Peter Senger

Peter Senger
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung | GSI · Nuclear Physics

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95
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Introduction
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Publications

Publications (95)
Technical Report
Full-text available
2021 was again a year under pandemic conditions, with restrictions hindering our daily work in the laboratories and in the offices. Nevertheless, we reached important milestones towards the realization of the CBM experiment: The Technical Design Report for the MVD was approved by FAIR in December 2021. The STS team successfully carried out several...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Inner Tracking System, MPD - ITS TDR v.1.0, February 2022, Technical Design Report; The Nuclotron-base Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) is under construction at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), with commissioning of the facility expected in late 2022. The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) has been designed to operate at NICA and its compon...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Against the odds, important milestones have been reached on the way towards the realization of the CBM experiment: the Technical Design Report for the MVD has been submitted, the Engineering Design Review for the module and ladder assembly of the STS has been passed, important reviews of mechanical parts incl. the absorbers of the MUCH and of the...
Book
Full-text available
CBM - Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR, Progress Report 2019; The exploration of the QCD phase diagram at high net-baryon densities is one of the most fascinating aspects of modern nuclear physics, as it links laboratory heavy-ion collisions to cosmic objects and phenomena like neutron stars, supernova explosions, and neutron star m...
Article
Full-text available
The HADES (High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer) is a tool designed for lepton pair (e+e−) spectroscopy in pion, proton and heavy ion induced reactions in the 1–2AGeV energy range. One of the goals of the HADES experiment is to study in-medium modifications of hadron properties like effective masses, decay widths, electromagnetic form factors e...
Article
Full-text available
The layout of the CBM Silicon Tracking System fore-sees the application of double-sided microstrip sensors in three sizes. All sensors have the same width of 6.2 cm, matching the width of the detector ladders that build up the tracking stations, and are segmented into 1024 strips of 58 µm pitch. The sensor heights, essentially correspond-ing to the...
Article
A small prototype detector based on high pressure thin-walled tubes (straws) has been developed and its parameters have been studied on a bench at JINR, Dubna, and SPS at CERN. The inner diameter of the straws is 9.53mm. The pressure of the active gas mixture Ar/CO2 (80/20) was varied from 1 to 5bar. The best spatial resolution achieved in this pre...
Article
A prototype detector based on thin-walled segmented tubes has been developed and its parameters have been studied. The detector contains 360 registration channels with a straw diameter of 4 mm. The prototype’ granularity is 4 сm2 and the length of insensitive region due to straw internal elements is less than 5% of its full sensitive area. Deterior...
Article
In this introductory part we first present a primer, "facets of matter", which is intended for non-experts and young students, who would like to enter this research field. After a brief historical overview, the main physics concepts and research objectives addressed in this book are elucidated, using illustrative examples known from standard physic...
Book
Part 0: General Introduction.- Part I: Bulk Properties of Strongly Interacting Matter.- Part II: In-Medium Excitations.- Part III Collision Dynamics.- Part IV: Observables and Predictions.- Part V The CBM Experiment.- Glossary.- References.
Article
Full-text available
The recently claimed observations of non-negligible amounts of 6Li in old halo stars have renewed interest in the Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) of 6Li. One important ingredient in the predicted BBN abundance of 6Li is the low-energy 2H(α,γ)6Li cross section. Up to now, the only available experimental result for this cross section showed an almost...
Conference Paper
To improve the rate capability of MRPC, we developed pad- and strip-readout multi-gap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs) with low-resistive silicate glass electrodes (with bulk resistivity of 1010 ¿cm quantity) and studied their performances. The tests were performed with 2.5 GeV proton beam at GSI. Time resolutions below 85 ps and efficiencies large...
Article
The project of the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), co-located to the GSI facility in Darmstadt, has been officially started on November 7, 2007. An investment of about 1 billion Euros will permit new physics programs in the areas of low and medium energy antiproton research, heavy ion physics complementary to LHC, as...
Article
Full-text available
HADES is a versatile magnetic spectrometer aimed at studying dielectron production in pion, proton and heavy-ion-induced collisions. Its main features include a ring imaging gas Cherenkov detector for electron-hadron discrimination, a tracking system consisting of a set of 6 superconducting coils producing a toroidal field and drift chambers and a...
