Peter B Reich

Peter B Reich
University of Minnesota Twin Cities | UMN · Forest Resources

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986
Publications
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122,581
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Publications

Publications (986)
Article
The productivity of ecosystems and their capacity to support life depends on access to reactive nitrogen (N). Over the past century, humans have more than doubled the global supply of reactive N through industrial and agricultural activities. However, long-term records demonstrate that N availability is declining in many regions of the world. React...
Preprint
1. Human impacts have led to dramatic biodiversity change which can be highly scale-dependent across space and time. A primary means to manage these changes is via passive or active ecological restoration. The recovery of biodiversity following the removal of disturbance (passive) is often incomplete. The magnitude of recovery can very much depend...
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Although there is compelling evidence that tree diversity has an overall positive effect on forest productivity, there are important divergences among studies on the nature and strength of these diversity effects and their timing during forest stand development. To clarify conflicting results related to stand developmental stage, we explored how di...
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Mixing tree species can lead to more productive forests, but how belowground productivity is affected by mixtures of trees of diverse phylogenetic and eco‐evolutionary histories is unclear. Here, we examine how species origin and phylogeny affect belowground productivity in tree communities of varied richness and functional diversity. We measured s...
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Background and aims: Despite the critical role of woody tissues in determining net carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems, relatively little is known regarding the drivers of sapwood and bark respiration. Methods: Using one of the most comprehensive wood respiration datasets to date (82 species from Australian rainforest, savanna and temperat...
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Simulations of the land surface carbon cycle typically compress functional diversity into a small set of plant functional types (PFT), with parameters defined by the average value of measurements of functional traits. In most earth system models, all wild plant life is represented by between five and 14 PFTs and a typical grid cell (≈100 × 100 km)...
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Under a warming climate, the southern boreal forest of North America is expected to see a doubling in fire frequency and potential for increased wind disturbance over the next century. Although boreal forests are often considered fire‐adapted, projected increases in disturbance frequency will likely result in novel combinations of disturbances with...
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Soil microorganisms are essential for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Although soil microbial communities and functions are linked to tree species composition and diversity, there has been no comprehensive study of the generality or context dependence of these relationships. Here, we examine tree diversity–soil microbial biomass and resp...
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One of the most fundamental questions in ecology is how many species inhabit the Earth. However, due to massive logistical and financial challenges and taxonomic difficulties connected to the species concept definition, the global numbers of species, including those of important and well-studied life forms such as trees, still remain largely unknow...
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Three decades of research have demonstrated that biodiversity can promote the functioning of ecosystems. Yet, it is unclear whether the positive effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning will persist under various types of global environmental change drivers. We conducted a meta‐analysis of 46 factorial experiments manipulating both species...
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Natural forest is declining globally as the area of planted forest increases. Planted forests are often monocultures, despite results suggesting that higher species richness improves ecosystem functioning and stability. To test if this is generally the case, we performed a meta-analysis of available results. We assessed aboveground carbon stocks in...
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Plant functional traits can predict community assembly and ecosystem functioning and are thus widely used in global models of vegetation dynamics and land–climate feedbacks. Still, we lack a global understanding of how land and climate affect plant traits. A previous global analysis of six traits observed two main axes of variation: (1) size variat...
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Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and their complex responses to environmental changes have received increasing attention. However, large uncertainties in model predictions remain, partially due to the lack of explicit representation and parameterization of microbial processes. One great challenge is to effectively integrate rich microbial fu...
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The leaf economics spectrum1,2 and the global spectrum of plant forms and functions³ revealed fundamental axes of variation in plant traits, which represent different ecological strategies that are shaped by the evolutionary development of plant species². Ecosystem functions depend on environmental conditions and the traits of species that comprise...
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Warming nights are correlated with declining wheat growth and yield. A key determinant of plant biomass, respiration consumes O2 as it produces ATP and releases CO2 and is typically reduced under warming to maintain metabolic efficiency. We compared the response of respiratory O2 and CO2 flux to multiple night and day warming treatments in wheat le...
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Feedbacks are an essential feature of resilient socio-economic systems, yet the feedbacks between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human wellbeing are not fully accounted for in global policy efforts that consider future scenarios for human activities and their consequences for nature. Failure to integrate feedbacks in our knowledge frameworks...
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Free-air carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment (FACE) experiments provide an opportunity to test models of heat and water flow under novel, controlled situations and eventually allow use of these models for hypothesis evaluation. This study assesses whether the United States Department of Agriculture SHAW (Simultaneous Heat and Water) numerical model of...
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Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is a prolific invader of forest understories throughout eastern North America. Its ability to invade is partially attributable to its relatively high shade tolerance and ability to capture light both early and late in the growing season because of its phenological differences from native species. Competitors...
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We updated the routines used to estimate leaf maintenance respiration (MR) in the Energy Land Model (ELM) using a comprehensive global respiration data base. The updated algorithm includes a temperature acclimating base rate, an updated instantaneous temperature response, and new plant functional type specific parameters. The updated MR algorithm r...
