Peter Stoll

Peter Stoll
University of Basel | UNIBAS · Department of Environmental Sciences

About

53
Publications
7,280
Reads
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2,804
Citations
Citations since 2016
6 Research Items
960 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - December 2012
University of Basel
January 2002 - December 2005
Universität Bern
January 1998 - December 2006
Universität Zürich

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Full-text available
We tested the prediction from spatial competition models that intraspecific aggregation may promote coexistence and thus maintain biodiversity with experimental communities of four annual species. Monocultures, three-species mixtures, and the four-species mixture were sown at two densities and with either random or intraspecifically aggregated dist...
Article
Although accumulating evidence indicates that local intraspecific density-dependent effects are not as rare in species-rich communities as previously suspected, there are still very few detailed and systematic neighborhood analyses of species-rich communities. Here, we provide such an analysis with the overall goal of quantifying the relative impor...
Article
Full-text available
As crowded populations of plants develop, the growth of some plants is accompanied by the death of others, a process called density-dependent mortality or 'self-thinning'. During the course of density-dependent mortality, the relationship between total population biomass (B) and surviving plant density (N) is allometric: B = aN(b). Essentially, inc...
Article
Full-text available
Classical tree neighborhood models use size variables acting at point distances. In a new approach here, trees were spatially extended as a function of their crown sizes, represented impressionistically as points within crown areas. Extension was accompanied by plasticity in the form of crown removal or relocation under the overlap of taller trees....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Perennity of giant rosette species in combination with a single "big bang" reproduction followed by death of the genetic individual is relatively rare among plants. Such long-lived monocarpic plants are usually slow growing and can be found in deserts, bogs or in alpine regions of the tropics or subtropics. Due to their longevity monoc...
Article
1) The extent to which plants can reduce nutrient concentrations in soil and thereby compete with others may increase with nutrient mobility. Hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can extend the soil volume from which plants acquire phosphorus (P), thus increasing competition for these resources with neighbours. In this study we tested wheth...
Article
The regional distribution of a plant species is a result of the dynamics of extinctions and colonizations in suitable habitats, especially in strongly fragmented landscapes. Here, we studied the role of spatial dynamics of the long-lived, clonal pioneer plant Geum reptans occurring on glacier forelands in the European Alps. We used demographic data...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of conspecific neighbours on survival and growth of trees have been found to be related to species abundance. Both positive and negative relationships may explain observed abundance patterns. Surprisingly, it is rarely tested whether such relationships could be biased or even spurious due to transforming neighbourhood variables or influence...
Article
Full-text available
In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Medite...
Preprint
Effects of conspecific neighbors on growth and survival of trees have been found to be related to species abundance. Both positive and negative relationships may explain observed abundance patterns. Surprisingly, it is rarely tested whether such relationships could be biased or even spurious due to influences of spatial aggregation, distance decay...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Competitive interactions determine the performance of plant individuals in communities, and species coexistence. Models such as Tilman's resource ratio hypothesis predict that species can exclude competitors by reducing nutrient concentrations to levels where these will fail to maintain positive population growth. Howe...
Article
Evidence of negative conspecific density dependence (NDD) operating on seedling survival and sapling recruitment has accumulated recently. In contrast, evidence of NDD operating on growth of trees has been circumstantial at best. Whether or not local NDD at the level of individual trees leads to NDD at the level of the community is still an open qu...
Article
Sperm length varies considerably, both between and within species, but the evolutionary implications of this variation are poorly understood. Sexual selection on sperm length requires a significant additive genetic variance, but few studies have actually measured this. Stylommatophoran gastropods have extraordinary long sperm. However, the extent o...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Fragaria (Rosaceae) contains 24 plant species, including hybrid species such as the octoploid garden strawberry (F. × ananassa). Natural hybridization between Fragaria species has repeatedly been reported, and the potential future cultivation of genetically modified strawberries has made the study of hybridization potential between F. × a...
Article
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Understanding the factors that affect establishment success of new species in established communities requires the study of both the ability of new species to establish and community resistance. Spatial pattern of species within a community can affect plant performance by changing the outcome of inter-specific competition, and consequently communit...
Article
Full-text available
The relative importance of sexual and clonal reproduction for population growth in clonal plants is highly variable. Clonal reproduction is often more important than sexual reproduction but there is considerable interspecific variation and the importance of the two reproductive modes can change with environmental conditions. We carried out a demogr...
Article
Invasive species of the knotweed complex (Fallopia sp.) have repeatedly been shown to decrease diversity of native local biota. While effects on plant species richness are well established, effects on invertebrate and in particular gastropod species richness are less well understood. We recorded cover of plant species and diversity and abundance of...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Fragaria (Rosaceae) contains 24 species, including hybrid species such as the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). Natural hybridization between Fragaria species has repeatedly been reported, and studies on the hybridization potential between F. × ananassa and its wild relatives have become increasingly important with the outloo...
Article
Full-text available
Herbivores are known to decrease plant species diversity in ecosystems with low productivity. Limestone pavements are low-productive habitats harboring specialized communities of cyanobacteria, and endo- and epilithic lichens exposed to extreme temperature and humidity fluctuations. Pavements of the Great Alvar (Oland, Sweden) are covered by free-l...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental crosses between the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) and the octoploid garden strawberry (F. × ananassa Duch.) can lead to the formation of viable hybrids. However, the extent of such hybrid formation under natural conditions is unknown, but is of fundamental interest and importance in the light of the potential future c...
