Peter Peeling

Peter Peeling
University of Western Australia | UWA · School of Human Sciences

PhD

About

186
Publications
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Publications

Publications (186)
Article
We assessed the ingestion of a beetroot juice supplement (BR) on 4-min laboratory-based kayak performance in national level male (n=6) athletes (Study A), and on 500 m on-water kayak time-trial (TT) performance in international level female (n=5) athletes (Study B). In Study A, participants completed three laboratory-based sessions on a kayak ergom...
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This study explored the relationship between serum ferritin and hepcidin in athletes. Baseline serum ferritin levels of 54 athletes from the control trial of five investigations conducted in our laboratory were considered; athletes were grouped according to values <30 μg/L (SF<30), 30-50 μg/L (SF30-50), 50-100 μg/L (SF50-100), or >100 μg/L (SF>100)...
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This study assessed the associations between gender, anthropometry, predominant training environment and Vitamin D status in 72 elite athletes. Additionally, any links between Vitamin D status and recent injury/health status, or sun protection practices were investigated. Athletes underwent an anthropometric assessment and provided venous blood sam...
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This investigation assessed the effects of training intensity and ground surface type on hemolysis, inflammation, and hepcidin activity during running. Ten highly trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, two continuous 10-km runs on a grass (GRASS) and a bitumen road surface (ROAD) at 75%-80% peak VO2 running velocity, and...
Article
Iron is utilised by the body for oxygen transport and energy production, and is therefore essential to athletic performance. Commonly, athletes are diagnosed as iron deficient, however, contrasting evidence exists as to the severity of deficiency and the effect on performance. Iron losses can result from a host of mechanisms during exercise such as...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate acute performance and physiological responses to the manipulation of exercise-to-rest ratio (E:R) during repeated-sprint hypoxic training (RSH) in hot conditions. Twelve male team-sport players completed two experimental sessions at a simulated altitude of ∼3000 m (FIO2 0.144), air temperature of 40°C and re...
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Introduction Dietary inorganic nitrate is a popular nutritional supplement, which increases nitric oxide bioavailability and may improve exercise performance. Despite over a decade of research into the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation during exercise there is currently no expert consensus on how, when and for whom this compound could be r...
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Performance tracking devices in the form of wrist-worn watches are common in rowing; however, the accuracy of relevant output variables (i.e. stroke rate [SR] and velocity) during on-water training is unknown. To assess the quality of wrist-watch data output, 16 rowing athletes recorded 118 on-water rowing sessions using a Garmin Forerunner 735XT,...
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The present study examined (i) the magnitude of rate of torque development (RTD), and (ii) the between-day reliability of RTD at the start of a cycling sprint when sprint resistance, sprint duration, and the pedal downstroke were altered. Nineteen well-trained cyclists completed one familiarisation and three testing sessions. Each session involved...
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The goal of this study was to determine the effect of unit placement on signal integrity and measurement output obtained during reliability trials for global positioning system (GPS) devices. Two of the same model GPS units were worn in four separate unit configurations (Piggyback, Above-Below, Front-Back and Lateral) during 4 × 2 lap repeats of a...
Article
Iron deficiency is a common health issue in active and athlete populations. Accordingly, research into iron status, regulation, absorption, and iron deficiency treatment strategies is increasing at a rapid rate. However, despite the increase in the quantity of research, various methodological issues need to be addressed as we progress our knowledge...
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This study utilised on-water graded exercise tests (GXT) to determine the power output (PO) corresponding to the first and second lactate thresholds (LT1PO and LT2PO), subsequently examining their relationship to the mean maximal power (MMP) and race time achieved across three on-water sprint kayak time-trials. Twelve well-trained sprint kayak athl...
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Minerals fulfil a wide variety of functions in the optimal functioning of the immune system. This review reports on the minerals that are essential for the immune system's function and inflammation regulation. We also discuss nutritional aspects of optimized mineral supply. The supply of minerals is important for the optimal function of the innate...
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Purpose Recent explorations of tennis-specific movements have developed contemporary methods for identifying and classifying changes of direction (COD) during match-play. The aim of this research was to employ these new analysis techniques to objectively explore individual nuance and style factors in the execution of COD movements in professional t...
