Peter Wolfgang Swarzenski

Peter Wolfgang Swarzenski
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) | IAEA · Radioecology

PhD

About

205
Publications
62,935
Reads
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5,964
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1998 - April 2016
United States Geological Survey
Position
  • Research Oceanographer

Publications

Publications (205)
Article
The fate and toxicity of ingested marine microplastics (MPs) has been a major concern in aquatic ecotoxicology for the last decade. Although their ingestion by a wide range of marine organisms has been proven, the uptake of MPs within organs is not yet fully understood and relies on the ability of ingested microplastics to transfer from the gut to...
Article
In recent years, the North Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea have experienced unusual and unprecedented pelagic Sargassum blooms, which may adversely affect coastal ecosystems and productive ocean. Sargassum has the potential to scavenge trace elements and radionuclides from seawater, and when bioaccumulated and thus concentrated, can pose a potential...
Article
Climate change is a global phenomenon with important consequences for environmental pollution, seafood safety and global food security. The changing climate will likely influence the distribution and abundance of seafood species as well as global ocean circulation patterns and biogeochemical cycles that govern environmental pollutant pathways. Alth...
Article
Full-text available
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can deliver substantial nutrient and contaminant loads to nearshore coral reefs. Correctly scaling SGD rates from a point source to a reef is generally a linear process involving simplified assumptions on the hydrogeology, bathymetry, and nearshore hydrodynamics that are essential to properly assess SGD scale a...
Article
The partitioning coefficient, K d , which is defined by the reversible sorption processes between a solid and an aqueous phase at equilibrium, is one of the most important parameters to assess environmental transport and risk. In this study, a series of simple laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate sorption properties of 134 Cs on a m...
Chapter
Full-text available
Environmental microplastic particles (MPs) represent a potential threat to many aquatic animals, and experimental exposure studies, when done well, offer a quantitative approach to assess this stress systematically and reliably. While the scientific literature on MP studies in aquatic environments is rapidly growing, there is still much to learn, a...
Article
Plastic pollution has become a major environmental and societal concern in the last decade. From larger debris to microplastics (MP), this pollution is ubiquitous and particularly affects aquatic ecosystems. MP can be directly or inadvertently ingested by organisms, transferred along the trophic chain, and sometimes translocated into tissues. Howev...
Article
Full-text available
Ciguatera poisoning is a food intoxication associated with the consumption of fish or shellfish contaminated, through trophic transfer, with ciguatoxins (CTXs). In this study, we developed an experimental model to assess the trophic transfer of CTXs from herbivorous parrotfish, Chlorurus microrhinos, to carnivorous lionfish, Pterois volitans. Durin...
Article
The widespread decline in oceanic dissolved oxygen (DO), known as deoxygenation, is a threat to many marine ecosystems, and fish are considered one of the more vulnerable marine organisms. While food intake and growth rates in some fish can be reduced under hypoxic conditions (DO ∼ 60 μmol kg⁻¹), the dietary transfer of essential metals remains unc...
Article
The Golden Horn estuary, which is located along the Sea of Marmara adjacent to the center of Istanbul, has been heavily polluted for centuries due to concentrated shipping activities, and a legacy of industrial and municipal discharges. The municipalities and associated governments have implemented environmental rehabilitation projects for 30 years...
Article
Full-text available
One important aspect of marine plastic pollution is that small particles are ubiquitously present in seawater and can transport a large variety of co-contaminants. The sorption-desorption kinetics of these co-contaminants sorbed to microplastics (MPs) are not fully understood, partially due to the lack of any standardised procedures between studies...
Article
Barium (Ba) isotope variations offer the potential to trace environmental processes, including long-term changes in river discharge and marine export production. Riverine inputs are an important source of dissolved Ba to the ocean, which we estimate to be ~10 to 20 Gmol yr⁻¹. A large fraction (~20 to 75%) of this net riverine dissolved Ba flux to t...
Article
Full-text available
Plastic pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental challenges and has received commensurate widespread attention. Although it is a top priority for policymakers and scientists alike, the knowledge required to guide decisions, implement mitigation actions, and assess their outcomes remains inadequate. We argue that an integrated, gl...
Article
Although fish is an important source of nutrients, including some of the healthiest proteins, long-chain fatty acids, and essential selenium, species at the top of the food chain frequently contain large amounts of toxic mercury (Hg). The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of Hg from fish consumption is calculated from the total concentrati...
Article
Plastic pollution has become a major environmental concern worldwide, and marine ecosystems have become polluted with ubiquitous microplastic particles (MP). MP can contain chemical additives and can also scavenge pollutants from the surrounding environment, and these co-contaminants may threaten the marine biota when MP become inadvertently ingest...
Article
