Peter Scott Solomon

Peter Scott Solomon
Australian National University | ANU · Research School of Biology (RSB)

BSc, PhD

About

200
Publications
43,484
Reads
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7,821
Citations
Citations since 2016
58 Research Items
4702 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Additional affiliations
November 2008 - present
Australian National University
Position
  • Wheat Biosecurity
January 2003 - December 2012
Murdoch University
January 1998 - June 2000
Carlsberg Research Centre
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (200)
Article
Full-text available
Septoria tritici blotch (STB) has been ranked the third most important wheat disease in the world, threatening a large area of wheat production. Although major genes play an important role in the protection against Zymoseptoria tritici infection, the lifespan of their resistance unfortunately is very short in modern wheat production systems. Combin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human activity impacts the evolutionary trajectories of many species worldwide. Global trade of agricultural goods contributes to the dispersal of pathogens reshaping their genetic makeup and providing opportunities for virulence gains. Understanding how pathogens surmount control strategies and cope with new climates is crucial to predicting the f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Septoria tritici blotch (STB) has been ranked the third most important wheat disease in the world, threatening a large area of wheat production. Although major genes play an important role in the protection against Zymoseptoria tritici infection, the lifespan of their resistance unfortunately is very short in modern agriculture systems. Combination...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogenic fungi use diverse infection strategies to obtain nutrients from plants. Biotrophic fungi feed only on living plant tissue, whereas necrotrophic fungi kill host cells to extract nutrients. To prevent disease, plants need to distinguish between pathogens with different life cycles, as a successful defense against a biotroph, which often in...
Article
Full-text available
The plant pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum secretes necrotrophic effectors to promote disease. These effectors induce cell death on wheat cultivars carrying dominant susceptibility genes in an inverse gene-for-gene manner. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these interactions and resulting cell death remain unclear. Here, we used a yea...
Article
Full-text available
This article is a Commentary on Kariyawasam et al. (2022), 233: 409–426 and Richards et al. (2022), 233: 427–442.
Article
Effectors are a key part of the arsenal of plant-pathogenic fungi and promote pathogen virulence and disease. Effectors typically lack sequence similarity to proteins with known functional domains and motifs, limiting our ability to predict their functions and understand how they are recognized by plant hosts. As a result, cross-disciplinary approa...
Preprint
Full-text available
The plant pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum secretes necrotrophic effectors to promote disease. These effectors induce cell death on wheat cultivars carrying dominant susceptibility genes in an inverse gene-for-gene manner. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these interactions and resulting cell death remain unclear. Here, we used a yea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Effectors are a key part of the arsenal of plant pathogenic fungi and promote pathogen virulence and disease. Effectors typically lack sequence similarity to proteins with known functional domains and motifs, limiting our ability to predict their functions and understand how they are recognised by plant hosts. As a result, cross-disciplinary approa...
Article
Full-text available
Plant fungal pathogens cause devastating diseases on cereal plants and threaten global food security. During infection, these pathogens secrete proteinaceous effectors that promote disease. Some of these effectors from necrotrophic plant pathogens induce a cell death response (necrosis), which facilitates pathogen growth in planta. Characterization...
Article
Full-text available
Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici, is one of the most economically important diseases of wheat. Recently, both factors of a gene‐for‐gene interaction between Z. tritici and wheat, the wheat receptor‐like kinase Stb6 and the Z. tritici secreted effector protein AvrStb6, have been identified. Previous analyses r...
Article
Plant pathogens cause disease through secreted effector proteins, which act to promote infection. Typically, the sequences of effectors provide little functional information and further targeted experimentation is required. Here, we utilised a structure/function approach to study SnTox3, an effector from the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Parastagono...
Preprint
Full-text available
Plant fungal pathogens cause devastating diseases on cereal plants and threaten global food security. During infection, these pathogens secrete proteinaceous effectors that promote disease. Some of these effectors from necrotrophic plant pathogens induce a cell death response (necrosis), which facilitates pathogen growth in planta. Characterisation...
Article
Full-text available
Zymoseptoria tritici, the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, is a fungal wheat pathogen that causes significant global yield losses. Within Z. tritici populations, quantitative differences in virulence among different isolates are commonly observed; however, the genetic components that underpin these differences remain elusive. In this study,...
