Peter van der Zwan

Peter van der Zwan
Leiden University | LEI · Department of Business Studies

About

44
Publications
22,631
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Introduction
Peter van der Zwan currently works at the Department of Business Studies at Leiden Law School (Leiden University). Peter does research in the areas of entrepreneurial entry, exit, and wellbeing. He is also interested in entrepreneurial finance.

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Full-text available
The survival of businesses in the market often hinges on contributions of the business owner’s household members. Partners of the self-employed as well as their children may, for example, provide emotional support but also cheap and flexible labor. Although the household composition of self-employed individuals has been analyzed in many earlier stu...
Article
Full-text available
Start-ups differ in the extent to which they introduce innovations to markets and, hence, in their potential contribution to society. Understanding the heterogeneous character of start-ups is key to explaining the variability in innovation. In this study, we explore whether start-ups that place more emphasis on environmental value creation versus e...
Article
Van Praag et al. (2013) analyze whether the returns to formal education in terms of income differ between entrepreneurs and employees. Using US data (1979–2000), they find that entrepreneurs have higher returns to formal education than employees. They also find evidence that the level of personal control in one’s occupation explains these higher re...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple studies have shown that, on average, the self-employed are healthier than wage workers. The link between the health of self-employed individuals and their financial performance in terms of earnings is, however, less understood. Based on human capital theory, we expect a positive link between health and earnings among the self-employed. For...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the number of own-account workers (the self-employed without employees), including freelancers, in many developed economies. Despite the importance of the group of freelancers for modern economies, little is known about the perceived benefits of freelancing. We use six waves of the United Kingdom...
Article
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Entrepreneurs who start a business to serve both self-interests and collective interests by addressing unmet social and environmental needs are usually referred to as sustainable entrepreneurs. Compared with regular entrepreneurs, we argue that sustainable entrepreneurs face specific challenges when establishing their businesses owing to the discre...
Article
Growing firms are the drivers of economic dynamics. While the existing literature often focuses on the average effect of growth on firm survival, we investigate how survival rates vary across the growth distribution using Dutch longitudinal firm-level data (1999–2012). We theorize and find a U-shaped relationship between organic employment growth a...
Article
The aim of this study is to provide an explanation for the finding in earlier studies that the self-employed are, on average, more satisfied with their work than the paid employed are, although they are not more satisfied with their life in general. Fixed-effects regressions are performed with German Socio-Economic Panel data (1984–2012) to investi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines differences in the ability to obtain capital—bank loans and trade credit—between firms, industries, and countries using survey data on European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from 2009 to 2014. The results show that firm age and firm size are positively linked to SMEs’ access to bank loans, but only firm size is posit...
Article
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In this research, we investigate whether a positive relationship between life satisfaction and self-employment (versus paid employment) exists while simultaneously considering two occupational dimensions: white-collar versus blue-collar work and high-skilled versus low-skilled work. Using Eurobarometer data for a large number of European countries...
Chapter
This chapter emphasizes the benefits of a process view of entrepreneurship for the investigation of the determinants of entrepreneurship. While the majority of existing studies focus on the binary choice between entrepreneurship and paid employment. The chapter presents several reasons why it is helpful to integrate levels of entrepreneurial engage...
Article
Drawing upon the Job Demand-Control (JDC) model, this study investigates differences in work-related stress between the self-employed and wage workers. The JDC model postulates that job demand increases work-related stress, whereas job control reduces it (also by weakening the effect of job demand on work-related stress). Based on this model, we pr...
Article
Although certain researchers have attributed widespread lottery play to irrational beliefs that people hold regarding the chances of winning the lottery, another explanation for the popularity of lottery gambling is that lottery players may experience positive emotions before the draw. Therefore, in this study, we examine the relationship between l...
Article
The literature dealing with health and entrepreneurship has focused on developed countries. We use a sample of almost 5,000 business owners and wage-workers from four Caribbean Basin countries to study this relationship. Analyses are performed using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor along with the Visual Analogue Scale of the EQ-5D-5L i...
Article
Taller individuals have on average a higher socio-economic status than shorter individuals. In countries where entrepreneurs have high social status, we may therefore expect that entrepreneurs are taller than wage workers. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (2002-2012), we find that a 1cm increase in an individual's height raises the p...
Article
We investigate how a transition from paid employment to self-employment in the labor market influences life satisfaction. Furthermore, we consider the dynamics of work and leisure satisfaction because the balance between work and leisure is an important element of life satisfaction. Fixed-effects regressions using German Socio-Economic Panel data (...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to develop a better understanding of what drives small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to engage in environmental practices, and whether the drivers differ across types of practices. Two types of environmental practices are distinguished: practices related to production processes (greening processes) and practices...
Article
The supposed creativity of left-handed and dyslexic individuals may fit well with an entrepreneurial occupation. Empirical evidence from two representative Dutch samples, however, shows that left-handed and dyslexic individuals are not more likely to be(come) entrepreneurs than right-handed and non-dyslexic individuals.