Surface-based 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys were used to characterize permafrost distribution at wetland sites on the alluvial plain north of the Tanana River, 20 km southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska, in June and September 2014. The sites were part of an ecologically-sensitive research area characterizing biogeochemical response o...
Article
Changes in seawater pH can alter the chemical speciation of waterborne chemical elements, affecting their bioavailability and, consequently, their bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Here, controlled environmental conditions and a 210 Pb radiotracer were used to assess the effect of five distinct pH conditions (pH T ranging from 7.16 to 7.94) on t...
Article
We investigated physiological responses including calcification, photosynthesis and alterations to polar metabolites, in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata exposed to different concentrations of polyethylene microplastics. Results showed that at high plastic concentrations (50 particles/mL nominal concentration) the photosynthetic effici...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental plastic pollution is a major ecological and societal concern today. Over the last decade, a broad range of laboratory and experimental studies have complemented field observations in the hope of achieving a better understanding of the fate and impact of micro- and/or nano-plastics (MP/NP) on diverse organisms (e.g. birds, fish and mam...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coral reefs are constructed by calcifiers that precipitate calcium carbonate to build their shells or skeletons through the process of calcification. Accurately assessing coral calcification rates is crucial to determine the health of these ecosystems and their response to major environmental changes such as ocean warming and acidification. Several...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are constructed by calcifiers that precipitate calcium carbonate to build their shells or skeletons through the process of calcification. Accurately assessing coral calcification rates is crucial to determine the health of these ecosystems and their response to major environmental changes such as ocean warming and acidification. Several...
Article
The dissolved oxygen concentration of the world’s oceans has systematically declined by 2% over the past 50 years, and there has been a notable commensurate expansion of the global oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Such wide-scale ocean deoxygenation affects the distribution of biological communities, impacts the physiology of organisms that may affect...
Article
Full-text available
Pervasive and sustained coral diseases contribute to the systemic degradation of reef ecosystems, however, to date an understanding of the physicochemical controls on a coral disease event is still largely lacking. Water circulation and residence times and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) all determine the degree to which reef organisms are ex...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic permafrost stores vast amounts of methane (CH4) in subsurface reservoirs. Thawing permafrost creates areas for this potent greenhouse gas to be released to the atmosphere. Identifying ‘hot spots’ of methane flux on a local scale has been limited by the spatial scales of traditional ground-based or satellite-based methane-sampling methods. He...
Article
Full-text available
In the vast tropical Pacific Basin islands, corals reef ecosystems are one of the defining marine habitats, critical for maintaining biodiversity and supporting highly productive fisheries. These reefs are also vital for tourism and armoring exposed shorelines against erosion and other storm-related effects. Since the 1980’s, there has been growing...
Article
To better understand bioaccumulation of radiocaesium in the commercially important Japanese flatfish, Paralichthys olivaceus, the uptake and depuration kinetics of caesium via both seawater and food were assessed simultaneously using controlled aquaria. The pre-conditioned fish were exposed to radionuclides via the two different pathways (aqueous v...
Article
In order to better understand the influence of changing salinity conditions on the trophic transfer of 137Cs in marine fish that live in dynamic coastal environments, its depuration kinetics was investigated in controlled aquaria. The juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus was acclimated to three distinct salinity conditions (10, 25 and 38) and then...
Article
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) events occur regularly along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast of Morocco, and have been responsible for several severe cases of human intoxication. Along the southern Atlantic coast of Morocco, aquaculture and intensive artisanal fishing practices have recently been particularly heavily impacted, and toxic sp...
Article
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are potent algal toxins that cause widespread ciguatera poisoning and are found ubiquitously in coral reef food webs. Here we developed an environmentally-relevant, experimental model of CTX trophic transfer involving dietary exposure of herbivorous fish to the CTX-producing microalgae Gambierdiscus polynesiensis. Juvenile Naso b...
Article
Full-text available
Sea levels are rising, with the highest rates in the tropics, where thousands of low-lying coral atoll islands are located. Most studies on the resilience of these islands to sea-level rise have projected that they will experience minimal inundation impacts until at least the end of the 21st century. However, these have not taken into account the a...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean acidification (OA), the gradual decline in ocean pH and [CO32-] caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2, poses a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems, depressing rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production, and enhancing rates of bioerosion and dissolution. As ocean pH and [CO32-] decline globally, there is increasing emphasis on...
