Peter Meusburger

Peter Meusburger
Universität Heidelberg · Institute of Earth Sciences

Distinguished Senior Professor

About

93
Publications
12,629
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863
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2007 - November 2016
Universität Heidelberg
Position
  • Distinguished Senior Professor
April 1983 - present
Universität Heidelberg
Position
  • Distinguished Senior Professor
April 1983 - March 2007
Universität Heidelberg
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • economic and social geography, geography of education, labour market studies, ethnic minorities,

Publications

Publications (93)
Chapter
Until the early 1980s most research on scientific creativity had focused on personal attributes of scholars. Few authors found it necessary to include the social, cultural, and scientific environment in their considerations. However, science has not only a history but a geography as well. Creativity is never the result of individual action alone. A...
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For centuries Heidelberg belonged to those German universities with the highest share of foreign students in their student body. Hungary lends itself to the topic of student mobility because its students have been among Europe’s most mobile academic populations since the Middle Ages. This chapter focuses on the reasons for Heidelberg University’s f...
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This volume analyzes the history and character of the modern university from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, with particular emphasis on the constitutive significance of geography as a factor shaping the internal and external dynamics of universities and the national and international systems of higher education in which they have operated.
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The recurring erroneous predictions about the impact of communication technologies on the spatial distribution and “mobility” of codified knowledge, and most deficits in research about knowledge spillovers (knowledge flows) and about knowledge sharing can be traced back to an oversimplification of the communication process between producers of know...
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Mobilities of Knowledge examines how the geographical mobility of people and (im)material things has impacted epistemic systems of knowledge in different historical and geographical contexts. In this chapter, the authors introduce key concepts and debates in interdisciplinary research on spatial mobility and the production, dissemination, and trans...
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This collection of essays examines how spatial mobilities of people and practices, technologies and objects, knowledge and ideas have shaped the production, circulation, and transfer of knowledge in different historical and geographical contexts. Targeting an interdisciplinary audience, Mobilities of Knowledge combines detailed empirical analyses w...
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The first part of the introduction gives an overview of the main research questions and shortcomings of the research about the interdependencies of knowledge, action, and space from different interdisciplinary perspectives. It deals with key questions, such as: How does knowledge function as a prerequisite for action? How much knowledge is necessar...
Book
This volume explores interdependencies between knowledge, action, and space from different interdisciplinary perspectives. Some of the contributors discuss knowledge as a social construct based on collective action, while others look at knowledge as an individual capacity for action. The chapters contain theoretical frameworks as well as experiment...
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Talent, motivation, and wealth of ideas are not the only characteristics determining how successfully a scholar’s research and academic career develops. What we academics call creative is never the result of individual action alone. Learning processes and research are situated in environments, organisational structures, and spatial relations. We ca...
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This introductory chapter provides theoretical backgrounds and the current state of research on ethnic and cultural dimensions of knowledge. The authors describe the dichotomy between so-called universal knowledge and local, place-based, situated, and indigenous knowledge. They then outline the interrelations between knowledge and culture. Given th...
Book
This book presents theoretical and methodical discussions on local knowledge and indigenous knowledge. It examines educational attainment of ethnic minorities, race and politics in educational systems, and the problem of losing indigenous knowledge. It comprises a broad range of case studies about specifics of local knowledge from several regions o...
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This chapter presents an overview about some of the reasons why the school system in multi-ethnic or multilingual states is a contested field and an arena of political and cultural conflicts. In states with compulsory education it is a crucial question whether and in which circumstances ethnic minorities are allowed to use their mother tongue in el...
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Geography of education focuses on spatial variations in the provision and consumption of education, on the impact of local milieus and social environments on educational attainment, on spatial variations of the sociodemographic structure of the teaching profession, on the influence of policies and demographic change on location patterns of schools,...
