Peter Woodruff

Peter Woodruff
Hamad Medical Corporation | HMC · Psychiatry (Mental Health Service)

Bachelor of Medicine

About

207
Publications
34,916
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13,492
Citations
Citations since 2016
8 Research Items
3368 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (207)
Article
Full-text available
Background Cognitive models of psychosis propose that appraisals (ie, the interpretation and meaning attributed to experiences) are central to the transition from anomalous experiences to psychotic symptoms. In the Unusual Experiences Enquiry (UNIQUE) study, we investigated the role of appraisals by comparing individuals with persistent psychotic e...
Article
Full-text available
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of particular relevance. However, reconciliation of these the...
Article
By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid...
Article
Background People displaying persistent, full-blown psychotic experiences without a need-for-care in the general population are an ideal group to investigate to differentiate those factors that are linked to distress and dysfunction from those that are merely associated with benign anomalous experiences. The UNIQUE study investigated the cognitive...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals reporting persistent psychotic experiences (PEs) in the general population, but without a “need for care”, are a unique group of particular importance in identifying risk and protective factors for psychosis. We compared people with persistent PEs and no “need for care” (non-clinical, N=92) with patients diagnosed with a psychotic disor...
Article
Background Evidence suggests that auditory hallucinations may result from abnormally enhanced auditory sensitivity.AimsTo investigate whether there is an auditory processing bias in healthy individuals who are prone to experiencing auditory hallucinations.Method Two hundred healthy volunteers performed a temporal order judgement task in which they...
Article
Several studies have investigated the neural basis of effortful emotion regulation (ER) but the neural basis of automatic ER has been less comprehensively explored. The present study investigated the neural basis of automatic ER supported by ‘implementation intentions’. 40 healthy participants underwent fMRI while viewing emotion-eliciting images a...
Article
Discerning a speaker's gender from their voice is a basic and crucial aspect of human communication. Voice pitch height, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency, is higher in females and provides a cue for gender discrimination. However, male and female voices are also differentiated by multiple other spectral and temporal characteristics...
Article
Full-text available
Attentional control theory suggests that heightened anxiety, whether due to trait or state factors, causes an increased vulnerability to distraction even when the distracters are emotionally neutral. Recent passive oddball studies appear to support this theory in relation to the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds. However such studies...
Article
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Research concerning the impact of psychological stress on visual selective attention has produced mixed results. The current paper describes two experiments which utilise a novel auditory oddball paradigm to test the impact of psychological stress on auditory selective attention. Participants had to report the location of emotionally-neutral audito...
Article
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Studies investigating the neurophysiological basis of intrapersonal emotion regulation (control of one's own emotional experience) report that the frontal cortex exerts a modulatory effect on limbic structures such as the amygdala and insula. However, no imaging study to date has examined the neurophysiological processes involved in interpersonal e...
Article
Objective: When attention is attracted to an irrelevant location, performance on a subsequent target is hindered at that location in relation to novel, not previously attended, locations. This phenomenon is known as inhibition of return (IOR). Previous research has shown that IOR is not observed, or its onset is delayed, in schizophrenia patients....
Article
Predictive coding frameworks of perception propose that neural networks form predictions of expected input and generate prediction errors when the external input does not match expectation. We therefore investigated the processing of unexpected sounds and silence in the auditory cortex using fMRI. Unexpected sounds, when compared to expected sounds...
Article
Full-text available
Both psychological stress and predictive signals relating to expected sensory input are believed to influence perception, an influence which, when disrupted, may contribute to the generation of auditory hallucinations. The effect of stress and semantic expectation on auditory perception was therefore examined in healthy participants using an audito...
Data
Full-text available
a b s t r a c t Predictive coding frameworks of perception propose that neural networks form predictions of expected input and generate prediction errors when the external input does not match expectation. We therefore investigated the processing of unexpected sounds and silence in the auditory cortex using fMRI. Unexpected sounds, when compared to...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Cognitive models of psychosis suggest that anomalous experiences alone do not always lead to clinical psychosis, with appraisals and responses to experiences being central to understanding the transition to "need for care". Methods: The appraisals and response styles of Clinical (C; n = 28) and Nonclinical (NC; n = 34) individuals wit...
Article
Full-text available
Gravitational forces may lead to local changes in subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer thickness, which has important implications for neurophysiological modulation and recording techniques. This study examines the effect of gravitational pull associated with different head positions on the distribution of subarachnoid CSF using structural...