Article
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Fresh groundwater discharge to coastal environments contribute to the physical and chemical conditions of coastal waters, but the roles of coastal groundwater at regional to continental scales remains poorly defined due to diverse hydrologic conditions and the difficulty of tracking coastal groundwater flow paths through heterogeneous subsurface ma...
Article
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Groundwater resources of low-lying atoll islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in rainfall, wave climate, and sea level. A better understanding of how these forcings affect the limited groundwater resources was explored on Roi-Namur in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. As part of a 16-month study, a rarely recorded isla...
Article
Full-text available
Water, energy, and food are among the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Despite the large potential for efficiency and reduction of losses, the demand for these resources is likely to increase due to population growth, changes in lifestyles, climate change, and other aspect of global change. The strong interconn...
Article
Full-text available
Little information exists on the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the digestive and post-digestive processes in marine fish. Here, we investigated OA impacts (Δ pH = 0.5) on the trophic transfer of select trace elements in the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris using radio-tracer techniques. Assimilation efficiencies of three essential elements (...
Data
Kinetic data for stomach pH and radiotracers remaining activities. Data used for (1) kinetics of stomach pH in juvenile clownfish after a single feeding, (2) long-term depuration of 57Co, 54Mn, and 65Zn in juvenile clownfish and (3) short-term (hourly) depuration of 57Co, 54Mn and 65Zn in juvenile clownfish. (XLSX)
Data
ARRIVE guideline checklist. (PDF)
Article
Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation a...
Article
Groundwater and seawater samples were collected from nearshore wells and offshore along the Kona Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii to investigate rare earth element (REE) behavior in local subterranean estuaries. Previous investigations showed that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the predominant flux of terrestrial waters to the coastal oc...
Article
Full-text available
Study region: Hydrogeologic controls on seasonal land/sea exchange are investigated in Malibu, California, USA. Study focus: An assessment of regional groundwater/surface water exchange and associated biogeochemical transport in an intermittently open, coastal lagoon in California is developed using naturally occurring U/Th-series tracers. New hydr...
Article
Full-text available
Warming climates are rapidly transforming lake ecosystems worldwide, but the breadth of changes in tropical lakes is poorly documented. Sustainable management of freshwater fisheries and biodiversity requires accounting for historical and ongoing stressors such as climate change and harvest intensity. This is problematic in tropical Africa, where r...
Article
Full-text available
Low-relief environments like the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) have complicated hydrologic systems where surface water and groundwater processes are intimately linked yet hard to separate. Fluid exchange within these low-hydraulic-gradient systems can occur across broad spatial and temporal scales, with variable contributions to material transpo...
Article
Select coastal regions of the North Slope of Alaska are experiencing high erosion rates that can be attributed in part to recent warming trends and associated increased storm intensity and frequency. The upper sediment column of the coastal North Slope of Alaska can be described as continuous permafrost underlying a thin (typically less than 1-2 m)...
Article
Full-text available
Study region: The groundwater influenced coastal waters along the arid Kona coast ofthe Big Island, Hawai’i. Study focus: A salinity-and phase partitioning-based mixing experiment was constructed using contrasting groundwater endmembers along the arid Konacoast of the Big Island, Hawai’i and local open seawater to better understand biogeochemical a...
Article
Full-text available
Study region: The study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef. Study focus: Coastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore...
Article
Full-text available
Study region: The study region spans coastal California, USA, and focuses on three primary sites: Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon. Study focus: 1 m and 2 m sea-level rise (SLR) projections were used to assess vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling at select low-lying, coastal sites in California. Separate and combin...
Article
Full-text available
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is an important conduit that links terrestrial and marine environments. SGD conveys both water and water-borne constituents into coastal waters, where these inflows may impact near-shore ecosystem health and sustainability. Multichannel electrical resistivity techniques have proven to be a powerful tool to exam...
Article
Full-text available
Lake deposystems are commonly associated with retroarc mountain belts in the geological record. These deposystems are poorly characterized in modern retroarcs, placing limits on our ability to interpret environmental signals from ancient deposits. To address this problem, we have synthesized our existing knowledge about the distribution, morphometr...