Peter Weiss

Peter Weiss
University of California, Santa Cruz | UCSC · Department of Microbiology & Environmental Toxicology

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71
Publications
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Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Deposition of pollutants by cloud water exceeds deposition by precipitation and dry deposition in many high elevation settings. This larger loading of pollutants in these environments is due to a combination of factors such as high frequency of cloud immersion, high wind speeds, orographic enhancement of precipitation, and large leaf area of tree s...
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Coastal marine atmospheric fog has recently been implicated as a potential source of ocean-derived monomethylmercury (MMHg) to coastal terrestrial ecosystems through the process of sea-to-land advection of foggy air masses followed by wet deposition. This study examined whether pumas (Puma concolor) in coastal central California, USA, and their ass...
Article
The atmosphere is a key component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury, acting as a reservoir, transport mechanism, and facilitator of chemical reactions. The chemical and physical behavior of atmospheric mercury determines how, when, and where emitted mercury pollution impacts ecosystems. In this review, we provide current information about what...
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The utility of trees as bioindicators of atmospheric mercury (Hg) depends upon how accurately tree tissue concentrations reflect air-Hg concentrations at a given location and time. The relationship between air-Hg, and Hg concentration in tree tissues was investigated using potted Pinus nigra (Austrian pine) saplings 6 to 7 years in age moved from a...
Article
Unfiltered seawater samples from vertical profiles collected at 60 stations within the California Current during four summer cruises spanning a two-year period from 2014 to 2015, were analyzed for elemental mercury (Hg°), monomethyl mercury (MMHg), dimethyl mercury (DMHg) and total mercury (THg). Fog water samples, taken at sea and throughout a net...
Article
Water samples from marine stratus clouds were collected during 16 aircraft flights above the Pacific Ocean near the Central California coast during the summer of 2016. These samples were analyzed for total mercury (THg), monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and 32 other chemical species in addition to aerosol physical parameters. The mean concentrations of TH...
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A simple method of activating the Caltech Active Strand Cloud-water Collector (CASCC) is described. This system detected the onset of wet deposition events associated with the advection of marine stratus clouds using an optical rain sensor (ORS) and a standard passive fog collector (SFC) in combination with a relative humidity threshold. The system...
Article
Dry deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) to various land covers surrounding 24 sites in North America was estimated for the years 2009 to 2014. Depending on location, multi-year mean annual Hg dry deposition was estimated to range from 5.1 to 23.8 µg m-2 yr-1 to forested canopies, 2.6 to 20.8 µg m-2 yr-1 to non-forest vegetated canopies, 2.4 to 1...
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Marine fog water samples were collected over two summers (2014-2015) with active strand collectors (CASCC) at eight coastal sites from Humboldt to Monterey counties in California, USA, and on four ocean cruises along the California coastline in order to investigate mercury (Hg) cycling at the ocean-atmosphere-land interface. The mean concentration...
Article
This study examined the spatial and temporal trends of mercury (Hg) in wet deposition and air concentrations in the United States (U.S.) and Canada between 1997 and 2013. Data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and Environment Canada monitoring networks, and other sources. Of the 19 sites with data records from 19...
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We perform global-scale inverse modeling to constrain present-day atmospheric mercury emissions and relevant physiochemical parameters in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We use Bayesian inversion methods combining simulations with GEOS-Chem and ground-based Hg0 observations from regional monitoring networks and individual sites in recent ye...
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We perform global-scale inverse modeling to constrain present-day atmospheric mercury emissions and relevant physiochemical parameters in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We use Bayesian inversion methods combining simulations with GEOS-Chem and ground-based Hg0 observations from regional monitoring networks and individual sites in recent ye...
Article
Ozone as an atmospheric pollutant is largely produced by anthropogenic precursors and can significantly impact human and ecosystem health, and climate. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed lowering the ozone standard from 75ppbv (MDA8=Maximum Daily 8-Hour Average) to between 65 and 70ppbv. This will result in remote areas...
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Atmospheric mercury (Hg) measurements using the Tekran® analytical system from five high-elevation sites (1400–3200 m elevation), one in Asia and four in the western US, were compiled over multiple seasons and years, and these data were compared with the GEOS-Chem global model. Mercury data consisted of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and "reactive Hg"...
Article
The aim of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of terrestrial arthropods. The 4-month sampling campaign took place around Monterey Bay, California. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations (x ± SD, dry weight) for the captured specimens ranged from 22 to 188 ng g(-1) in the J...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric mercury (Hg) measurements using the Tekran® analytical system from five high-elevation sites (1400–3200 m elevation), one in Asia and four in the western US, were compiled over multiple seasons and years, and these data were compared with the GEOS-Chem global model. Mercury data consisted of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and "reactive Hg"...
