Peter C. Raffalt

Peter C. Raffalt
University of Southern Denmark | SDU · Department of Biology

PhD Neuroscience

About

45
Publications
6,436
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385
Citations

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
We investigated the control of upright standing in individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) by assessing the inter-limb coupling and the coupling between the center of pressure beneath both limbs combined (COPNET) and the center of pressure (COP) beneath the prosthetic limb and the intact limb. Twenty-one adults with TTA and eightee...
Article
The structure of the stride-to-stride time intervals during paced walking can be altered by the temporal pattern of the pacing cues, however, it is unknown if an altered probability distribution of these cues could also affect stride-to-stride time intervals. We investigated the effect of the temporal pattern and probability distribution of visual...
Article
The usage of entropy analysis in gait research has grown considerably the last two decades. The present paper reviews the application of different entropy analyses in gait research and provides recommendations for future studies. While single-scale entropy analysis such as approximate and sample entropy can be used to quantify regularity/predictabi...
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Though gait asymmetry is used as a metric of functional recovery in clinical rehabilitation, there is no consensus on an ideal method for its evaluation. Various methods have been proposed to analyze single bilateral signals but are limited in scope, as they can often use only positive signals or discrete values extracted from time-scale data as in...
Article
During locomotion, humans change gait mode between walking and running as locomotion speed is either increased or decreased. Dynamical Systems Theory predicts that the self-organization of coordinated motor behaviors dictates the transition from one distinct stable attractor behavior to another distinct attractor behavior (e.g. walk to run or vice...
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Entropic half-life (ENT½) and statistical persistence decay (SPD) was recently introduced as measures of time dependency in stride time intervals during walking. The present study investigated the effect of data length on ENT½ and SPD and additionally applied these measures to stride length and stride speed intervals. First, stride times were colle...
Article
Introduction: The development of efficient resistance exercise protocols to counteract muscle dysfunction in cerebral palsy is warranted. Whether individuals with cerebral palsy are able to perform iso-inertial resistance (flywheel) exercise in a comparable manner to typically developed subjects has never been experimentally tested. Design: A co...
Article
The calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) requires the reconstruction of the time series in an N-dimensional state space. For this, the time delay (Tau) and embedding dimension (EmD) are estimated using the Average Mutual Information and False Nearest Neighbor algorithms. However, the estimation of these variables (LyE, Tau, EmD) could...
Article
Thirteen shooters and eleven non-shooters completed two-legged and single-legged stance on a force platform. The dynamics of the center of pressure trajectory was assessed using sample entropy, correlation dimension and entropic half-life. Additionally, the body sway was quantified as the elliptical area of the trajectory. The shooters had lower sa...
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Background An early detection of Osteoarthritis is urgently needed and still not possible until today. The aim of the study was to assess whether molecular biomarkers of cartilage turnover are associated with longitudinal change in knee cartilage thickness during a 2 year period in individuals with increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis....
Article
The present study investigated the effect of support area, visual input and aging of the dynamics of postural control during bilateral stance. Fifteen young (22.1 ± 1.7 years) and fifteen older (68.3 ± 2.7 years) individuals completed four different 90 s bilateral stance trials: 1) shoulder wide feet distance with eyes open, 2) shoulder wide feet d...
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Background: The efficacy of external ankle braces to protect against sudden inversion sprain has yet to be determined while taking into account the possible placebo effect of brace application. Purpose: To assess the protective effect of an external ankle brace on ankle kinematics during simulated inversion sprain and single-legged drop landings...
Article
The present study investigated the effect of visual deprivation and the use of an ankle orthosis on the dynamics of center of pressure (COP) trajectories during unilateral stance in individuals with ankle instability (AI). Sixteen individuals with AI and nine healthy individuals performed four trials of 30s unilateral stance on a force platform wit...
Article
The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the Wolf et al. (LyE_W) and Rosenstein et al. largest Lyapunov Exponent (LyE_R) algorithms to differentiate data sets with distinctly different temporal structures. The three-dimensional displacement of the sacrum was recorded from healthy subjects during walking and running at two s...
Article
Objective: To investigate differences in gait variability induced by two different single-dose opioid formulations and an inert placebo in healthy volunteers and knee osteoarthritis patients. Design: Experimental, randomized, double-blinded, crossover study of inert placebo (calcium tablets), 50 mg of tapentadol, and 100 mg of tramadol. Setting...
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Full-text available
The present study tested if the quadratic relationship which exists between stepping frequency and gait dynamics in walking can be generalized to stairmill climbing. To accomplish this, we investigated the joint angle dynamics and variability during continuous stairmill climbing at stepping frequencies both above and below the preferred stepping fr...
Article
Sample entropy (SaEn) has been used to assess the regularity of lower limb joint angles during walking. However, changing sampling frequency and the number of included strides can potentially affect the outcome. The present study investigated the effect of sample frequency and the number of included strides on the calculations of SaEn in joint angl...
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Full-text available
Sample entropy (SE) has relative consistency using biologically-derived, discrete data >500 data points. For certain populations, collecting this quantity is not feasible and continuous data has been used. The effect of using continuous versus discrete data on SE is unknown, nor are the relative effects of sampling rate and input parameters m (comp...