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Purpose: To quantify the effects of a short-term (6-day) low carbohydrate (CHO) high fat (LCHF), and low energy availability (LEA) diet on immune, inflammatory, and iron-regulatory responses to exercise in endurance athletes. Methods: Twenty-eight elite male race walkers completed two 6-day diet/training phases. During phase 1 (Baseline), all at...
Article
Quantification of external training load for sprint kayak athletes can be challenging due to the influence of the water flow on boat velocity in a flowing river environment. Therefore, this study examined the utility of novel measures of power output (PO) and its relationship to measures of relative boat speed when training on a flowing river. Twel...
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Given the importance of exercise economy to endurance performance, we implemented two strategies purported to reduce the oxygen cost of exercise within a 4 week training camp in 21 elite male race walkers. Fourteen athletes undertook a crossover investigation with beetroot juice (BRJ) or placebo (PLA) [2 d preload, 2 h pre-exercise + 35 min during...
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Background While changes in cardiorespiratory variables during graded exercise tests (GXTs) are well described, less is known about running mechanical alterations. Purpose We determined mechanical breakpoints during GXT and compared their temporal location with thresholds in ventilation. Methods Thirty-one recreational male runners completed cont...
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This study determined the impact of heat stress on postexercise inflammation and hepcidin levels. Twelve moderately trained males completed three, 60-min treadmill running sessions under different conditions: (a) COOL, 18 °C with speed maintained at 80% maximum heart rate; (b) HOT HR , 35 °C with speed maintained at 80% maximum heart rate; and (c)...
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This study describes asymmetry in key mechanical variables during a treadmill-based, running graded exercise test (GXT). Twenty-one recreationally trained male runners completed a continuous, maximal GXT on an instrumented treadmill, starting at 9 km.h⁻¹ with speed increases of +0.5 km.h⁻¹ every 30 s, for the determination of ventilatory threshold...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the GPExe pro2 device to identify movement orientation in team-sport locomotion. Part A involved a series of discrete movement tasks of varying direction and orientation at two speeds (walk, run); Part B involved a continuous Simulated Game Circuit (SGC). For validity, dista...
Article
We conducted a longitudinal (3-month) qualitative study to examine elite military personnel's (N = 32) experiences and perspectives of team resilience emergence following two team-oriented training courses within an 18-month high-stakes training program where personnel are required to operate in newly formed tactical teams for extended periods. Our...
Article
This study aimed to quantify the workload demands, internal stress response and perceptual fatigue experienced by Laser class sailors across multiple days of competition. Eleven elite male Laser Standard athletes (age: 23.2 ± 3.4y, body mass: 82.6 ± 2.3 kg, stature: 182 ± 5 cm) competing at two regattas were recruited. Athletes wore a heart rate (H...
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There is intuitive and practical appeal to the idea of emergent resilience, that is, sustaining healthy levels of functioning or recovering quickly after some degree of deterioration following exposure to heightened risk or vulnerability. Scholars typically utilize mean levels of functioning indices to identify qualitatively distinct latent subgrou...
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Purpose: This study aimed to assess the influence of graded air temperatures during repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) on performance and physiological responses. Methods: Ten well-trained athletes completed one familiarization and 4 experimental sessions at a simulated altitude of 3000 m (0.144 FIO2) above sea level. Air temperatures uti...
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This study aimed to characterise bilateral asymmetry in running mechanics during perceptually regulated, high-intensity intermittent running in hypoxia and normoxia and examines whether inter-limb differences in running mechanics are modified between and within intervals. Nineteen trained runners completed 4 × 4-min treadmill running bouts (3-min p...
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Background Nitrate supplements can improve vascular and muscle function. Whether higher habitual dietary nitrate is associated with better muscle function remains underexplored. Objective The aim was to examine whether habitual dietary nitrate intake is associated with better muscle function in a prospective cohort of men and women, and whether th...
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The purpose of this study was to conduct a conceptual replication of past work on the association between mental toughness and behavioural perseverance across multiple tasks over an extended period of time. We utilised a cross-sectional design including assessments of mental toughness and accumulated stress (hair cortisol concentration) prior to a...
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In elite Australian football (AF) many studies have investigated individual player performance using a variety of outcomes (e.g. team selection, game running, game rating etc.), however, none have attempted to predict a player’s performance using combinations of pre-game factors. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the ability of commonly reporte...