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Global change is impacting plant community composition, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear. Using a dataset of 58 global change experiments, we tested the five fundamental mechanisms of community change: changes in evenness and richness, reordering, species gains and losses. We found 71% of communities were impacted by global c...
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Ecological theory is built on trade-offs, where trait differences among species evolved as adaptations to different environments. Trade-offs are often assumed to be bidirectional, where opposite ends of a gradient in trait values confer advantages in different environments. However, unidirectional benefits could be widespread if extreme trait value...
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The Biodiversity – Ecosystem Functioning (BEF) literature proposes that ecosystem functioning increases with biodiversity because of complementarity in resource use among species, associated with functional diversity. In this study, we challenge the trait‐based ecology framework by comparing congeneric exotic (European) and native (North American)...
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As of 2020, the world has an estimated 290 million ha of planted forests and this number is continuously increasing. Of these, 131 million ha are monospecific planted forests under intensive management. Although monospecific planted forests are important in providing timber, they harbor less biodiversity and are potentially more susceptible to dist...
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The global impacts of biodiversity loss and climate change are interlinked, but the feedbacks between them are rarely assessed. Areas with greater tree diversity tend to be more productive, providing a greater carbon sink, and biodiversity loss could reduce these natural carbon sinks. Here, we quantify how tree and shrub species richness could affe...
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Diverse plant communities are often more productive than mono‐specific ones. Several possible mechanisms underlie this phenomenon but their relative importance remains unknown. Here we investigated whether light interception alone or in combination with light use efficiency (LUE) of dominant and subordinate species explained greater productivity of...
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Global change is shifting disturbance regimes that may rapidly change ecosystems, sometimes causing ecosystems to shift between states. Interactions between disturbances such as fire and disease could have especially severe effects, but experimental tests of multi-decadal changes in disturbance regimes are rare. Here, we surveyed vegetation for 35...
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The southern boreal forests of North America are susceptible to large changes in composition as temperate forests or grasslands may replace them as the climate warms. A number of mechanisms for this have been shown to occur in recent years: (1) Gradual replacement of boreal trees by temperate trees through gap dynamics; (2) Sudden replacement of bo...
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Whether the terrestrial biosphere will continue to act as a net carbon (C) sink in the face of multiple global changes is questionable. A key uncertainty is whether increases in plant C fixation under elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) will translate into decades-long C storage and whether this depends on other concurrently changing factors. We invest...
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Global change has resulted in chronic shifts in fire regimes. Variability in the sensitivity of tree communities to multi-decadal changes in fire regimes is critical to anticipating shifts in ecosystem structure and function, yet remains poorly understood. Here, we address the overall effects of fire on tree communities and the factors controlling...
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The plant-soil interactions may drive the diversity and functioning of forests, but we do not fully understand how interrelationships between plant and soil compartments are underlined by multiple ecological mechanisms. Here, we hypothesize that positive plant-soil interactions enhance biodiversity and functioning in a temperate forest. To do so, w...
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Terrestrial ecosystems remove about 30 per cent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by human activities each year¹, yet the persistence of this carbon sink depends partly on how plant biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks respond to future increases in atmospheric CO2 (refs. 2,3). Although plant biomass often increases in elevated CO2 (eCO2)...
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Plants often adjust their leaf mitochondrial (‘dark’) respiration (Rd) measured at a standardized temperature such as 20°C (R20) downward after experiencing warmer temperatures and upward after experiencing cooler temperatures. These responses may help leaves maintain advantageous photosynthetic capacity and/or be a response to recent photosynthate...
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Soil nitrogen (N) availability is of critical importance to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Plant diversity continues to decline globally due to habitat conversion and degradation, but its influence on soil N remains uncertain. By conducting a global meta-analysis of 1,650 paired observations of soil N in plant species mixture...
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Our planet is facing significant changes of biodiversity across spatial scales. Although the negative effects of local biodiversity (α diversity) loss on ecosystem stability are well documented, the consequences of biodiversity changes at larger spatial scales, in particular biotic homogenization, i.e. reduced species turnover across space (β diver...
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While soil erosion drives land degradation, the impact of erosion on soil microbial communities and multiple soil functions remains unclear. This hinders our ability to assess the true impact of erosion on soil ecosystem services and our ability to restore eroded environments. Here we examined the effect of erosion on microbial communities at two s...
Preprint
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Fine roots play a significant role in plant and ecosystem respiration (RS); therefore, understanding factors controlling that process is important both to advancing understanding and potentially in modelling carbon (C) budgets. However, very little is known about the extent to which ectomycorrhizal (ECM) identity may influence RS or the underlying...
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Long-term minirhizotron observations of absorptive fine roots provide insights into seasonal patterns of belowground root production and carbon dynamics. Our objective was to compare root dynamics over time across mature individuals of 11 temperate trees species: five evergreen and six deciduous. We analyzed the timing and growth on 1st-and 2nd-ord...
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20997-9.
