as important links between FDI, tra...
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There is a considerable body of analysis available that aims to quantify the economic and trade effects of textile and clothing market liberalisation. A number of analysts at national and international institutions have provided their assessments. Different tools and approaches have thereby been used to evaluate the impacts of textile trade reform...
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This chapter analyses the economic impact of trade facilitation and discusses the distribution of potential benefits across countries. Unlike earlier research, the analysis highlights differences in trade transaction costs due to the efficiency and integrity of interacting businesses and administration, the characteristics or kind of traded goods a...
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A reduction of trade barriers will influence the overall scale of agricultural activities, the structure of agricultural production in different countries, the mix of inputs and outputs, the production technology, and the regulatory framework. These adjustments, in turn, will impact on the international and domestic environment by increasing or red...
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Evaluating the importance of non-tariff measures (NTMs) remains a major challenge. This paper reports evidence on the prevalence of NTMs in the agri-food sector based on an EU inventory of business complaints. This data source has the advantage of drawing on experiences of economic agents that are directly involved in trading activities, of contain...
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As customs tariffs have been reduced in subsequent rounds of trade negotiations, increasing attention has focused on the impacts of domestic policies on international trade and the use of non-tariff measures (NTMs). According to evidence from an inventory of business complaints, natural resource based industries, such as agriculture and food, minin...
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This report assesses the impact of regulations and the regulatory process in Germany on trade and investment, as well as the extent to which market openness considerations are incorporated into the general policy framework for regulations. The assessment is based on six efficient regulation principles developed by the OECD, namely: transparency, no...
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This document presents a descriptive overview of issues related to trade and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, as observed during the implementation of the SPS Agreement. It aims to provide background information on activities in the WTO's SPS Committee during the period 1995-2001, determine the participation of different country groups, a...
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This study presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in the WTO's Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, with particular emphasis on discussions related to agro-food products. It thereby aims to provide background information on TBT-related activities during the period 1995- 2001. The participation of OECD and non-OECD countries in the Com...
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The HIPC Initiative requires countries receiving debt relief to undertake a Poverty Reduction Strategy programme involving elements of trade policy reform. This study reviews country experiences with respect to the impact of reforms of trade and trade-related policies on economic performance, export capacity and the ability to attract foreign direc...
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In addition to generating commodity outputs, agricultural production activities affect water, air, and soil quality, influence eco-systems and biodiversity, and shape rural landscapes. Many of these environmental effects exhibit the characteristics of negative or positive externalities or public goods, for which private markets do not exist or are...
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This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the participation of different country groups in the implementation of the WTO's Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement, with particular emphasis on developing countries. Six indicators of participation in SPS implementation activities are considered and compared to alternative benchmarks. The res...
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Over the past decade, public expenditure in Slovakia was characterised by substantial social transfers and high public sector wage expenses. This paper analyses the main features of Slovakia’s public expenditure system, reviews expenditure trends, and discusses recent reform initiatives. The latter have concerned the introduction of medium-term bud...
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Prior quantitative assessments of the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation have assumed that negotiated reductions in bound tariffs translate into corresponding cuts in applied tariff rates. This approach, however, overestimates the actual reduction in applied tariffs and, hence, the benefits of trade liberalisation, since applied rates are...
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This study investigates the regional distribution of transfers to farmers by presenting producer support estimates (PSEs) for 25 cantons in Switzerland. Many of Switzerland's budgetary payments are targeted towards assisting farmers who work under difficult production conditions. However, about 60 per cent of all support to agricultural producers i...
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Evaluating the importance of non-tariff measures (NTMs) affecting imports remains a major challenge. This study reports evidence on the prevalence of NTMs based on an inventory of business complaints. This data source has the advantage of drawing on experiences of economic agents that are directly involved in trading activities, of containing infor...
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For many years experimental observations have raised questions about the rationality of economic agents--for example, the Allais Paradox or the Equity Premium Puzzle. The problem is a narrow notion of rationality that disregards fear. This article extends the notion of rationality with new axioms of choice under uncertainty and the decision criteri...
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Abstract Many quantitative assessments of the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation have relied on the assumption that trade policy reforms directly reduce applied tariffs in WTO member countries. However, in this paper it is argued that consideration of policy reforms applying to tariffs bound in Uruguay Round schedules rather than to the o...
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In this article, a statistical model is developed to analyze determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Polish food industry. Data on FDI inflows from three investor home country clusters is related to characteristics of 12 food industry branches. The results indicate that firm size, privatization speed, value-added, and import share ar...
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This paper quantifies some of the costs and benefits for the Polish sugar sector from Poland's participation in the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. A non-linear, spatial optimisation model is used. The results indicate potential for substantial efficiency gains from improved access to much-needed investment funds and modern production technology....
Article
In this paper a gravity model is developed to analyse cumulative FDI inflows into Poland's food industry during the 1990s. The FDI data is related to characteristics of 28 countries of investor-origin. The results confirmed earlier studies with respect to important links between FDI, trade, and labour costs, as well as the general appropriateness o...
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The paper discusses the agricultural reform programme AP 2002 in Switzerland in the context of agricultural policy developments in the country, as well as in comparison with the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. AP 2002 continues the shift of agricultural support from market price support to direct payments that was initiated in the early 1990s. It...
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The article reports on spillovers from foreign direct investment to related industries in Central European transition countries. In particular, the impact of foreign investment in the sugarbeet-processing industry on the wider agro-food sector is investigated. The empirical findings indicate that foreign direct investment brings not only much neede...
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The possible enlargement of the European Union to include some of the Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEEC) poses a problem for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Current price levels and subsidy rates, if appIied to the CEEC would represent an increase in budget cost of at least 5 billion ECU. Trade frictions with other countries would be...
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Stanford University, 1997. Submitted to the Food Research Institute. Copyright by the author.
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Morocco’s trade policy is at a cross-roads. Historically, the country has had a very restrictive import regime that generated substantial transfers to domestic producers. In terms of the simple average of most-favored nation tariffs, Morocco is one of the ten most highly protected markets in the world. Yet, with the signing of the Euro-Med Agreemen...
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As a landlocked country in East Africa, Uganda faces two major disadvantages concerning access to foreign markets. It does not have an immediate gateway to low-cost ocean transport, but first has to pass its imports and exports through neighboring countries by road or rail. Nor does it share a common border with an industrialized country that produ...
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Nigeria’s trade policy is at a crucial turning point. Historically, the country has had a very restrictive import regime that generated substantial transfers to domestic producers and strong anti-export bias. Yet, in its current poverty reduction strategy, Nigeria identified deeper trade integration as a means to foster economic growth and alleviat...
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This paper reviews the trade policy situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) and identifies a number of key issues and challenges for the country. The focus of the study is thereby on how trade taxes and quantitative restrictions affect the goods sector. The analysis falls into three parts. First, the state of domestic trade policy is descri...

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