Article
The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project showed that USA National Parks had fish mercury (Hg) concentrations above threshold concentrations set for wildlife. Since significant areas of the Western USA are arid, we hypothesized that dry deposition would be important. The primary question was whether sources of Hg were local and thus, eas...
Article
The chemical compounds that make up gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) in the atmosphere, and the reactions responsible for their formation, are not well understood. The limitations and uncertainties associated with the current method applied to measure these compounds, the KCl-coated denuder, are not known due to lack of calibration and testing. This...
Article
Emissions inventories indicate that Asian Hg sources are more than 50% of the global anthropogenic total. However, few measurements have been made to verify these large emissions. In this paper, we report on measurements of mercury from two sites during spring 2004 which received Asian outflow: Hedo Station, Okinawa (HSO), Japan and the Mt. Bachelo...
Article
The variability of atmospheric mercury in elemental, reactive, and particulate forms has been studied at a remote site (Cape Hedo Observatory, CHO) at Okinawa Island (Japan) March 23 to May 2, 2004, downwind of the major Asian source regions. Under prevailing meteorological conditions, episodes of higher levels of atmospheric mercury and other atmo...
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Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in the atmosphere was measured during an oceanographic cruise in coastal waters between San Diego and San Francisco, California during the CalNex 2010 campaign. The goal of the measurements was to quantify GEM in the various environments that the ship encountered, from urban outflow, the Port of Long Beach and associ...
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During 2009-2010, the State of Florida established a series of air quality monitoring stations to collect data for development of a statewide total maximum daily load (TMDL) for mercury (Hg). At three of these sites, located near Ft. Lauderdale (DVE), Pensacola (OLF), and Tampa Bay (TPA), passive samplers for the measurement of air Hg concentration...
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We have developed a new nested-grid mercury (Hg) simulation over North America with a 1/2° latitude by 2/3° longitude horizontal resolution employing the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Emissions, chemistry, deposition, and meteorology are self-consistent between the global and nested domains. Compared to the global model (4° latitude by...
Article
Full-text available
During 2009-2010, the State of Florida established a series of air quality monitoring stations to collect data for development of a statewide total maximum daily load (TMDL) for mercury (Hg). At three of these sites, located near Ft. Lauderdale (DVE), Pensacola (OLF), and Tampa Bay (TPA), passive samplers for the measurement of air Hg concentration...
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Total mercury (HgT) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in fog collected from 4 locations in and around Monterey Bay, California during June-August of 2011 were 10.7 ± 6.8 and 3.4 ± 3.8 ng L-1 respectively. In contrast, mean HgT and MMHg concentrations in rain water from March-June, 2011 were 1.8 ± 0.9 and 0.1 ± 0.04 ng L-1 respectively. U...
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We have developed a new high-resolution (1/2° latitude by 2/3° longitude) nested-grid mercury (Hg) simulation over North America employing the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Emissions, chemistry, deposition, and meteorology are self-consistent between the global and nested domains. Compared to the global model (4° latitude by 5° longitu...
Article
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that can bioaccumulate in higher trophic level aquatic organisms and poses a health risk to humans and wildlife who consume those organisms. This widespread problem is exemplified by a recent survey of game fish from 152 California Lakes, which found that at least one species in 74% of the lakes sampled exceeded the...
Article
Mercury is a neurotoxin that can bioaccumulate in aquatic ecosystems to levels that are unsafe for humans and biota. It has both natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere, where it can be transported and undergo transformations that lead to its deposition in both wet and dry forms. Due to recent surveys of mercury in fish in California th...
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It has been suggested that pristine locations in western North America are influenced by long-range transport of ozone (O3) precursors in the atmosphere from Asia, especially during the spring. There are also local and regional anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources of O3 precursors in the western United States and the potential for influx from...
Article
The Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative (NVROI) focuses on measuring ozone and other parameters at rural sites across Nevada. The project was prompted by observations of elevated ozone concentrations at Great Basin National Park (GBNP), a remote location at the eastern boundary of the state. Past CASTNET data collected at GBNP demonstrated that the area...
Article
Wet deposition measurements have shown that relative to other parts of the US, the southeastern region has the highest mercury (Hg) inputs. The source of this Hg has been investigated by multiple researchers and is suggested to be derived from local, regional and global sources. Here we focus on trying to understand potential sources of Hg to this...