Article
European agri-environment schemes encourage farmers to establish sown field margin strips to protect and enhance wild plant diversity. However, plant diversity in such wild plant sowings based on seed mixtures is often low due to the high competitiveness of few, common species. Here we analysed whether intraspecific aggregation could enhance the pe...
Article
Full-text available
Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (hetero- myopia), coexistence can be pr...
Article
1. The fragmentation of natural habitats is generally considered to be a major threat to biodiversity. Different species may respond differently to habitat fragmentation, depending on species-specific traits such as body size, dispersal ability, mating system, and habitat requirement. 2. The population sizes, extinction and recolonization frequenci...
Article
Full-text available
Many plant species show limited dispersal resulting in spatial and genetic substructures within populations. Consequently, neighbours are often related between each other, resulting in sibling competition. Using seed families of the annuals Capsella bursa-pastoris and Stachys annua we investigated effects of spatial pattern (i.e. random versus aggr...
Article
Recent changes in agriculture (intensification or abandonment) have resulted in a critical reduction of semi-natural grasslands in Eastern Europe. Subalpine semi-natural grasslands in Transylvania, Romania, harbour a high diversity of plants and invertebrates, including endemics, and are considered refugia for numerous threatened open-land species....
Article
A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of habitat fragmentation on herbivore damage to individually tagged leaves of Betonica officinalis rosettes. Fragments of different size and corresponding control plots were established at three study sites in nutrient-poor calcareous grasslands in the northern Swiss Jura mountains. Leaf damag...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat fragmentation is one of the most important threats to biodiversity. Decreasing patch size may lead to a reduction in the size of populations and to an increased extinction risk of remnant populations. Furthermore, colonization rates may be reduced in isolated patches. To investigate the effects of isolation and patch size on extinction and...
Article
Summary1 Demographic studies in natural habitats are important for understanding the life history and mechanisms of population persistence of particular species. For plants living in high‐alpine habitats, it is of significant importance to what extent sexual or clonal reproduction contribute to population growth, but respective data are scarce. 2 W...
Article
Full-text available
Amongst the various hypotheses that challenged to explain the coexistence of species with similar life histories, theoretical, and empirical studies suggest that spatial processes may slow down competitive exclusion and hence promote coexistence even in the absence of evident trade-offs and frequent disturbances. We investigated the effects of spat...
Article
1 We used simulated and experimental plant populations to analyse mortality-driven pattern formation under size-dependent competition. Larger plants had an advantage under size-asymmetric but not under symmetric competition. Initial patterns were random or clumped. 2 The simulations were individual-based and spatially explicit. Size-dependent compe...
Article
Full-text available
Patterns of size inequality in crowded plant populations are often taken to be indicative of the degree of size asymmetry of competition, but recent research suggests that some of the patterns attributed to size-asymmetric competition could be due to spatial structure. To investigate the theoretical relationships between plant density, spatial patt...
Chapter
The field of theoretical ecology has expanded dramatically in the last few years. This volume gives detailed coverage of the main developing areas in spatial ecological theory, and is written by world experts in the field. Integrating the perspective from field ecology with novel methods for simplifying spatial complexity, it offers a didactical tr...
Article
1 The morphological plasticity of sun and shade branches of Pinus sylvestris growing at the edge of a ‘tree-patch’ created in 1989, when surrounding trees were removed, was compared with that of branches of trees growing in the centre of the patch.2 In 1992, we selected 10-year-old branches. Yearly growth increments (long-shoots) and emerging buds...
Article
Full-text available
To study the effects of competition in Mediterranean shrubland regeneration following disturbance, we used a neighborhood approach to assess the influence of mature Rosmarinus officinalis neighbors on the resprouting of Erica multiflora individuals after clipping. Sprout biomass of target plants 2 years after clipping was regressed against various...
Article
1 The rhizome growth patterns of the clonal plant Solidago altissima were studied in response to mowing and fertilizer application in a field experiment. Rhizome systems of 120 clonal fragments were harvested in the spring of 1993, after 6 years of mowing (1987–92) and 2 years of fertilizer application (1991–92). The results were interpreted in the...
Article
Full-text available
To study the effects of competition in Mediterranean shrubland regeneration following disturbance, we used a neighborhood approach to assess the influence of mature Rosmarinus officinalis neighbors on the resprouting of Erica multiflora individuals after clipping. Sprout biomass of target plants 2 years after clipping was regressed against various...
Article
Full-text available
Fractal geometry is a potentially valuable tool for quantitatively characterizing complex structures. The fractal dimension (D) can be used as a simple, single index for summarizing properties of real and abstract structures in space and time. Applications in the fields of biology and ecology range from neurobiology to plant architecture, landscape...
Article
1 Previous studies have reported significant influences of maternal environment on offspring fitness in plants. We investigated the early plant development from seeds of Centaurea maculosa plants grown in four environments of increasing severity: (1) control; (2) herbivory; (3) herbivory + nutrient shortage; and (4) herbivory + nutrient shortage +...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the variation in growth of individual trees in a population of Pinus sylvestris near Zurich in relation to tree age, size, and local competition. This population established naturally when the drainage pattern in a peat bog was altered after the Second World War. An unusual opportunity to study stand development was afforded when the tre...
Article
Discontinuous relationships between variables are common in biological data. Discontinuities can sometimes give the appearance of curvilinearity, which suggests the data should be analyzed with nonlinear models. Here we show that often a more meaningful analysis can be obtained with censored regression techniques. In a censoring model all points be...
Chapter
Full-text available
Growth variation among individuals in a naturally established population of Pinus silvestris. — The aim of this study was to explain growth variation among individual trees in a population of Pinus silvestris near Zurich in terms of age, previous size, and local competition. This population developed when the drainage pattern in a bog was altered d...

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