Article
The effector SnTox3 from Parastagonospora nodorum elicits a strong necrotic response in susceptible wheat and also interacts with wheat pathogenesis‐related protein 1 (TaPR‐1), although the function of this interaction in disease is unclear. Here, we dissect TaPR1 function by studying SnTox3‐TaPR1 interaction and demonstrate the dual functionality...
Preprint
Full-text available
Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici , is one of the most economically important diseases of wheat. Recently, both factors of a gene-for-gene interaction between Z. tritici and wheat, the wheat receptor-like kinase Stb6 and the Z. tritici secreted effector protein AvrStb6, have been identified. Previous analyses...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici is a significant constraint to wheat production in temperate cropping regions around the world. Despite its agronomic impacts, the mechanisms allowing the pathogen to asymptomatically invade and grow in the apoplast of wheat leaves before causing extensive host cell death remain elusive. Given r...
Article
Significance Studies of the 1940s Victoria blight of oats epidemic discovered that some fungal pathogens secrete HSTs responsible for symptom development and specificity of the associated disease. The causal necrotrophic pathogen of Victoria blight, C. victoriae , secretes the peptide HST victorin, which was, subsequently, shown to constitute a nov...
Article
Full-text available
The outbreak of wheat blast (Pyricularia oryzae Syn: Magnaporthe oryzae) in Bangladesh and India in recent times is a cause of grave concern for future wheat production in South Asian countries. In this review, we focus on the origin and pathology of P. oryzae and its current status and impact on trade of wheat in South Asia. We also consider futur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici is a significant constraint to wheat production in temperate cropping regions around the world. Despite its agronomic impacts, the mechanisms allowing the pathogen to asymptomatically invade and grow in the apoplast of wheat leaves before causing extensive host cell death remain elusive. Given re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici is a significant constraint to wheat production in temperate cropping regions around the world. Despite its agronomic impacts, the mechanisms allowing the pathogen to asymptomatically invade and grow in the apoplast of wheat leaves before causing extensive host cell death remain elusive. Given re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Plant pathogens cause disease through secreted effector proteins, which act to modulate host physiology and promote infection. Typically, the sequences of effectors provide little functional information and further targeted experimentation is required. Here, we utilised a structure/function approach to study SnTox3, an effector from the necrotrophi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The genome-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized gene manipulation by providing an efficient method to generate targeted mutations. This technique deploys the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA (sgRNA) which interact to form a Cas9-sgRNA complex that initiates gene editing through the introduction of double stranded DNA breaks. We...
Article
Full-text available
Septoria nodorum blotch is a major disease of wheat caused by the fungus Parastagonospora nodorum. Recent studies have demonstrated that secondary metabolites, including polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides, produced by the pathogen play important roles in disease and development. However, there is currently no knowledge on the composition or bio...
Article
Full-text available
Epichloë festucae is an endophytic fungus that forms a symbiotic association with Lolium perenne. Here we analysed how the metabolome of the ryegrass apoplast changed upon infection of this host with sexual and asexual isolates of E. festucae. A metabolite fingerprinting approach was used to analyse the metabolite composition of apoplastic wash flu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The genome-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized gene manipulation by providing an efficient method to generate targeted mutations. This technique deploys the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA (gRNA) which interact to form a Cas9-gRNA complex that initiates gene editing through the introduction of double stranded DNA breaks. We te...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The genome-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized gene manipulation by providing an efficient method to generate targeted mutations. This technique deploys the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA (sgRNA) which interact to form a Cas9-sgRNA complex that initiates gene editing through the introduction of double stranded DNA breaks. We...
Article
The aetiology of fungal pathogenesis of grains is critical to global food security. The large number of orphan biosynthetic gene clusters uncovered in fungal plant pathogen genome sequencing projects suggests that we have a significant knowledge gap about the secondary metabolite repertoires of these pathogens and their roles in plant pathogenesis....
Preprint
Full-text available
Epichloë festucae is an endophytic fungus that forms a mutualistic symbiotic association with Lolium perenne . Here we analysed how the metabolome of the ryegrass apoplast changed upon infection of this host with sexual and asexual isolates of E. festucae . A metabolite fingerprinting approach was used to analyse the metabolite composition of apopl...