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The geography of knowledge studies spatial variations in the generation, dissemination, and application of various categories of knowledge. Scholars in this area are interested in the places and spaces of knowledge generation and the impact of local milieus (environments) and spatial relations on the generation and diffusion of knowledge. They anal...
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The interest of geographers in relations between knowledge, power, and space has a long tradition but it was reinvigorated by critical engagements with Foucault and Gramsci. For Foucault, space is fundamental in any exercise of power, and knowledge and power are integrated with one another. New inventions of communication have influenced the ways i...
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This chapter explores the multiple linkages between knowledge, civil society, governance, and democracy. Broader questions about relations between knowledge and freedom are placed in the context of whether these linkages are codetermined by an enabling of the knowledgeability of modern actors. Emphasis is placed on the growing opportunities for ref...
Book
Interest in relations between knowledge, power, and space has a long tradition in a range of disciplines, but it was reinvigorated in the last two decades through critical engagement with Foucault and Gramsci. This volume focuses on relations between knowledge and power. It shows why space is fundamental in any exercise of power and explains which...
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The birthplace of the field of organizational learning can be traced back to management scholars in the United States who were interested in organizational behavior. Over the years it has attracted researchers from diverse disciplines and from all around the world. It is particularly apt to address the way interest in the field has spread and how i...
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This book is designed to extend the field of organizational learning in several ways. The contributors from three continents bring different perspectives on processes and outcomes of knowledge creation and sharing in and between organizations in diverse contexts. They use approaches and concepts from numerous disciplines including the arts, economi...
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This introductory chapter revisits the crucial role of knowledge and innovation in the process of economic development. It challenges some of the persistent puzzles in traditional economic thought about knowledge and prepares the scene for an inclusive and multidisciplinary dialogue about the concept, creation and reproduction of knowledge. Is econ...
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Although superior knowledge, competence, and expertise; high levels of training; and major investment in education and research are often regarded as prerequisites of economic success, the relationships between knowledge and economic action are not as straightforward as they may seem in the literature. The spatial social, political, and economic co...
Book
The broad spectrum of topics surrounding what is termed the ‘knowledge economy’ has attracted increasing attention from the scientific community in recent years. The nature of knowledge-intensive industries, the spatiality of knowledge, the role of proximity and distance in generating functional knowledge, the transfer of knowledge via networks, an...
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Full-text available
A kutatási és oktatási tevékenységre sohasem valamiféle társadalmi, politikai és gazdasági vákuumban kerül sor, hanem számos tényező befolyása mellett, melyek lokális kölcsönhatása egyfajta térbeli közeget, miliőt hoz létre. Habár a gondolkodás nincs helyhez kötve, az empirikus kutatás, bizonyos akadémiai eszmecserék, valamint az új tudás legitimác...
Article
The recurring erroneous predictions about the impact of the Internet on the spatial distribution and “mobility” of codified knowledge, most deficits in research about knowledge spillovers, and knowledge sharing in clusters, organizations and networks can be traced back to an oversimplification of the communication process between a producer of know...
Article
The Wissenschaftatlas of Heidelberg University was published in June 2011. The university gave itself the atlas as a present for its 625th anniversary. Thus one can describe the atlas as a new, experimental form of a Festschrift. The atlas was compiled in close collaboration between the Institute of Geography of Heidelberg University and the Leibni...
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After categorizing different types of collective memories, the author discusses tensions between collective memories and the knowledge of individuals. He notes that collective memories are often based on Manichean morality and that “memory industries” try to manipulate well-informed and highly educated societies in ways similar to those used by eme...
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The revival of public and scholarly interest in collective cultural memories since the 1980s has been a genuinely global phenomenon and is somewhat paradoxical. Memory is a form of temporal awareness more readily associated with traditional, nonindustrialized societies rather than with the globalized, mobile, and deracinated world of today, which o...
Article
Gemeinhin ist inzwischen anerkannt, dass sich ein Wandel von der Industrie- zur Wissensgesellschaft vollzogen hat. Doch nicht erst die Diskussionen zur Wissensgesellschaft und Wissensökonomie haben zahllose Untersuchungen dazu ausgelöst, wie neues Wissen generiert wird und wie sich Wissensarbeit vollzieht. Zu der Frage, welche Rolle die Dimension d...
Book
The revival of interest in collective cultural memories since the 1980s has been a genuinely global phenomenon. Cultural memories can be defined as the social constructions of the past that allow individuals and groups to orient themselves in time and space. The investigation of cultural memories has necessitated an interdisciplinary perspective, t...