Article
Subjective assessment of emotional valence is typically associated with both brain activity and autonomic arousal. Accurately assessing emotional salience is particularly important when perceiving threat. We sought to characterize the neural correlates of the interaction between behavioral and autonomic responses to potentially threatening visual a...
Article
Purpose: To investigate demographic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects of self-harm in schizophrenia and identify which are independently predictive of and therefore the most relevant to clinical intervention. Subjects and methods: Eighty-seven patients with schizophrenia were interviewed regarding substance misuse, depression, hopelessnes...
Article
Computational models have been be used to estimate the electric and magnetic fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and can provide valuable insights into the location and spatial distribution of TMS stimulation. However, there has been little translation of these findings into practical TMS research. This study uses the Internat...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we aimed to present a hypothesis that would explain the mechanism of auditory hallucinations, one of the main symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that auditory hallucinations arise from abnormalities in the predictive coding which underlies normal perception, specifically, from the absence or attenuation of prediction error. The su...
Data
a b s t r a c t In this paper, we aimed to present a hypothesis that would explain the mechanism of auditory halluci-nations, one of the main symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that auditory hallucinations arise from abnormalities in the predictive coding which underlies normal perception, specifically, from the absence or attenuation of predict...
Article
We asked 24 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy comparison subjects to complete a parametric working memory version of the continuous performance test. Patients exhibited a relatively rapid performance decline with increasing working memory demands. We suggest an interaction between sustained attention and working memory abnormalities in schizoph...
Article
Full-text available
Subjective assessment of emotional valence is typically associated with both brain activity and autonomic arousal. Accurately assessing emotional salience is particularly important when perceiving threat. We sought to characterize the neural correlates of the interaction between behavioral and autonomic responses to potentially threatening visual a...
Article
Adjustments to movement in response to changes in our surroundings are common in everyday behavior. Previous research has suggested that the left pre-motor cortex (PMC) is specialized for the temporal control of movement and may play a role in temporal error correction. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the left PMC in sensorimotor...
Article
The perception and judgement of social hierarchies forms an integral part of social cognition. Hierarchical judgements can be either self-referential or allocentric (pertaining to two or more external agents). In psychiatric conditions such as dissocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the impact of hierarchies may be problematic. We sought...
Article
Schizophrenia causes clinically conspicuous impairment of syntax and semantics as part of the disorganisation syndrome; however, little is known regarding its effect on the phonological stage of speech, where word meanings are resolved into speech imagery. We used a "tongue-twister" task to probe phonological speech production and its clinical asso...
Article
In this study, we investigated brain mechanisms for the generation of subjective experience from objective sensory inputs. Our experimental construct was subjective tranquility. Tranquility is a mental state more likely to occur in the presence of objective sensory inputs that arise from natural features in the environment. We used functional magne...
Article
Full-text available
CEREBELLAR FUNCTIONS IN TWO TYPES OF PERCEPTUAL TIMING WERE ASSESSED: the absolute (duration-based) timing of single intervals and the relative (beat-based) timing of rhythmic sequences. Continuous transcranial magnetic theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) was applied over the medial cerebellum and performance was measured adaptively before and after sti...
Article
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The clock drawing (CD) task involves visual integration skills associated with parietal lobe function. Seven mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients and 11 healthy elderly controls (EC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while viewing a radial motion (RM) task. This RM task in EC activated the bilateral secondary visual...
Article
Our ability to interact physically with objects in the external world critically depends on temporal coupling between perception and movement (sensorimotor timing) and swift behavioral adjustment to changes in the environment (error correction). In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of the correction of subliminal and supraliminal ph...
Article
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Visuospatial impairments are known to occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesised that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response in task-related brain regions would be impaired in patients with AD during the task and that treatment with acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors would enhance activations in brain regions concerned with thi...
Article
The neural basis of visuospatial deficits in Alzheimer's disease is unclear. We wished to investigate the neural basis of visuospatial perception in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with healthy elderly comparison subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve patients with AD and thirteen elderly comparison subjects...
Article
Disordered time perception has been reported in schizophrenia. We investigated time perception dysfunction and its neuropsychological correlates in patients with schizophrenia. Participants comprised 38 patients and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers who were compared in an auditory temporal bisection paradigm using two interval ranges (a 4...
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Structural brain changes and cognitive impairments have been identified as indicators of genetic risk for schizophrenia. However, the pattern of associations between such structural and functional liability markers has been less well investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging data and cognitive assessments were acquired in 31 patients with psychosis,...