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Motivation Trait data are fundamental to the quantitative description of plant form and function. Although root traits capture key dimensions related to plant responses to changing environmental conditions and effects on ecosystem processes, they have rarely been included in large‐scale comparative studies and global models. For instance, root trai...
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Quantifying how biodiversity affects ecosystem functions through time over large spatial extents is needed for meeting global biodiversity goals yet is infeasible with field-based approaches alone. Imaging spectroscopy is a tool with potential to help address this challenge. Here, we demonstrate a spectral approach to assess biodiversity effects in...
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Whether and how CO 2 and nitrogen (N) availability interact to influence carbon (C) cycling processes such as soil respiration remains a question of considerable uncertainty in projecting future C–climate feedbacks, which are strongly influenced by multiple global change drivers, including elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (eCO 2 ) and incre...
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Climate change has likely altered high‐latitude forests globally, but direct evidence remains rare. Here we show that throughout a ≈1000‐km transect in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Sweden, mature trees in ≈2015 had longer needles with shorter lifetimes than did trees in ≈1915. These century‐scale shifts in needle traits were detected...
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Disentangling impacts of multiple global changes on terrestrial carbon cycling is important, both in its own right and because such impacts can dampen or accelerate increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Here we report on an eight-year grassland experiment, TeRaCON, in Minnesota, United States, that factorially manipulated four drivers: temper...
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Understanding how global change drivers (GCDs) affect aboveground net primary production (ANPP) through time is essential to predicting the reliability and maintenance of ecosystem function and services in the future. While GCDs, such as drought, warming and elevated nutrients, are known to affect mean ANPP, less is known about how they affect inte...
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The cover image is based on the Letter A fingerprint of climate change across pine forests of Sweden by Jacek Oleksyn, Tomasz P. Wyka, et al., https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.13587. Photo Credit: Jacek Kamczyc
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A large body of research shows that biodiversity loss can reduce ecosystem functioning. However, much of the evidence for this relationship is drawn from biodiversity–ecosystem functioning experiments in which biodiversity loss is simulated by randomly assembling communities of varying species diversity, and ecosystem functions are measured. This r...
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Atmospheric CO2 concentration is increasing, largely due to anthropogenic activities. Previous studies of individual free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental sites have shown significant impacts of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on soil microbial communities; however, no common microbial response patterns have yet emerged, challenging our ability to predic...
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Large forest complexes with few human inhabitants provide a valuable resource for understanding natural processes in an environment not directly impacted by humans. However, studies of such systems are difficult to conduct due to the frequent need for collected samples to be subjected to lengthy laboratory processing protocols that require them to...
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Eutrophication is a widespread environmental change that usually reduces the stabilizing effect of plant diversity on productivity in local communities. Whether this effect is scale dependent remains to be elucidated. Here, we determine the relationship between plant diversity and temporal stability of productivity for 243 plant communities from 42...
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Significantly more carbon (C) is stored in deep soil than in shallow horizons, yet how the decomposition of deep soil organic C (SOC) will respond to rising temperature remains unexplored on large scales, leading to considerable uncertainties to predictions of the magnitude and direction of C-cycle feedbacks to climate change. Herein, short-term te...
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Transitioning across biological scales is a central challenge in land surface models. Processes that operate at the scale of individual leaves must be scaled to canopies, and this is done using dedicated submodels. Here, we focus on a submodel that prescribes how light and nitrogen are distributed through plant canopies. We found a mathematical inc...
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Research Highlights: We modeled climate-biome envelopes at high resolution in the Western Great Lakes Region for recent and future time-periods. The projected biome shifts, in conjunction with heterogeneous distribution of protected land, may create both great challenges for conservation of particular ecosystems and novel conservation opportunities...
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The importance of soil age as an ecosystem driver across biomes remains largely unresolved. By combining a cross-biome global field survey, including data for 32 soil, plant, and microbial properties in 16 soil chronosequences, with a global meta-analysis, we show that soil age is a significant ecosystem driver, but only accounts for a relatively s...
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Fire frequency exerts a fundamental control on productivity and nutrient cycling in savanna ecosystems. Individual fires often increase short-term nitrogen (N) availability to plants, but repeated burning causes ecosystem N losses and can ultimately decrease soil organic matter and N availability. However, these effects remain poorly understood due...
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In most plant communities, the net effect of nitrogen enrichment is an increase in plant productivity. However, nitrogen enrichment also has been shown to decrease species richness and to acidify soils, each of which may diminish the long‐term impact of nutrient enrichment on productivity. Here we use a long‐term (20‐yr) grassland plant diversity b...
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Understanding the long‐term success of ecosystem restoration following invasive plant removal is challenging. Long‐term experiments are costly and slow to yield results, whereas management decisions must often be made immediately. Alternatively, retrospective studies can leverage contrasting historical management strategies to provide insight into...
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High latitude forests cope with considerable variation in moisture and temperature at multiple temporal scales. To assess how their photosynthetic physiology responds to short and long-term temperature variation, we measured photosynthetic capacity for four tree species growing in an open-air experiment in the boreal-temperate ecotone (B4WarmED). T...