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Universities are sometimes idealistically seen as an institutional embodiment of academic ideas, as prominent places of research where universally valid scientific truths are generated and taught, or as havens of intellectual freedom. From the outset, however, universities have been shaped by political, economic, religious, and ideological interest...
Book
Full-text available
This collection of essays aims to further the understanding of historical and contemporary geographies of science. It offers a fresh perspective on comparative approaches to scientific knowledge and practice as pursued by geographers, sociologists, anthropologists, and historians of science. The authors explore the formation and changing geographie...
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Die Universität Heidelberg begeht im Jahr 2011 ihr 625-jähriges Bestehen: Zu diesem Jubiläum wird die Neue Universität saniert und modernisiert – darunter auch der Hörsaal 13, der Anfang Mai mit einer festlichen Vortrags- und Konzertveranstaltung wiedereröffnet werden konnte. Über die Themen des Wissenschaftsatlas, der im kommenden Jahr erscheinen...
Book
This collection of essays aims to further the understanding of historical and contemporary geographies of science. It offers a fresh perspective on comparative approaches to scientific knowledge and practice as pursued by geographers, sociologists, anthropologists, and historians of science. The authors explore the formation and changing geographie...
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Full-text available
Although some of the earliest case studies on famous scientists addressed the importance of parents, peer groups, teachers, and fortuitous events for creative per sons (e.g., Candolle, 1873; Ellis, 1926; Ostwald, 1909), interactions with the envi ronment did not figure in the first theoretical conceptions of creativity. Researchers claimed that cre...
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Inhalt: 1 Wie kam die Idee eines neuen Lexikons der Geographie zustande? 2 Was sind die Ziele des Lexikons der Geographie und welche Konzeption liegt ihm zugrunde? 3 Welche guten und schlechten Erfahrungen wurden bei der Erstellung des Lexikons gemacht? 4 Inwieweit wurden die Ziele erreicht?
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Full-text available
The concept of creativity used to be seen entirely as an entity depending on the faculties of individuals. Research on creativity in psychology, philosophy, and art criticism focused on the attributes of geniuses, gifted persons, creative artists and scientists, and creative performance and problem-solving. Eventually, researchers acknowledged that...
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Die Bedeutung von Wissen, Qualifikationen, Innovationen und kreativen Prozessen für die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und sozioökonomische Entwicklung von sozialen Systemen, Standorten und Regionen ist in den vergangenen 10-15 Jahren zu einem Modethema geworden. Modethemen haben den Vorteil, dass sie die Aufmerksamkeit der Öffentlichkeit genießen, den Zugan...
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The author debates some of the reasons why spatial disparities of knowledge evolve and why they are so persistent. The most prominent causes for spatial disparities of knowledge are the division of labor, the growth of complex social systems, the emergence of hierarchies, and the asymmetry of power relations in social systems. Before discussing rel...
Book
"Clashes of Knowledge" is the first volume of a series called "Knowledge and Space" dealing with spatial disparities of knowledge and the impact of the spatial context on the production and application of knowledge. The contributions in this book explore the conflicts between various types of knowledge, especially between orthodox and heterodox kno...
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Because of decreasing birth rates and out-migration from setttements at high altitudes, the problem of small schools threatened by closures, will become widespread within the next decade or two. How many more schools can be closed before the social and cultural life of these villages suffers severely? What are the consequences for an alpine village...
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Knowledge and power are closely interrelated. To obtain power and to preserve it for significant periods of time in an uncertain and dynamic environment, a social system has to be successful and has to retain its ability to learn and adapt to a dynamic environment. In order to survive competition and conflicts, important decision makers need both t...
Article
Knowledge and power are closely interrelated. To obtain power and to preserve it for significant periods of time in an uncertain and dynamic environment, a social system has to be successful and has to retain its ability to learn and adapt to a dynamic environment. In order to survive competition and conflicts, important decision makers need both t...
Book
Full-text available
During the first decade after the turn towards democracy and market economy, Hungary's society experienced profound changes that affected its regions, towns, villages and individual places in different ways. This is documented by thirteen essays that analyse related political, legal, institutional, and socio-economic structures and processes in tim...
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At the end of the 1980s, the majority of experts and politicians expected that a transfer of capital, technology, institutions, and management practice from western countries would successfully transform the centrally planned economies of communist states into market economies in a relatively short period of time. In the early discussion, spatial d...