Article
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British psychiatry faces an identity crisis. A major contributory factor has been the recent trend to downgrade the importance of the core aspects of medical care. In many instances, this has resulted in services that are better suited to delivering non-specific, psychosocial support rather than a process of thorough, broad-based diagnostic assessm...
Article
To identify factors significantly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression at 3 months post-injury; to develop a generic model to predict the occurrence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression at 3 months post-injury; and to validate this model in a test data set of patients. Prospective cohort study. Participants wer...
Article
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, often disabling mental illness with onset characteristically in early adulthood. This article reviews the historical concepts of schizophrenia by Kraepelin and Bleuler, and discusses recent developments in the aetiology of schizophrenia, with an emphasis on the interplay between biological, psychological, and soc...
Article
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The recent drive within the UK National Health Service to improve psychosocial care for people with mental illness is both understandable and welcome: evidence-based psychological and social interventions are extremely important in managing psychiatric illness. Nevertheless, the accompanying downgrading of medical aspects of care has resulted in se...
Article
The ability to appreciate humour is essential to successful human interactions. In this study, we hypothesized that individuals with schizophrenia would have diminished ability to recognize and appreciate humour. The relationship between humour experience and clinical symptoms, cognitive and social functioning was examined. Thirty patients with a D...
Article
Patients with schizophrenia have difficulty recognising the emotion that corresponds to a given facial expression. According to signal detection theory, two separate processes are involved in facial emotion perception: a sensory process (measured by sensitivity which is the ability to distinguish one facial emotion from another facial emotion) and...
Article
We aimed to investigate cerebellar structural abnormalities and their functional significance in patients with schizophrenia. Forty right-handed men with schizophrenia and 40 sex, age and handedness matched controls underwent a volumetric magnetic resonance scan with 1 mm3 isotropic spatial resolution. Cerebellar grey- and white-matter volumes were...
Article
Familiarity with a speaker's voice has been shown to enhance its auditory processing, implicating physiological effects at the level of the auditory cortex, although auditory cortical involvement has not previously been demonstrated. Eleven healthy right-handed male participants performed two tasks during blood oxygenation level-dependent functiona...
Article
In this study, we investigated the mechanism for the left cerebral hemisphere's dominance for speech perception. We utilized the crossover of auditory pathways in the central nervous system to present speech stimuli more directly to the left hemisphere (via the right ear) and right hemisphere (via the left ear). Using functional MRI, we found that...
Article
People with schizophrenia have been categorised into three groups: those with full insight (aware, correct attributers); those aware of being unwell, but who misattributed their symptoms (aware, incorrect attributers); and those unaware of being ill (unaware). Cluster analysis of 'awareness of illness'and 'relabelling of symptoms'scores on the Sche...
Article
The following article discusses the phenomenon of auditory hallucinations in those who do not suffer from schizophrenia. Research has shown the occurrence of auditory hallucinations in the general population to such an extent that they cannot be said to be pathognomonic of psychiatric illness. In addition, it has long been known that certain halluc...
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with widespread brain atrophy including structures subserving memory. We applied an improved structural detection methodology to examine the less well known progression of atrophy in early-stage AD. We sought to i) longitudinally study volumetric differences in patients with early-stage AD and healthy voluntee...
Article
The Analogies Understanding Test (AUT) was developed as a brief cognitive screening task of executive problem solving. A few of the test items at the beginning are "facilitated" as a means of engaging patients. Individuals with schizophrenia and mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) made significantly less correct responses than their control groups. The s...
Article
There is a significant body of evidence documenting the speech and language abnormalities found in adult psychiatric disorders. These speech and language impairments can create additional social barriers for the individual and may hinder effective communication in psychiatric treatment and management. However, the role of speech and language therap...
Article
In three experiments, we investigated the role of the cerebellum in sub- and suprasecond time perception by using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). In Experiment 1, subjects underwent four 8-min 1-Hz rTMS sessions in a within-subject design. rTMS sites were the medial cerebellum (real and sham rTMS), left lateral cerebellum, and...
Book
The lack of ability to emphathize is central to many psychiatric conditions. Empathy is affected by neurodevelopment, brain pathology and psychiatric illness. Empathy is both a state and a trait characteristic. Empathy is measurable by neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging techniques. This book, first published in 2007, specifically focuse...
Article
Full-text available
The ordering of words in category fluency lists is indicative of the semantic distance between items in conceptual memory. Several studies have concluded from structural analyses of such data, using cluster analysis or multidimensional scaling, that the semantic memory of patients with schizophrenia is more disorganized than that of controls. Previ...