Article
The project of the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), co-located to the GSI facility in Darmstadt, was officially started on November 7, 2007. An investment of about 1 billion euro will permit new physics programs in the areas of low and medium energy antiproton research, heavy ion physics complementary to LHC, as well a...
Article
The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will be one of the major scientific activities at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The goal of the CBM research program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities using high-energy nucleus–nucleus collisions. This approach is comp...
Article
Four-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) prototypes with silicate glass electrodes (bulk resistivity ~10 8 -10 9 ΩΑcm) were studied for suitability in time-of-flight applications at high rates. These studies were performed using a continuous electron beam of 34 MeV at the FZ Dresden-Rossendorf electron linac ELBE. Time resolutions of about 100 ps and...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes the yields and the emission patterns of K+ and of K- mesons measured in inclusive C+C, Ni+Ni, and Au+Au collisions at incident energies from 0.6A to 2.0A GeV using the Kaon Spectrometer KaoS at GSI. For Ni+Ni collisions at 1.5A and at 1.93A GeV as well as for Au+Au at 1.5A GeV, detailed results are presented of the multiplicit...
Article
9 pages.-- ISI Article Identifier: 000250926800024 The High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer HADES has been constructed at the SIS accelerator (GSI Darmstadt) to investigate electron-positron pairs produced in proton, pion and heavy ion induced reactions. The main goal of these studies is to explore properties of hadrons in nuclear matter. The a...
Article
The compressed baryonic matter (CBM) experiment will be one of the major scientific activities at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The goal of the CBM research program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high-baryon densities using high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. This includes the stu...
Article
Full-text available
Differential production cross sections of ${K}^{\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}}$ mesons have been measured in $p+\mathrm{C}$ and $p+\mathrm{Au}$ collisions at 1.6, 2.5, and 3.5 GeV proton beam energy. At beam energies close to the production threshold, the ${K}^{$-${}}$ multiplicity is strongly enhanced with respect to proton-proton collisions. Accor...
Article
Full-text available
Differential production cross sections of $K^{\pm}$ mesons have been measured in $p$ + C and $p$ + Au collisions at 1.6, 2.5 and 3.5 GeV proton beam energy. At beam energies close to the production threshold, the $K^-$ multiplicity is strongly enhanced with respect to proton-proton collisions. According to microscopic transport calculations, this e...
Article
Full-text available
Final results from an exclusive measurement of the Coulomb breakup of 8B into 7Be+p at 254 A MeV are reported. Energy-differential Coulomb-breakup cross sections are analyzed using a potential model of 8B and first-order perturbation theory. The deduced astrophysical S_17 factors are in good agreement with the most recent direct 7Be(p,gamma)8B meas...
Article
The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at GSI's future international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will study strongly interacting matter at high baryon densities. The central component of the fixed-target heavy-ion spectrometer is a high- performance silicon vertex tracker. It applies most advanced pixel and microstrip d...
Article
The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a fixed-target heavy-ion experiment planned at GSI's future international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). CBM will study strongly interacting matter at high baryon densities where the QCD phase diagram is poorly known. The experiment applies a detector concept new to heavy-ion phys...
Article
Full-text available
Azimuthal distributions of pi+, K+, and K- mesons have been measured in Au+Au reactions at 1.5A GeV and Ni+Ni reactions at 1.93 A GeV. In semicentral collisions at midrapidity, pi+ and K+ mesons are emitted preferentially perpendicular to the reaction plane in both collision systems. In contrast for K- mesons in Ni+Ni reactions, an in-plane ellipti...
Article
Azimuthal distributions of {pi}{sup +}, K{sup +}, and K{sup -} mesons have been measured in Au+Au reactions at 1.5A GeV and Ni+Ni reactions at 1.93A GeV. In semicentral collisions at midrapidity, {pi}{sup +} and K{sup +} mesons are emitted preferentially perpendicular to the reaction plane in both collision systems. In contrast for K{sup -} mesons...