Article
Full-text available
The fungus Parastagonospora nodorum infects wheat through the use of necrotrophic effector (NE) proteins that cause host-specific tissue necrosis. The Zn2Cys6 transcription factor PnPf2 positively regulates NE gene expression and is required for virulence on wheat. Little is known about other downstream targets of PnPf2. We compared the transcripto...
Article
The aldol reaction is one of the most fundamental stereocontrolled carbon‐carbon bond‐forming reactions and is mainly catalyzed by aldolases in Nature. Despite aldol reaction has been widely proposed to be involved in fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis, dedicated aldolase that catalyze stereoselective aldol reaction has rarely been reported i...
Article
Full-text available
This work dissects the tripartite horizontal transfer of ToxA , a gene that has a direct negative impact on global wheat yields. Defining the extent of horizontally transferred DNA is important because it can provide clues to the mechanisms that facilitate HGT. Our analysis of ToxA and its surrounding 14 kb suggests that this gene was horizontally...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical investigation of the barley and wheat fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana BRIP10943 yielded four new sativene-type sesquiterpenoid natural products, bipolenins K–N (1–4), together with seven related known analogues (5–11), and a sesterterpenoid (12). Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data, supported b...
Preprint
Septoria nodorum blotch is a major disease of wheat caused by the fungus Parastagonospora nodorum. Recent studies have demonstrated that secondary metabolites, including polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides, produced by the pathogen play important roles in disease and development. However, there is currently no knowledge on the composition or bio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most known examples of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between eukaryotes are ancient. These events are identified primarily using phylogenetic methods on coding regions alone. Only rarely are there examples of HGT where non-coding DNA is also reported. The gene encoding the wheat virulence protein ToxA and surrounding 14 kb is one of these rare exa...
Article
Full-text available
White grain disorder is a recently emerged wheat disease in Australia, caused by Eutiarosporella darliae, E. pseudodarliae, and E. tritici-australis. The disease cycle of these pathogens and the molecular basis of their interaction with wheat are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we undertook a comparative genomics analysis focused...
Article
Full-text available
Fungicides are essential to control diseases in agriculture because many crops are highly susceptible to pathogens. However, many pathogens rapidly evolve resistance to fungicides. A large body of studies have described specific mutations conferring resistance and have often made inferences about the origins of resistance based on sequencing data f...
Article
Full-text available
Key message A new and dominant R gene Stb19 is identified from a soft wheat cultivar ‘Lorikeet’ and was mapped on the distal region of chromosome 1DS. Two tightly linked KASP markers were also discovered and validated for molecular-assisted breeding programs. Abstract A new R gene, designated as Stb19, provides resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici i...
Article
Plant nucleotide‐binding leucine‐rich repeat (NLR) disease resistance proteins recognize specific pathogen effectors and activate a cellular defense program. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1 (RRS1‐R) and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae 4 (RPS4) function together to recognize the unrelated bacterial eff...
Article
Full-text available
A biosynthetic gene cluster that is significantly upregulated in the fungal wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum during plant infection was reconstructed heterologously in Aspergillus nidulans. This led to the discovery of five new α-pyrone polyketides, alternapyrones B–F (2–6). Compounds 5 and 6, which contain a highly substituted dihydrofuran,...
Preprint
White grain disorder is a recently emerged wheat disease in Australia, caused by three Botryosphaeriaceae spp. ; Eutiarosporella darliae, E. pseudodarliae , and E. tritici-australis . The disease cycle of these pathogens and the molecular basis of their interaction with wheat are poorly understood. To address this, we undertook a comparative genomi...
Article
To investigate effector gene regulation in the wheat pathogenic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum, the promoter and expression of Tox3 was characterised through a series of complementary approaches. Promoter deletion and DNase I footprinting experiments identified a 25 bp region in the Tox3 promoter as being required for transcription. Subsequent yea...
Article
For many years pathogens of wheat have remained poorly understood. Hindered by an inaccessible host and the obligate nature of many of the pathogens, our understanding of these interactions has been limited compared to other more amenable pathosystems. However, breakthroughs over recent years have shed new light on diseases of wheat, particularly t...
