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Peter Matthiessen

Peter Matthiessen

BSc, PhD

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119
Publications
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Publications

Publications (119)
Article
This review examines the presence and evolution of thyroid‐like systems in selected aquatic invertebrates with a view to the potential use of these organisms in screens for vertebrate thyroid hormone axis disrupting chemicals (THADCs). Such a screen might assist the phasing‐out of some vertebrate testing. Although arthropods including crustaceans d...
Article
Full-text available
ERGO (EndocRine Guideline Optimization) is the acronym of a European Union-funded research and innovation action, that aims to break down the wall between mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrate regulatory testing of endocrine disruptors (EDs), by identifying, developing and aligning thyroid-related biomarkers and endpoints (B/E) for the linkage of...
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Full-text available
Chemicals policies have spawned a wide range of regulations aimed at limiting damage to the environment and human health. Most instruments are reactive and fragmented. We propose a simple underpinning philosophy, "Do no harm", to ensure a more sustainable, safe "chemical environment" for the future.
Article
This review explores the impact of pollutants on aquatic wildlife populations employing the case of tributyltin (TBT), a widely used antifouling paint ingredient banned globally in 2008. Attention has focused primarily on TBT's effects on populations of mollusc species, but this review shows that many other species were affected to a greater or les...
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Full-text available
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances that alter the function of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects to humans or wildlife. The release of particular EDCs into the environment has been shown to negatively affect certain wildlife populations and has led to restrictions on the use of some EDCs. Current chemical...
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This review critically examines the data on claimed endocrine-mediated adverse effects of chemicals on wildlife populations. It focuses on the effects of current-use chemicals, and compares their apparent scale and severity with those of legacy chemicals which have been withdrawn from sale or use, although they may still be present in the environme...
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Full-text available
The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) provides several standard test methods for the environmental hazard assessment of chemicals, mainly based on primary producers, arthropods, and fish. In April 2016, two new test guidelines with two mollusc species representing different reproductive strategies were approved by OECD me...
Article
Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum reproduction test within the OECD Conceptual...
Data
S6 — Case Study Summary Vinclozolin S6 — Vinclozolin — Table S6–5
Data
S5 — Case Study Summary Trenbolone S5 — Trenbolone Table S5–5 S5 — Trenbolone Table S5–6
Data
S4 — Case Study Summary Propiconazole S4 — Case Study Summary TBT S4 — TBT Table S4–1 S4 — TBT Table S4–2 S4 — TBT Table S4–3
Data
S1 — Case Study Summary EE2 S1 — EE2 Tables S1–7
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Full-text available
A SETAC Pellston Workshop(®) "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, inf...
Article
Full-text available
Approaches to assessing endocrine disruptors (EDs) differ across the globe, with some regulatory environments using a hazard-based approach, while others employ risk-based analyses. In session four of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America Focused Topic Meeting: Endocrine Disruption Chemical Testing: Risk Assess...
Article
Full-text available
Approaches to assessing endocrine disruptors (EDs) differ across the globe, with some regulatory environments using a hazard-based approach, while others employ risk-based analyses. In session four of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America Focused Topic Meeting: Endocrine Disruption Chemical Testing: Risk Assess...
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Full-text available
This collection of papers provides state-of-the-art science on a complex topic which has been challenging for scientists and regulators for a long time. The papers emanated from the SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’. Forty-eight international experts met in early Fe...
Article
This paper presents the results from two ring-tests addressing the feasibility, robustness and reproducibility of a reproduction toxicity test with the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain). Sixteen laboratories (from inexperienced to expert laboratories in mollusc testing) from nine countries participated in these ring-tests. Sur...
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Full-text available
The magnitude of the corticosteroid response to a standardised stressor varied in proportion to the concentration of effluent in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) captured downstream of 10 wastewater treatment works (WWTW). However, at 9 sites with no upstream WWTW input inter-population variation in the reactivity of the stress...