Article
The emission of K+ and π± mesons has been studied in the asymmetric collision system Au+C and in the inverse reaction C+Au at 1.0A GeV (and at 1.8A GeV for C+Au only) in order to extract the effective source rapidities based on their distribution in the pt-y plane. The extracted source rapidity of K+ mesons is about ys/ybeam=0.25 at both incident e...
Article
A major field of research at the future accelerator facility at GSI will be the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities. Experimental observables and the proposed detector system will be discussed.
Article
Particle production in heavy-ion collisions is sensitive to the reaction dynamics and to the conditions inside the dense and hot fireball. In particular, experimental data on strangeness production at SIS energies, together with their theoretical interpretation based on microscopic transport theory, permit to explore fundamental aspects of modern n...
Article
Full-text available
The production of K+ and of K- mesons in heavy-ion collisions at beam energies of 1 to 2 AGeV has systematically been investigated with the Kaon Spectrometer KaoS. The ratio of the K+ production excitation function for Au+Au and for C+C reactions increases with decreasing beam energy, which is expected for a soft nuclear equation-of-state. A compre...
Article
The yield and the phase-space distributions of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions are sensitive to the reaction dynamics and to the conditions inside the dense and hot fireball. At beam energies where the number of produced particles is still small as compared to the number of participating nucleons, newly created particles can be used as p...
Article
The study of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions will be one of the major activities at the future accelerator facility in Darmstadt. The goal of the research program is the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities. Relevant experimental observables and the proposed detector system will be discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Differential production cross sections of K- and K+ mesons have been measured in Ni+Ni and Au+Au collisions at a beam energy of 1.5 A GeV. The K(-)/K(+) ratio is found to be nearly constant as a function of the collision centrality and system size. The spectral slopes and the polar emission pattern differ for K- and K+ mesons. These observations in...
Article
Full-text available
An exclusive measurement of the Coulomb breakup of 8B into 7Be+p at 254A MeV allowed the study of the angular correlations of the breakup particles. These correlations demonstrate clearly that E1 multipolarity dominates and that E2 multipolarity can be neglected. By using a simple single-particle model for 8B and treating the breakup in first-order...
Article
The creation of strangeness and charm in nucleus–nucleus collisions at threshold beam energies is discussed as a probe for compressed baryonic matter. Experimental data on strangeness production at SIS energies indicate that the properties of kaons and antikaons are modified in dense nuclear matter. The yield of K+ mesons emitted in heavy-ion colli...
Article
Full-text available
An exclusive measurement of the Coulomb breakup of $^{8}\mathrm{B}$ into $^{7}\mathrm{B}\mathrm{e}+p$ at $254A\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{M}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{V}$ allowed the study of the angular correlations of the breakup particles. These correlations demonstrate clearly that $E1$ multipolarity dominates and that $E2$ multipolarity can be neglected. B...
Article
A major field of research at the future accelerator facility at GSI will be the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities. This approach is complementary to the studies of matter at high temperatures performed at the CERN-SPS, RHIC and the future LHC. Experimental observables and the proposed detector system will b...
Article
Full-text available
At the Kaon spectrometer KaoS at SIS/GSI, the production of kaons and antikaons in heavy-ion reactions at a beam energy of 1.5 A GeV has been measured for the collision systems Ni + Ni and Au + Au. The K−/K+ ratio is found to be constant for both systems and as a function of impact parameter but the slopes of K+ and K− spectra differ for all impact...
Article
The production and propagation of kaons and antikaons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions have been systematically investigated with the Kaon spectrometer at SIS/GSI. Experimental results on the K+ and K− yield and on the azimuthal emission pattern of K+ mesons are presented. Within the framework of transport models the data can be explained assum...
Article
The production of kaons and antikaons in nucleus-nucleus collisions has been studied with the kaon spectrometer at SIS/GSI. The K⁻/K⁺ ratio was measured in C + C, Ni + Ni and Au + Au collisions at 1.5 A GeV and was found to be almost independent of the system size. In Ni + Ni collisions at 1.93 A GeV we measured the phase-space distributions of K⁻...