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It is well known that in communist countries 15-20% of employees in state com­panies were not needed. This phenomenon was called “unemployment behind the gates” (Dövényi 1995, 115). Since many state-owned companies were not com­petitive, it comes as no surprise that since the introduction of the market economy, the percentage of gainfully employed...
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Die neoklassischen Theorien stellen zweifellos für viele Fragestellungen der Wirtschaftswissenschaften ein sehr fmchtbares Theoriegebäude dar. Sie müssen jedoch überall dort versagen, wo ihre Prämissen in einem diametralen Gegensatz zu den gmndlegenden Stmkturprinzipien und epochalen Trends einer modemen Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft stehen und/oder...
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This paper argues that Marxism created new forms of inequality but was not able to abolish many of the old inequalities inherited from capitalism. The legacy of history, social and spatial division of labor, the hierarchy of control in large organizations and power relations proved to be stronger than the Marxist ideology, the abolishment of privat...
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This paper proves both theoretically and empirically that a number of social and spatial inequalities in socialist countries were unavoidable for centrally planned economies. One of the main reasons was, that a centrally planned economy inevitably leads to an even larger centralization of power, decision-making, planning, control and investment in...
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Weltweit wurden in keiner anderen Region so hohe Frauenerwerbsquoten erreicht wie in den sozialistischen Ländern Mittel- und Osteuropas und in der UdSSR (Moghadam V. M., 1992a, 5).2 Für diese außerordentlich hohe Frauenerwerbstätigkeit können sowohl ideologische als auch ökonomische Gründe ange-führt werden. Einerseits wurde in der marxistisch-leni...
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Die Lebensverhältnisse in Osteuropa sind im Gefolge der Neustrukturierung Europas in den neunziger Jahren zu einem spannenden Thema geworden. Demokratische und marktwirtschaftliche Transformationsprozesse verlaufen in den ehemals sozialistischen Ländern zeitgleich und sich wechselseitig beinflussend ab. Wohin sich die einzelnen osteuropäischen Länd...
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PIP: The author explores the question of how far spatial disparities of economic structures can be related to spatial disparities in educational attainment. Empirical evidence is given from the spread of literacy in nineteenth-century Europe and twentieth-century developing countries and from disparities between urban and rural areas in the educati...
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The use of women teachers is an important socioeconomic fact, but it is not the same everywhere, the larger the community the more women teachers are employed. A special study was made in the Vorarlberg, it is much controlled by the demand for teachers, the local laws on the employment of women teachers, the prestige of being a teacher, social and...
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Larger cities and metropolitan areas have important agglomeration advantages due to external economies. The variety and degree of specialization of employment possibilities and services available expand with increasing community size; in larger cities access to capital and valuable face-to-face contacts are easier, supporting a greater creative pot...
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Between 1981 and 2011, in the primary schools, the number of pupils will decline by 100 000. This raises the problems of fewer schools and long journeys to them. Now east Austria, where schools are far apart, further closing of schools will be a major problem. 20% of schools in 2001 will have only 1-20 pupils. Only 5% of schools will have more than...
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Attempts to offer some generally valid theoretical contributions to the geography of education and qualification, and to test the usefulness of the education and qualification orientated approach in various fields of human geography. It also aims at analyzing the present day regional structures of educational standards in Austria, and thus subjecti...
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Discusses history of schooling and educational attainment of the Slovenian minority in S Carinthia (Austria). Regional variations and development of the use of the Slovene language in S Carinthian schools are examined. -Author
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Books reviewed in this article: Masahisa Fujita and Jacques-Francois Thisse - Economics of Agglomeration: Cities, Industrial Location, and Regional Growth Timothy J. Bartik - Jobs for the Poor: Can Labor Policies Help? Miriam Solomon - Social Empiricism Nicole Pohl - Mobility in Space and Time: Challenges to the Theory of International Economics St...
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"Um die gesellschaftlichen und wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen des Transformationsprozesses erfassen zu können, muß in vielen Bereichen zuerst einmal die Situation zur Zeit des Sozialismus erforscht werden. Denn über viele soziale Ungleichheiten, die im Widerspruch zur offiziellen Selbstdarstellung der sozialistischen Staaten standen, durfte bis in d...

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Projects

Projects (5)
Archived project
To reconstruct the changing geographies of bank branch networks in Hungary during the transformation from a socialist planned into a capitalist market economy.