Article
Full-text available
Wheat is one of the primary staple foods throughout the planet. Significant yield gains in wheat production over the past 40 years have resulted in a steady balance of supply versus demand. However, predicted global population growth rates and dietary changes necessitate substantial yield gains over the next several decades to meet this escalating...
Article
White grain disorder (WGD) is a recently emerged wheat disease in Australia caused by three Botryosphaeriaceae fungi, from the genus Eutiarosporella. These species are E. tritici-australis, E. darliae, and E. pseudodarliae. Characterisation of the mating type genes for the WGD-species show that the genome sequence of a single E. darliae and E. pseu...
Article
The members of the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family are among the most abundantly produced proteins in plants on pathogen attack, and PR-1 gene expression has long been used as a marker for salicylic acid-mediated disease resistance. However, despite considerable interest over several decades, their requirement and role in plant defence...
Article
Full-text available
Background Genome mining facilitated by heterologous systems is an emerging approach to access the chemical diversity encoded in basidiomycete genomes. In this study, three sesquiterpene synthase genes, GME3634, GME3638, and GME9210, which were highly expressed in the sclerotium of the medicinal mushroom Lignosus rhinocerotis, were cloned and heter...
Article
Parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of wheat. The contribution of secondary metabolites to this pathosystem is poorly understood. A biosynthetic gene cluster (SNOG_08608-08616) has been shown to be upregulated during the late stage of P. nodorum wheat leaf infection. The gene cluster shares several homologues with the Cercospora nicot...
Article
Full-text available
Bipolaris sorokiniana is the causal agent of multiple diseases on wheat and barley and is the primary constraint to cereal production throughout South Asia. Despite its significance, the molecular basis of disease is poorly understood. To address this, the genomes of three Australian isolates of B. sorokiniana were sequenced and screened for known...
Article
Full-text available
Secretomics describes the global study of proteins that are secreted by a cell, a tissue or an organism, and has recently emerged as a field for which interest is rapidly growing. The versatility of oomycetes, fungi, and bacteria allows them to associate with plants in many ways depending on whether they grow as a biotroph, hemibiotroph, necrotroph...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we describe the presence of genes encoding close homologues of an endogenous plant peptide, rapid alkalinisation factor (RALF), within the genomes of 26 species of phytopathogenic fungi. Members of the RALF family are key growth factors in plants, and the sequence of the RALF active region is well conserved between the plant and funga...
Article
Recent studies have identified that proteinaceous effectors secreted by Parastagonospora nodorum are required to cause disease on wheat. These effectors interact in a gene-for-gene manner with host dominant susceptibilty loci, resulting in disease. However, whilst the requirement of these effectors for infection is clear, their mechanisms of action...
Article
Full-text available
Fungal effector-host sensitivity gene interactions play a key role in determining the outcome of septoria nodorum blotch disease (SNB) caused by Parastagonospora nodorum on wheat. The pathosystem is complex and mediated by interaction of multiple fungal necrotrophic effector-host sensitivity gene systems. Three effector-sensitivity gene systems are...
Article
While the life-styles and infection strategies of plant pathogens are diverse, a prevailing feature is the use of an arsenal of secreted proteins, known as effectors that aid in microbial infection. In the case of eukaryotic filamentous pathogens such as fungi and oomycetes, effector proteins are typically dissimilar, at the protein sequence level,...
Article
Full-text available
Zymoseptoria tritici is a host-specific, necrotrophic pathogen of wheat. Infection by Z. tritici is characterized by its extended latent period, which typically lasts two weeks, and is followed by extensive host cell death and rapid proliferation of fungal biomass. This work characterizes the level of genomic variation in 13 isolates for which we h...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural products found across diverse taxa as part of the innate immune system against pathogen attacks. Some AMPs are synthesized through the canonical gene expression machinery and are called ribosomal AMPs. Other AMPs are assembled by modular enzymes generating nonribosomal AMPs and harbor unusual structural div...
Article
Full-text available
In the late 1990s, a novel Botryosphaeria-like fungal pathogen was observed causing a disease on wheat in Queensland, characterised as white grain disorder (WGD). In recent years, this disease has sporadically appeared across the eastern states of Australia. In this study, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences were used to compare thes...