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This study compared warm-up strategies employed by sub-elite and world-class elite sprint kayak athletes, evaluating their impact on subsequent race performance. Forty-seven (n = 33 male, n = 14 female) athletes competing at a National Sprint Kayak Championships had Global Navigation Satellite System devices fitted to their kayak to measure speed,...
Conference Paper
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Physiological markers of stress may have utility for tracking psychophysiological stress in occupational settings, yet little is known about using these markers in military populations, and more specifically in elite military settings. Our objective was to examine the utility of cortisol (hair and saliva) and testosterone (saliva) as biological mar...
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Iron deficiency (ID) is a prevailing nutritional concern amongst the athletic population due to the increased iron demands of this group. Athletes’ ability to replenish taxed iron stores is challenging due to the low bioavailability of dietary sources, and the interaction between exercise and hepcidin, the primary iron-regulatory hormone. To date,...
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The provision or restriction of select nutrients in an athlete’s diet can elicit a variety of changes in fuel utilization, training adaptation, and performance outcomes. Furthermore, nutrient availability can also influence athlete health, with one key system of interest being iron metabolism. The aim of this review was to synthesize the current ev...
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PRESENT 2020: Texto que desarrolla la lista de verificación para el adecuado informe de la evidencia en ensayos clínicos de deporte y nutrición del ejercicio (Traducción Inglés-Español)
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The long-term decay rate of serum ferritin post-iron infusion in athletic populations is currently unknown. Here, we modelled the decay rate of serum ferritin in female athletes after an intravenous iron infusion (n = 22). The post-infusion serum ferritin response and the rate of decay was highly variable between athletes; however, we demonstrate t...
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Purpose To compare the occurrence and characteristics of repeated-sprint (RS) activity in elite team sport competition when classified according to speed and/or acceleration, and their interaction via metabolic power (Pmet). Methods: Elite male hockey players (N = 16) wore player-tracking devices in six international matches. Sprint efforts were de...
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This study examined the utility of novel measures of power output (PO) compared to traditional measures of heart rate (HR) and stroke rate (SR) for quantifying high-intensity sprint kayak training. Twelve well-trained, male and female sprint kayakers (21.3 ± 6.8 y) completed an on-water graded exercise test (GXT) and a 200-, 500- and 1000-m time-tr...
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Purpose: To compare methods of monitoring and prescribing on-water exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], stroke rate [SR], and power output [PO]) during sprint kayak training. Methods: Twelve well-trained flat-water sprint kayak athletes completed a preliminary on-water 7 × 4-min graded exercise test and a 1000-m time trial to delineate individua...
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The authors compared the effectiveness of two modes of daily iron supplementation in athletes with suboptimal iron stores: oral iron (PILL) versus transdermal iron (PATCH). Endurance-trained runners (nine males and 20 females), with serum ferritin concentrations <50 μg/L, supplemented with oral iron or iron patches for 8 weeks, in a parallel group...
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The authors compared the effectiveness of daily (DAY) versus alternate day (ALT) oral iron supplementation in athletes with suboptimal iron. Endurance-trained runners (nine males and 22 females), with serum ferritin (sFer) concentrations <50 μg/L, supplemented with oral iron either DAY or ALT for 8 weeks. Serum ferritin was measured at baseline and...
Article
Full-text available
PRESENT 2020: Texto que desarrolla la lista de verificación para el adecuado informe de la evidencia en ensayos clínicos de deporte y nutrición del ejercicio (Traducción Inglés-Español)
Article
Objectives: To investigate the behaviours of elite and developing athletes in obtaining medications and medication information, and to identify the role of pharmacists in athlete care. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: An electronic, 39-item questionnaire was developed, piloted and distributed to elite and developing athletes aged 18 ye...
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Some readers may not have access to the full paper, so a properly formatted and well-written abstract is imperative. Authors should give priority to information about the current study rather than using the abstract for an extensive background or rationale. 2a Methods: Key information regarding the study design, methods, and population should be su...
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Purpose The iPro Cube is a small portable point-of-care device designed to analyse salivary markers of stress in a user-friendly manner (e.g., fast, convenient). Our aim was to test the reliability and validity of the iPro Cube to measure salivary cortisol and α -amylase as compared to the common laboratory standard method (ELISA immunoassay) prior...
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This study implemented a 2-week high carbohydrate (CHO) diet intended to maximize CHO oxidation rates and examined the iron-regulatory response to a 26-km race walking effort. Twenty international-level, male race walkers were assigned to either a novel high CHO diet (MAX = 10 g/kg body mass CHO daily) inclusive of gut-training strategies, or a mod...