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis plays a key role in responding to biotic and abiotic challenges in all vertebrates. Recent studies have shown that the apical response of the HPI axis to stressors in three-spined sticklebacks varies in proportion to the concentration of wastewater treatment works (WWTW) effluent to which t...
Article
Endocrine-mediated effects in fish populations have been widely documented. Most attention has been focused on feminization caused by estrogenic substances, but this paper reviews evidence for the effects of a group of fungicides and pharmaceuticals, the azoles, which have been reported to cause masculinization in fish. The paper considers informat...
Article
Enough standardized and validated in vivo ecotoxicity tests with sensitivity to a range of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are now available to begin constructing efficient testing strategies that can be integrated into mainstream chemical assessments. Assessments of the data from such tests will depend on consideration of the weight of evide...
Article
Fish have been used for many years to assess the aquatic environmental hazards posed by chemicals, alongside other regulatory tests based mainly on crustaceans, insect larvae, algae, and macrophytes. In addition to an internationally standardized life cycle test, there was a need for shorter standardized tests with end points that examine the cruci...
Chapter
This is the introductory chapter of Endocrine Disrupters: Hazard Testing and Assessment Methods, which describes and critically evaluates the methods that have been developed for studying the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on mammalian and nonmammalian wildlife in the laboratory. The development and standardization of ecotoxicity...
Article
Whole-body concentrations of cortisol and glucose were measured in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus from two rivers (Rivers Ray and Ock) in southern England during a 30 month period in order to assess effects on the stress axis of (1) remediation of a wastewater treatment works (WWTW) effluent (River Ray) and (2) episodic changes in...
Article
Fish full life cycle (FFLC) tests are increasingly required in the ecotoxicological assessment of endocrine active substances. However, FFLC tests have not been internationally standardized or validated, and it is currently unclear how such tests should best be designed to provide statistically sound and ecologically relevant results. This study de...
Chapter
This chapter deals with the derivation of aquatic EQSs, including standards for the protection of water dwellers, predators of water dwellers, and human water users. However, the main focus is on standards for the protection of organisms that live in water or aquatic sediment and are able to absorb contaminants directly via their gills, skin and/or...
Article
The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept proposes that an exposure threshold value can be derived for chemicals, below which no significant risk to human health or the environment is expected. This concept goes further than setting acceptable exposure levels for individual chemicals, because it attempts to set a de minimis value for che...
Article
This paper summarizes what is known about the endocrine systems of mollusks and how they can be disrupted by exogenous substances. It then examines the various possibilities for using mollusk-based toxicity tests to detect and assess the environmental risks of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). It is concluded that there are no internationally...
Chapter
Endocrine disruptionOther types of reproductive interferencesHigher level consequences of reproductive damage
Article
This paper presents data on the distribution of seven pesticides in an agricultural catchment which is located within the Agricultural Development and Advisory Service farm at Rosemaund, 11 km north-east of Hereford, UK. Data for aldicarb, atrazine, carbofuran, dimethoate, MCPA and isoproturon, are available for both the soil and surface waters (dr...
Article
Data are presented on four pesticides applied to agricultural land at the Agricultural Development Advisory Service, Rosemaund, in the west of England. The farm covers a well-defined and isolated water basin of cracking heavy clay loam soils drained by a single stream. Levels of the relatively particle-bound pesticides trifluralin, deltamethrin, ch...
Article
This paper presents data on the distribution of four herbicides within an agricultural catchment. In the case of mecoprop, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and simazine, these data include concentrations in the soil, field drains and the stream, before and after applications of the herbicides following good agricultural practice. The concentrations o...
Article
We assess the implications which research on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has for the regulation of synthetic substances and for the protection of the environment, particularly under the forthcoming European Union (EU) REACH legislation. EDCs present regulatory problems inter alia because they can act additively at concentrations which are...