Article
Taller individuals typically have occupations with higher social status and higher earnings than shorter individuals. Further, entrepreneurship is associated with high social status in numerous countries; hence, entrepreneurs might be taller than wage workers. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (2002-2010), we find that a 1 cm increase...
Article
The promotion and support of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) forms an essential ingredient of the policies designed to help improve Europe’s economic performance. A key issue is whether SMEs face difficulty obtaining bank loans. Using pre-crisis survey data from 2005 and 2006 for nearly 3,500 SMEs (firms with fewer than 250 employees) in...
Article
Full-text available
Gender differences at five levels of entrepreneurial engagement are explained using country effects while controlling for individual-level variables. We distinguish between individuals who have never considered starting up a business, those who are thinking about it, and nascent, young, and established entrepreneurs. We use a large international da...
Article
a b s t r a c t This paper investigates an essential aspect of the entrepreneurial personality: why women's self-employment rates are consistently lower than those of men. It has three focal points. It discriminates between the preference for self-employment and actual involve-ment in self-employment using a two (probit) equation model. It makes a...
Article
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This paper investigates whether and how a recent entrepreneurial exit relates to subsequent engagement. We discriminate between six levels of engagement including none, potential, intentional, nascent, young and established entrepreneurship. We use individual-level data for 24 countries that participated in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor durin...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates if and in what way social entrepreneurs are hampered in turning their efforts into sustainable organizations. Using binary logit regressions and unique data containing approximately 26,000 individual-level data points for 36 countries, this study assesses the influences of perceived environmental barriers, risk variables, an...
Article
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This paper compares (former) transition and non-transition economies in Europe and Asia with respect to the opportunities available to achieve entrepreneurial progress. In addition, the differential impacts of three perceived environmental barriers to new venture creation are investigated. Entrepreneurial progress is measured using five levels of i...
Article
This thesis deals with the entrepreneurial process from an international perspective. The first part explores which people decide to enter entrepreneurship. A distinction is made between two modes of entrepreneurial entry: taking over an existing firm and starting a new firm. The second part focuses on the exit side and examines the determinants of...
Article
Whereas the determinants of entrepreneurial choice have been thoroughly analyzed in the literature, little is known about the preferred mode of entry into entrepreneurship, such as taking over an existing business or starting a new venture. Using a large international dataset, this study reports considerable differences in takeover preferences acro...
Article
We test a new model where the entrepreneurial decision is described as a process of successive engagement levels, i.e. as an entrepreneurial ladder. Five levels are distinguished using nearly 12 000 observations from the 2004 'Flash Eurobarometer survey on Entrepreneurship' covering the 25 European Union member states and the United States. The mos...
Article
Full-text available
The promotion and support of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) forms an essential ingredient in policies to help improve Europe’s economic performance. A key issue in this context is whether SMEs face undue difficulty when trying to access credit. Using survey data from 2005 and 2006 covering almost 5,000 SMEs in the European Union, we in...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates determinants of engagement in various stages of the entrepreneurial process while considering an individual's start-up motivation using 2007 survey data for 27 European countries and the US. Next to opportunity and necessity start-up motivations, we take into account individuals driven by a combination of both motivations. W...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate which countries have the highest potential to achieve entrepreneurial progress. This progress is defined using an entrepreneurial ladder with five successive steps: “never thought about starting a business”, “thinking about starting a business”, “taking steps to start a business”, “running a business for less than three years”, and “...
Article
Entrepreneurs exit their business due to selection mechanisms experienced in the market place. Next to this well known ex-post decision to exit, entrepreneurs select ex-ante whether they are willing to pursue an entrepreneurial career at all, or to give up these entrepreneurial intentions. This paper compares the role of personal and ecological fac...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate whether women and men differ with respect to the steps they take in the entrepreneurial process, distinguishing between five successive steps described by the following positions: (1) "never thought about it"; (2) "thinking about starting up a business"; (3) "taking steps to start a business"; (4) "running a business for less than th...
Article
We test a new model explaining the entrepreneurial decision using a process of successive engagement levels. The contribution of the present paper is that, first, while in earlier studies only a multinomial logit model has been used, here we extend this framework to an ordered context. Hence, we investigate whether there is a natural ordering of th...
Article
The determinants of latent (i.e., desired) and actual entrepreneurship are analysed in two ways with nearly 8,000 observations from the 2004 “Flash Eurobarometer survey on Entrepreneurship” covering the 25 European Union member states and the United States. Both methods lead to new and extensive insights in the interrelation of both concepts. First...
Article
It has been acknowledged that individuals who exit from entrepreneurial activities often enter the start-up process again (serial entrepreneurship). During entrepreneurial engagement individuals gain entrepreneurship-specific knowledge, skills and experience which they may re deploy in other initiatives after the exit. The present paper postulates...
Article
This paper focuses on whether and how a recent entrepreneurial exit relates to subsequent entrepreneurial engagement. Entrepreneurial exit can be an indicator of entrepreneurial learning and its effect on subsequent engagement can be a major source of the evolution of industries and economies. Entrepreneurial exit is defined as shutting down, disco...