Article
Mercury is a neurotoxin with both natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere, where it can be transported long distances and potentially impact pristine locations. California has few anthropogenic sources relative to total U.S. emissions, however, many of the sources are located in the Los Angeles Basin including oil refineries and an inci...
Article
Atmospheric airsheds, surface areas that contribute contaminants and/or pollutants to a defined location or the airmass above this location, are often defined statically and are byproducts of forward trajectories from emitters rather than back trajectories from monitoring locations. In contrast, we have created a model that specifically uses freque...
Article
We measured mercury speciation in coastal rainwater samples from Monterey Bay, California in 2007–2008 to investigate the source of monomethylmercury (MMHg) in rainwater and determine the relative importance of wet atmospheric deposition of MMHg to coastal waters compared to other sources on the central Pacific coast. Total mercury (HgT) ranged fro...
Article
Atmospheric deposition is recognized as a potentially major source of mercury (Hg) to aquatic ecosystems. Hg deposition occurs with precipitation (wet), but also without precipitation (dry) mainly due to the high surface reactivity of the various species of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) (HgCl2, HgBr2, HgO, etc.). In some areas where rainfall is sp...
Article
As part of a larger study designed to characterize the potential use of cation-exchange membranes for measuring reactive gaseous mercury (Hg) dry deposition, these surfaces were deployed at two southeastern U.S. sites (Yorkville, GA (YRK), and Pensacola, FL (OLF)) over a year (September 2007- September 2008). At these two SEARCH network sites conce...
Article
1] Air mercury (Hg) speciation was measured for 11 weeks (June–August 2007) at three sites simultaneously in Nevada, USA. Mean reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) concentrations were elevated at all sites relative to those reported for locations not directly influenced by known point sources. RGM concentrations at all sites displayed a regular diel pattern a...
Chapter
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This chapter presents a review of atmospheric mercury measurements (as total and as speciated mercury) conducted at terrestrial sites during the last decade. A large number of activities have been carried out in different regions of the world aiming to assess the level of mercury in ambient air and precipitation, and its variation over time and wit...
Article
Air mercury (Hg) speciation was measured for 11 weeks simultaneously (June-August 2007) at three sites in Nevada, USA. Mean reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) concentrations were elevated at all sites relative to those reported for locations not directly influenced by known point sources. RGM concentrations at all sites displayed a regular diel pattern and...
Article
Mercury is a significant environmental concern and there remain large uncertainties in its global atmospheric cycling. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is relatively unreactive and is therefore the dominant form in the free- troposphere. Ozone and OH are believed to be the primary oxidants that transform GEM to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) which c...
Article
The regional influence of large coal-combustion mercury sources on mercury concentrations in wet deposition in the northeastern United States is investigated. Mercury concentrations in weekly precipitation samples were obtained from four National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) sites: Millford, PA (PA72), Huntington, NY (NY20), Bridgton, ME (...
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Total airborne mercury (TAM) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured in 22 pollution transport “events” at Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), USA (2.8 km asl) between March 2004 and September 2005. Submicron particulate scattering (σsp), ozone (O3), and nitrogen oxides (NOy) were also measured and enhancement ratios for each chemical and aerosol specie...
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We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), particulate mercury (PHg), and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), along with CO, ozone, and aerosol scatter at the Mount Bachelor Observatory (2.7 km above sea level), Oregon, from May to August 2005. The mean mercury concentrations (at standard conditions) were 1.54 ng/m3 (GEM), 5.2 pg/m3 (PHg), and 43 pg/...
Article
Fluxes of total gaseous mercury (TGM) to the atmosphere from industrial and biomass burning sources are inferred from measurements of TGM and carbon monoxide (CO) in a series of pollution plumes intercepted at Mt. Bachelor Observatory, USA, in the free troposphere between April 2004 September 2005. Source regions for these plumes were determined to...
Article
Atmospheric mercury is of significant interest because it is a toxic and bio-accumulating pollutant, has a long lifetime and acts as a potential tracer of long-range transport. Here, we present airborne measurements of mercury and other pollutants made using a twin engine Beechcraft Duchess Aircraft made during the INTEX-B mission in the spring of...
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This paper describes the chemical, aerosol, and meteorological measurements taken at Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO), a new mountaintop site in central Oregon, USA (44.0°N, 121.7°W, 2763 m above mean sea level). During the initial campaign (28 March to 19 May 2004) we evaluated the utility of this location as a site to observe the global atmospher...