Article
Full-text available
The production of pions and kaons has been measured in Au-197 + Au-197 collisions at beam energies from 0.6 to 1.5A GeV with the kaon spectrometer at SIS/GSI. The K+ meson multiplicity per nucleon is enhanced in Au + Au collisions by factors up to 6 relative to C + C reactions, whereas the corresponding pion ratio is reduced. The ratio of the K+ me...
Article
Full-text available
Production cross-sections of charged pions, kaons and antikaons have been measured in C+C and C+Au collisions at beam energies of 1.0 and 1.8 AGeV for different polar emission angles. The kaon and antikaon energy spectra can be described by Boltzmann distributions whereas the pion spectra exhibit an additional enhancement at low energies. The pion...
Article
Differential production cross sections of K− and K+ mesons have been measured as function of the polar emission angle in Ni+Ni collisions at a beam energy of 1.93 AGeV. In near-central collisions, the spectral shapes and the widths of the rapidity distributions of K− and K+ mesons are in agreement with the assumption of isotropic emission. In non-c...
Article
Full-text available
The emission pattern of charged pions has been measured in Au+Au collisions at 1 GeV/nucleon incident energy. In peripheral collisions and at target rapidities, high-energy pions are emitted preferentially towards the target spectator matter. In contrast, low-energy pions are emitted predominantly in the opposite direction. The corresponding azimut...
Article
Full-text available
We have measured the Coulomb dissociation of B-8 into Be-7 and a proton at 254 MeV/nucleon using a large-acceptance focusing spectrometer. The astrophysical S-17-factor for the Be-7(p, gamma)B-8 reaction at E-c.m. = 0.25-2.78 MeV is deduced yielding S-17(0) = 20.6 +/- 1.2 (expt) +/- 1.0(theor) eVb. This result agrees with the presently adopted zero...
Article
A magnetic spectrometer system has been constructed for the study of reactions with multiple charged particles in the final state, induced by polarized proton beams of few GeV energy. The system is based on a large-gap dipole magnet, with a liquid hydrogen target and scintillating fiber tracking detectors embedded inside the magnet. Multiwire propo...
Article
Data on hadronic particle production in symmetric nuclear collisions from SIS/BEVALAC to SPS energies are reviewed. The main emphasis is on the production of pions, kaons, and antibaryons. Global features are discussed in terms of rapidity and transverse momentum distributions and the total energy stored in produced particles. Pion and kaon product...
Article
Full-text available
As an alternative method to determine the cross section of 7Be (p,γ )8B, the Coulomb dissociation reaction 8B→ 7Be+p at Einc=254 MeV/u was measured. Our preliminary results show the dominant role of the dipole excitation in the Coulomb break-up process. The extracted astrophysical S17 factor is consistent with the lower-value results both of the di...
Article
Full-text available
Production cross sections of K$^+$ and K$^-$ mesons have been measured in C+C collisions at beam energies per nucleon below and near the nucleon-nucleon threshold. At a given beam energy, the spectral slopes of the K$^-$ mesons are significantly steeper than the ones of the K$^+$ mesons. The excitation functions for K$^+$ and K$^-$ mesons nearly co...
Article
The production and propagation of kaons and antikaons has been studied in symmetric nucleus-nucleus collisions in the SIS energy range. The ratio of the excitation functions of K^+ production in Au+Au and C+C collisions increases with decreasing beam energy. This effect was predicted for a soft nuclear equation-of-state. In noncentral Au+Au collisi...
Data
The ratio of the exclusive production cross sections for φ and ω mesons has been measured in pp reactions at Tbeam = 2.85 GeV. The observed φ/ω ratio is (3.7 ± 0.7-0.9+1.2 × 10-3. After phase space corrections, this ratio is about a factor of 10 enhanced relative to naive predictions based upon the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, in comparison to an enhan...
Article
Full-text available
The azimuthal angular distribution of K+ mesons has been measured in Au + Au collisions at 1 AGeV. In peripheral and semi-central collisions, K+ mesons preferentially are emitted perpendicular to the reaction plane. The strength of the azimuthal anisotropy of K+ emission is comparable to the one of pions. No in-plane flow was found for K+ mesons ne...