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Training at low to moderate altitudes (~ 1600-2400 m) is a common approach used by endurance athletes to provide a distinctive environmental stressor to augment training stimulus in the anticipation of increasing subsequent altitude- and sea-level-based performance. Despite some scientific progress being made on the impact of various nutrition-rela...
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In Australian football (AF), few studies have assessed combinations of pre- game factors and their relation to game outcomes (win/loss) in multivariable analyses. Further, previous research has mostly been confined to association-based linear approaches and post-game prediction, with limited assessment of predictive machine learning (ML) models in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Team resilience reflects a team’s ability to maintain or return quickly to optimal functioning following adversity exposure and is believed to be essential for military success (Gilmore, 2016). Unsurprisingly, military training programs commonly include adversities that are designed to test individual and team capacities, yet there is little knowle...
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Sleeping with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability is a dietary strategy that may enhance training adaptation. However, the impact on an athlete’s health is unclear. This study quantified the effect of a short-term “sleep-low” dietary intervention on markers of iron regulation and immune function in athletes. In a randomized, repeated-measures desig...
Article
Minimization of metabolic energy is considered a fundamental principle of human locomotion, as demonstrated by an alignment between the preferred walking speed (PWS) and the speed incurring the lowest metabolic cost of transport. We aimed to (i) simultaneously disrupt metabolic cost and an alternate acute task requirement, namely speed error regula...
Conference Paper
INTRODUCTION: Current practice for the classification of exercise intensity in Flat-water sprint kayaking involves the use of heart rate (HR) and stroke rate (SR) measures (1). However, HR measures are limited by cardiovascular drift during long-duration bouts and a lag time during high intensity, short-duration efforts (2). Moreover, measures of...
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Full-text available
Iron plays a significant role in the body, and is specifically important to athletes, since it is a dominant feature in processes such as oxygen transport and energy metabolism. Despite its importance, athlete populations, especially females and endur-ance athletes, are commonly diagnosed with iron deficiency, suggesting an association between spor...
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Background: The risk of sustaining a subsequent injury is elevated in the weeks after return to play (RTP) from an index injury. However, little is known about the magnitude, duration, and nature by which subsequent injury risk is increased. Purpose: To quantify and describe the risk of injury in a 12-week period after RTP from an index injury i...
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Objectives: Adhering to a low carbohydrate (CHO) high fat (LCHF) diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes. This investigation examined the re-introduction of CHO prior to, and during exercise on the iron-regulatory response to exercise in a homogenous (in regard to serum ferritin concentration) group of athletes adapted to a...
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Purpose: This study examined postexercise inflammatory, hepcidin, and iron absorption responses to endurance exercise performed in the morning versus the afternoon. Methods: Sixteen endurance-trained runners (10 male, 6 female) with serum ferritin (sFer) < 50 μg·L completed a 90-min running protocol (65% vV˙O2max) in the morning (AM), or the aft...
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The International Association of Athletics Federations recognizes the importance of nutritional practices in optimizing an Athlete's well-being and performance. Although Athletics encompasses a diverse range of track-and-field events with different performance determinants, there are common goals around nutritional support for adaptation to trainin...
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Purpose To determine the reliability and validity of a power-prescribed on-water graded exercise test (GXT) for flat-water sprint kayak athletes. Methods Nine well-trained sprint kayak athletes performed three GXTs in a repeated measures design. The initial GXT was performed on a stationary kayak ergometer in the laboratory (LAB). The subsequent t...
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Objectives: To examine the frequency of task-constraints between game-scenario training drills and competition games for all disposals, by considering, temporal, distance, pressure and related situational factors. Methods: The skill patterns of elite-level Australian football players (n = 33) were compared relative to playing environment (training...
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Full-text available
Background: In younger individuals, dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve short-term vascular and muscle function. The role of higher habitual nitrate intake as part of a typical diet on muscle function in ageing has not been investigated. A cross-sectional study of relationships between dietary nitrate and measures of muscle f...
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This study investigated the effects of removing athletes’ electronic devices in the evening on sleep and performance during training camps. Water polo athletes (n = 26) attending a 7-night training camp (study 1) and triathletes (n = 23) attending a 4-night training camp (study 2) were randomly allocated to a no-device group (no electronic devices...