Article
The relationship over time between the concentrations of two steroids, singly and in combination, in a static exposure system and in the blood of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, held within the exposure system was investigated. Groups of three-spined stickleback were exposed (nominally) to either 1000 ng l−1 17-oestradiol (E2), te...
Article
Most studies of hormonal activity in rivers have focused on inputs from sewage treatment works (STW), and their consequences for endocrine disruption in fish. It is possible that livestock is contributing to this hormonal activity in rivers. This study represents a search for evidence of steroid hormone contamination in streams associated with live...
Article
The combined farm animal population is considerably larger than the human one in the United Kingdom, implying a possibly important contribution to the environmental load of steroid hormones entering water. To make comparisons on the amount of steroid hormones produced by the different livestock, information was gathered on the structure of the UK f...
Article
During tsetse fly control operations, fish in the Okavango Delta region of Botswana are exposed to ultra–low–volume doses (6–12 g/ha) of endosulfan, an insecticide recognized to be highly toxic to fish. Approximately 1 % of the fish population can be killed by a spray, and the physiology and behaviour of survivors is temporarily disturbed. Simultan...
Article
The rate of oxygen consumption by sticklebacks has been studied by long-term continuous-flow respirometry. Exposure to 1 p.p.m. zinc in calcium-free water causes wide variations in individual responses, but oxygen uptake tends to rise and then become extremely erratic, before declining as death approaches. Behavioural abnormalities such as increase...
Article
Concentrations of 0.5–1.0 mg Zn2+/dm3 distilled water killed sticklebacks after 1–3 days, producing detachment and sloughing of epithelial cells, and coalescing of adjacent secondary lamellar epithelia. Cytoplasmic abnormalities included extensive vacuolation, followed by swelling of nuclei and mitochondria leading to cellular disintegration. Many...
Article
Endosulfan, an insecticide highly toxic to fish, is currently applied from the air for tsetse fly control in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Although dosages are very ow (6–12 g a.i. ha−1), they cause some fish mortality and affects the behaviour of survivors. In order to determine how quickly fish recover from sublethal poisoning, four haematologica...
Article
Uptake, metabolism and excretion of radio-labelled N-tritylmorpholine (Frescon) were studied in the tropical food fish Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters). After 55 h exposure to sub-lethal solutions, concentration factors in whole fish were as high as 1300 (up to 40 mg/kg), at least 80 % of the absorbed activity being unchanged Frescon. Approximatel...
Article
A mathematical model is presented which combines genetic XX-female/XY-male sex determination with environmental pressure for phenotypic sex reversal. This may occur when fishes are exposed to endocrine disrupters, specifically masculinization by exposure to androgens and feminization by exposure to estrogens. A generic model is derived for the sex...
Article
Full-text available
Endocrine disruption (ED) as a named field of research has been very active for over 10 years, but effects in wildlife that would now be labeled as ED have been studied since the 1940s. This paper briefly surveys the progress in wildlife studies that has been made to date and draws out the major themes and issues that have been identified. In parti...
Article
This topic reviews the whole field of endocrine disruption (ED) in marine fish and compares this with our knowledge of the situation in freshwater species. In broad terms, similar types of ED have been observed in the two groups, although effects in the marine environment tend to be less marked, presumably due to dispersion and dilution. There are,...
Article
Full-text available
The sand goby (Pomatoschistus spp.) is a small estuarine fish. Its abundance, life history, and sedentary nature lead to its adoption as a key species in the U.K. Endocrine Disruption in the Marine Environment (EDMAR) Program. This study investigated the presence of classic markers of estrogenic exposure by determining vitellogenin (VTG) and zona r...
Article
This paper summarises results of the EDMAR programme which is investigating oestrogenic and androgenic endocrine disruption in UK coastal waters. Most of the data concern fish. Four species (flounder, viviparous blenny and two sand gobies) are experiencing feminisation in industrialised estuaries. In males this includes vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis...
Article
We report the development and validation of a novel in vivo biomarker test for waterborne androgens. During breeding, male sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) manufacture a glue protein, spiggin, in their kidneys that they use to build their nests. Spiggin production is under the control of androgens. Until now, however, it has only been possible...