Article
There are few observatories where free tropospheric air is sampled on a regular basis. The Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) is a new mountaintop site in central Oregon, U.S.A (44.0°N, 121.7 °W, 2763 m above mean sea level), where chemical, aerosol, and meteorological measurements are ongoing and the results from the first year of data (April 2004 -...
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Continuous CO measurements were obtained at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO, 48.3°N, 124.6°W, 480 m), a coastal site in Washington state, between 9 March 2001 and 31 May 2002. We analyze these observations as well as CO observations at ground sites throughout the North Pacific using the GEOS-CHEM global tropospheric chemistry model to examine the seas...
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We assess the importance of distant pollution sources on the marine background by combining measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) with model simulations from the GEOS-CHEM chemical transport model and two types of back trajectories. Measurements were made over a complete annual cycle from March 2001 to May 2002 at Cheeka Peak Observat...
Article
Measurements of trace gases, aerosols and meteorological parameters were made at a new mountaintop site in the Cascade Range of Central Oregon - Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) (44oN, 121oW, 2700 m asl) from February 22 - May 19 2004. One large pollution plume originating from Asia and numerous smaller ones were observed during the campaign. These p...
Article
There is some evidence that background ozone in the Northeast Pacific/western U.S. is increasing [Jaffe et al., 2003], however the exact cause for this increase remains unclear. This is especially true given the multiple sources for tropospheric O3 in the region. Using ground or airborne datasets the traditional analysis method is to examine the en...
Article
In February 2004, we established a new atmospheric observatory on the summit of Mt. Bachelor, Oregon in order to better understand the long range transport of chemicals and anthropogenic pollutants to North America. Previous work on the inflow to the Pacific Northwest (Weiss-Penzias 2004, 2003, Jaffe 2003) has been able to identify Asian influence...
Article
this paper we will interpret 15 months of continuous carbon monoxide (CO) observations at CPO in 2001 -- 2002 with the GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry [Bey et al., 2001a] to examine the seasonal variability in transport pathways of Asian pollutants to the NE Pacific region. We also use CO measurements from six Cli...
Article
During 2001-2002, carbon monoxide and ozone measurements were made at Cheeka Peak, Washington, a remote site on the northwestern tip of the contiguous U.S. These observations were combined with a global model, GEOS-CHEM, to yield information on the controlling factors of CO and ozone concentrations in different seasons. Previous CO-ozone measuremen...
Article
During the summer of 2003, we conducted ground and airborne observations of CO, O3 and aerosols in the Pacific Northwest. The airborne data is discussed by Bertschi and Jaffe. In this paper we discuss the surface data. Observations were made at the Cheeka Peak Observatory on the remote northwest tip of Washington state and we have supplemented this...
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Ground and airborne measurements of CO, ozone, and aerosols were obtained in the northeastern (NE) Pacific troposphere during 9 March–31 May 2001 as part of the PHOBEA-II project (Photochemical Ozone Budget of the Eastern North Pacific Atmosphere). The GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry was used for flight planning,...
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In this study, gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) and related species (including inorganic reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg)) were measured at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), Washington State, in the marine boundary layer during 2001-2002. Air of continental origin containing anthropogenic pollutants from the urban areas to...
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Because of mercury's (Hg) relatively high vapor pressure and long (0.5-2 years) atmospheric residence, there is the potential for long-range transport of contaminant Hg. Many studies have focused on that transport and deposition in central and eastern North America, Europe, and the Arctic, but there has been little research on the cycling of Hg in...
Article
Observations of CO and ozone were obtained at a ground site on the western tip of Washington State (Cheeka Peak Observatory, 48.3°N; 124.6°W) from March 11 to May 31 2002. These observations were complemented by thirteen flights providing profiles of CO and ozone up to 6 km altitude. Both ground-based and airborne measurements were part of PHOBEA-I...
Article
Trans-Pacific transport of pollutants is now well established. As part of our PHOBEA project (Photochemical Ozone Budget of the Eastern North Pacific Atmosphere) we have identified numerous episodes of pollutants associated with industrial emissions, biomass burning, and mineral dust coming directly from the Eurasian continent. In addition, using t...
Article
Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hgo) measurements were made at Cheeka Peak, Washington in the marine boundary layer for the period March - December, 2001. Highest concentrations of Hgo were observed during the spring and lowest in late fall, with a seasonal amplitude of 21% of the mean value (1.56 ng/m3). Variability of Hgo over the entire data set gi...
Article
Springtime measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and aerosols were collected at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), located at 48.3 N and 124.6 W, during the Photochemical Ozone Budget of the Eastern North Pacific (PHOBEA-I and II) experiments, 1997-98 and 2001-02. The purpose of these experiments was to quan...