Article
The present study aimed at identifying a suitable multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm for assessment of complexity in a stride-to-stride time interval time series. Five different algorithms were included (the original MSE, refine composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE), multiscale fuzzy entropy, generalized multiscale entropy and intrinsic mode entropy...
Article
The present study investigated the day-to-day reliability (quantified by the absolute and relative reliability) of nonlinear methods that assess human locomotion dynamics. Twenty-four participants completed 5 minutes of treadmill walking at self-selected preferred speed on two separate days. Lower limb kinematics were recorded at 100Hz and hip, kne...
Article
The present study investigated the feasibility and reliability of continuous relative phase (CRP) and deviation phase (DP) to assess intersegmental hind limb coordination pattern and coordination variability in rats during walking. Twenty-six adult rats walked at 8 m/min, 12 m/min and 16 m/min while two-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Segment...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to determine the day-to-day reliability in stride characteristics in rats during treadmill walking obtained with two-dimensional (2D) motion capture. Kinematics were recorded from 26 adult rats during walking at 8 m/min, 12 m/min and 16 m/min on two separate days. Stride length, stride time, contact time, swing...
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The six determinants of gait proposed that the goal of gait is to minimize vertical displacement of the body’s center of mass (CoM) with the objective to optimize energy expenditure. On the contrary, recent investigations suggest that reduced vertical displacement leads to an increase in energy expenditure. However, these investigations had the inc...
Article
It is sometimes difficult to obtain uninterrupted data sets that are long enough to perform nonlinear analysis, especially in pathological populations. It is currently unclear as to how many data points are needed for reliable entropy analysis. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of changing parameter values of m, r, and N on entrop...
Article
Stride-to-stride time intervals during human walking are characterised by predictability and statistical persistence quantified by sample entropy (SaEn) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) which indicates a time dependency in the gait pattern. However, neither analyses quantify time dependency in a physical or physiological interpretable time...
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Full-text available
It has been shown that statistical persistence in stride intervals characteristics exist during walking, running and cycling and were speed-dependent among healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if such statistical persistence in stride time interval, stride length and stride speed also exists during self-paced continuous...
Article
The complex behaviour of human walking with respect to movement variability, economy and muscle activity is speed dependent. It is well known that a U-shaped relationship between walking speed and economy exists. However, it is an open question if the movement dynamics of joint angles and centre of mass and muscle activation strategy also exhibit a...
Chapter
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A danish chapter on the physiological development and physical training for children and youth.
Article
The present study investigated lower limb joint work, lower limb joint energy transport and intra-subject variation of the joint dynamics during countermovement jumps in children and adults. Twelve healthy men and eleven healthy boys performed ten maximal countermovement jumps. Three dimensional kinematics and kinetics were recorded in synchrony. H...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coordination pattern and coordination variability (intra-subject and inter-subject) in children and adults during vertical countermovement jumps. Ten children (mean age: 11.5±1.8years) and ten adults (mean age: 26.1±4.9years) participated in the experiment. Lower body 3D-kinematics and kinetic...
Article
We investigated muscle activity, intra-subject variability in muscle activity and co-contraction during vertical jumps and landings in children and adults. Ten male children and 10 male adults completed 10 countermovement jumps (CMJ), 10 drop jumps (DJ) from 30 cm, 10 low and high landings from 30 and 60 cm for the children and 60 and 90 cm for the...
Article
Introduction: To assess the effect of aging on stretch reflex modulation during walking, soleus H-reflexes obtained in 15 middle-aged (mean age 56.4±6.9 years) and 15 young (mean age 23.7±3.9 years) subjects were compared. Methods: The H-reflex amplitude, muscle activity (EMG) of the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles, and EMG/H-reflex gain we...
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This study examined the effects of 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes on jumping performance and underlying changes in biomechanics and neuromuscular adaptations. Nine well-trained athletes at high national competition level within sprinting and jumping disciplines participated in the study. The training was supervised...
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This study investigated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion while running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill (LBPPT) at normal body weight (BW) as well as how BW support affects respiratory responses, ground reaction forces, and stride characteristics. Twelve runners performed VO2max tests on a regular treadmill and...
Article
Diverging results have been reported regarding the modulation and amplitude of the soleus H-reflex measured during human walking and running. A possible explanation to this could be the use of too high stimulus strength in some studies while not in others. During activities like walking and running it is necessary to use a small M-wave to control t...
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Full-text available
The human locomotor system is flexible and enables humans to move without falling even under less than optimal conditions. Walking with high-heeled shoes constitutes an unstable condition and here we ask how the nervous system controls the ankle joint in this situation? We investigated the movement behavior of high-heeled and barefooted walking in...
Article
Full-text available
We measured the soleus and the gastrocnemius H-reflex modulation in seven subjects during walking at 4.5 km/h and during running at 8, 12 and 15 km/h. The recordings in the medial gastrocnemius were corrected for cross-talk from the soleus muscle. The gastrocnemius H-reflex was in general lower than the soleus H-reflex. In both muscles the H-reflex...

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