Article
The objective of this research was to quantify the impact of pollution along the coastlines of the Irish Sea. Pollution assessment was based on the combined measurement of scope for growth (SFG), and chemical contaminants in the tissues of mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from 38 coastal sites around the Irish Sea during June-July in 1996 and 199...
Article
This report describes the identification of important estrogenic compounds in surface and sediment pore-water samples collected from the Tyne and Tees estuaries (United Kingdom) through the application of toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures. The Tyne and Tees estuaries represent estuaries that have been historically impacted by indu...
Article
The transient movement of pesticides at biologically active concentrations during storm events is considered to be a cause of biological impoverishment in some headwater streams. The programme of work described sought to identify compounds that are the cause of toxic effects during such events. Along with targeted pesticide analysis, toxicity ident...
Article
The UK's programme on endocrine disruption in the marine environment (EDMAR) was set up in 1998 to investigate in more detail the implications of earlier observations of strongly oestrogenic effects in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from several UK estuaries. Much of the work has focused on fish, including further studies of flounder, as well as inv...
Article
In the United Kingdom, the use of TBT-based anti-fouling paints on small vessels was banned in 1987, and a biological study of the Crouch Estuary, a yachting centre on the south-eastern English coastline, was initiated in order to monitor any associated changes. The macrobenthic infauna and epifauna were sampled between 1987 and 1992, and again in...
Article
This brief paper summarises current knowledge concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wildlife, and indicates that, with a few exceptions, we do not yet have good evidence that endocrine disruption is causing serious effects at the population level. The paper suggests that more field and semi-field studies are required to addres...
Article
This paper evaluates the possible biological significance of routine monitoring data for dissolved copper and zinc collected from nine lightly industrialized Essex and Suffolk estuaries by the Environment Agency during the years 1992–96, and investigates the relative importance of the various sources. The annual average concentration data from seve...
Article
Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in sediments taken at offshore, coastal and estuarine sites around the UK during the period 1993–1996. In all, 99 samples were taken from 80 locations, including 48 of the stations established under the UK National Monitoring Programme. Fifteen individual parent PAH compounds...
Article
In 1996, The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) initiated a project to establish whether oestrogenic materials are present in UK estuarine and marine waters at biologically significant concentrations, and to investigate some of the possible effects which these may have in flounder (Platichthys flesus). Early results a...
Article
To investigate the presence of sub-lethal contaminant effects in flounder (Platichthys flesus) populations in English estuaries, 16 sites from 7 estuaries were sampled in September–December 1997. Determination of hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity revealed that significant (p < 0.05) induction of the mixed function oxygenase (MFO)...
Article
Estrogenic discharges are known or suspected to be present in many United Kingdom estuaries and are also occurring from offshore oil and gas installations. The aim of this study was to establish whether estrogens and their mimics are present in marine waters at concentrations that can produce biological responses in fish and, if so, to discover whe...
Article
Rainbow trout were exposed for 3 weeks (in a flow-through system) to various dilutions of treated effluent (25, 50, 75, and 100%) from Harpenden and Chelmsford sewage treatment works (STW) during November 1994 and August 1996, respectively, and the induction of plasma vitellogenin was measured. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma vitellogeni...
Article
The estuary of the River Crouch, south-east England, as sampled annually by beam trawl between 1987 and 1989, and again in 1992. The aim of an initial transect survey was to describe and quantify the subtidal epifauna at a time of high ambient tributyltin (TBT) concentrations, arising from the use of tin-based anti-fouling paints on the hulls of mo...
Article
Fieldwork on the estuary of the River Crouch in Essex between 1987 (when the use of TBT antifouling on boats less than 25 m in length was banned) and 1992 revealed marked increases in the species diversity of sublittoral benthic communities in the areas which had originally been most contaminated with TBT. These increases were mirrored by a decreas...