Article
Double differential production cross sections of π− and π+ mesons and the number of participating protons have been measured in central Au+Au collisions at 1 A·GeV. At low pion energies the π− yield is strongly enhanced over the π+ yield. The energy dependence of the π−/π+ ratio is assigned to the Coulomb interaction of the charged pions with the p...
Article
Full-text available
Double differential production cross sections of negative and positive pions and the number of participating protons have been measured in central Au+Au collisions at 1 GeV per nucleon incident energy. At low pion energies the pi^- yield is strongly enhanced over the pi^+ yield. The energy dependence of the pi^-/pi^+ ratio is assigned to the Coulom...
Article
Double differential cross sections have been measured for pi+ and K+ emitted around midraidity in d+A and He+A collisions at a beam kinetic energy of 1.15 GeV/nucleon. The total pi+ yield increases by a factor of about 2 when using an alpha projectile instead of a deuteron whereas the K+ yield increases by a factor of about 4. According to transpor...
Article
Kaon production has been studied in Ni+Ni collisions at beam energies of 0.8–1.8 GeV/nucleon with the kaon spectrometer at GSI. The K+ production cross section increases as Ebeam5.3±0.2. Both K+ and K- mesons are predominantly produced in central collisions. The K-/K+ ratio measured at equivalent beam energies below the respective particle producti...
Article
Double differential cross sections of positively charged pions and protons have been measured in nuclear collisions of mass-symmetric systems (Ne+NaF, Ni+Ni, Au+Au, Bi+Pb) at incident energies between 0.8 and 1.8 AGeV as a function of the centrality of the reaction. Using a magnetic spectrometer pions and protons were detected with laboratory angle...
Article
Triple differential cross-sections of midrapidity pions from _boxclose_boxclose_boxclose_boxclose_boxclose_boxclose_boxclose_boxclose\rm^{209}Bi+209^{209}Bi collisions were measured with the Kaon Spectrometer at SIS at incident energies of 400, 700 and 1000 AMeV. The azimuthal emission pattern of the pions has been investigated in dependence of b...
Article
Double differential cross sections for proton, π+ and K+ meson production have been measured in Ne + NaF collisions at 1 and 2 GeV/nucleon. Parameterizations of the meson spectra with Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions yield common inverse slope parameters for kaons and high-energy pions at each beam energy. No evidence for different freeze out temper...
Article
&#39-electron emission in elastic and dissipative collisions of U+Au at E/A = 8.65 MeV has been investigated. The velocity vectors of the reaction products were measured in coincidence with electrons of energies up to 3.2 MeV. The &#39-electron yield measured for elastic collisions is in good agreement with coupled-channels calculations. The &#39-e...
Article
Subthreshold K+ production cross sections have been measured in symmetric Ne+NaF, Ni+Ni, and Au+Au collisions at 1.0A GeV. The mass dependence is strong, close to A2. The angular distributions are nonisotropic in the center-of-mass system. Introducing rescattering seems to explain this effect to a large extent.
Article
Midrapidity protons from209Bi+209Bi collisions were measured with the Kaon Spectrometer at SIS at incident energies of E Lab /A=400, 700 and 1000 MeV. Additionally, light fragments were analysed at 400 MeV. We have investigated the azimuthal emission pattern of the particles relative to the reaction plane as function of transverse momentum, bombard...
Article
Double differential K+^+ cross sections have been measured in p+C collisions at 1.2, 1.5 and 2.5 GeV beam energy and in p+Pb collisions at 1.2 and 1.5 GeV. The K+^+ spectrum taken at 2.5 GeV can be reproduced quantitatively by a model calculation which takes into account first chance proton-nucleon collisions and internal momentum with energy distr...
Article
Subthreshold kaon production has been studied in symmetric nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of the nucleus mass, beam energy and centrality. In Au+Au collsions at 1 AGeV theK + multiplicity increases more than linearly with increasing number of participating nucleons. Transport calculations have to assume a soft equation of state in order t...
Article
K+ production on carbon and lead was measured for proton beam kinetic energies from 1.2 up to 2.5 GeV. It was found that the high momentum tail of the kaon spectrum extends beyond the kinematical limit for the elementary reaction. The influence of the internal motion of nucleons on the particle production was studied within the folding model.