Peter Macreadie

Peter Macreadie
Deakin University · Centre for Integrative Ecology

PhD

About

225
Publications
127,895
Reads
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6,726
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
Deakin University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
February 2016 - December 2017
Deakin University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
February 2010 - January 2013
University of Technology Sydney
Position
  • Chancellor's Postdoctoral Research Fellow

Publications

Publications (225)
Article
Full-text available
The biodiversity of marine and coastal habitats is experiencing unprecedented change. While there are well-known drivers of these changes, such as overexploitation, climate change and pollution, there are also relatively unknown emerging issues that are poorly understood or recognized that have potentially positive or negative impacts on marine and...
Article
Full-text available
Restoration of coastal wetlands has the potential to deliver both climate change mitigation, called blue carbon, and adaptation benefits to coastal communities, as well as supporting biodiversity and providing additional ecosystem services. Valuing carbon sequestration may incentivise restoration projects, however, it requires development of rigoro...
Article
Agricultural practices have created tens of millions of small artificial water bodies (“farm dams” or “agricultural ponds”) to provide water for domestic livestock worldwide. Among freshwater ecosystems, farm dams have some of the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per m2 due to fertilizer and manure run‐off boosting methane production – an ext...
Article
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Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCEs) help mitigate and adapt to climate change but their integration into policy, such as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), remains underdeveloped. Most BCE conservation requires community engagement, hence community-scale projects must be nested within the implementation of NDCs without compromising livelihoods o...
Article
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The global carbon sequestration and avoided emissions potentially achieved via blue carbon is high (∼3% of annual global greenhouse gas emissions); however, it is limited by multidisciplinary and interacting uncertainties spanning the social, governance, financial, and technological dimensions. We compiled a transdisciplinary team of experts to elu...
Preprint
Agricultural practices have created tens of millions of small artificial water bodies (“farm dams” or “agricultural ponds”) to provide water for domestic livestock worldwide. Among freshwater ecosystems, farm dams have some of the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per m2 due to fertilizer and manure run-off boosting methane production – the se...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrasses have some of the highest rates of carbon burial on the planet and have therefore been highlighted as ecosystems for nature-based climate change mitigation. However, information is still needed on the net radiative forcing benefit of seagrasses inclusive of their associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we report simultaneous esti...
Article
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Offshore platforms, subsea pipelines, wells and related fixed structures supporting the oil and gas (O&G) industry are prevalent in oceans across the globe, with many approaching the end of their operational life and requiring decommissioning. Although structures can possess high ecological diversity and productivity, information on how they intera...
Article
The restoration of blue carbon ecosystems, such as mangrove forests, is increasingly used as a management tool to mitigate climate change by removing and sequestering atmospheric carbon in the ground. However, estimates of carbon-offset potential are currently based on data from natural mangrove forests, potentially leading to overestimating the ca...
Article
Worldwide food production is under ever-increasing demand. Meanwhile, climate change is disrupting rainfall and evaporation patterns, making agriculture freshwater supplies more uncertain. IPCC models predict an increased variability in rainfall and temperature over most of the globe under climate change. Yet, the effects of climate variability on...
Article
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The development and refinement of methods for estimating organic carbon accumulation in biomass and soils during mangrove restoration and rehabilitation can encourage uptake of restoration projects for their ecosystem services, including those of climate change mitigation, or blue carbon. To support the development of a blue carbon method for Austr...
Article
There is a growing interest in including blue carbon ecosystems (i.e., mangroves, tidal marshes and seagrasses) in climate mitigation programs in national and sub-national policies, with restoration and conservation of these ecosystems identified as potential activities to increase carbon accumulation through time. However, there is still a gap on...
Article
Freshwater wetlands are natural sinks of carbon; yet, wetland conversion for agricultural uses can shift these carbon sinks into large sources of greenhouse gases. We know that the anthropogenic alteration of wetland hydrology and the broad use of N-fertilizers can modify biogeochemical cycling, however, the extent of their combined effect on green...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Nature as a climate solution: Country, culture and nature-based solutions for mitigating climate change
Article
It is global practice to construct wetlands in urban environments to treat pollutants from stormwater and overland runoff. However, constructed wetlands can also trigger climatic consequences by releasing a considerable amount of greenhouse gas emissions via diffusion and ebullition. While diffusive emissions are broadly measured, assessing the ext...
Article
The value of critical habitats, such as seagrass, to act as a nursery varies spatially and temporally; however, such information is essential for the public and stakeholders to appropriately value and manage these habitats. We use an existing systematic long-term fisheries dataset in Port Phillip Bay to examine variability in nursery habitat value...
Article
Blue carbon ecosystems (BCEs), including mangrove forests, seagrass meadows and tidal marshes, store carbon and provide co-benefits such as coastal protection and fisheries enhancement. Blue carbon sequestration has therefore been suggested as a natural climate solution. In this Review, we examine the potential for BCEs to act as carbon sinks and t...
Article
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Nutrient input from estuarine producers underpins coastal fisheries production and knowing which producers are the most responsible for fish diet helps effectively protect and restore coastal ecosystems. Focussing on the Richmond River in Australia as a case study, we sampled the main estuarine producers and estimated their proportional contributio...
Article
Mangroves are known to provide many ecosystem services, however there is little information on their potential role to cap and immobilise toxic levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Using an Australian case study, we investigated the capacity of planted mangroves (Avicennia marina) to immobilise TPH within a small embayment (Stony Creek, Vi...
Article
To help mitigate the impacts of climate change, many nature-based solutions are being explored. These solutions involve protection and restoration of ecosystems that serve as efficient carbon sinks, including vegetated coastal ecosystems (VCEs: tidal marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows) also known as ‘Blue Carbon’ ecosystems. In fact, m...
Article
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Litter decomposition is a key process for carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and is mainly controlled by environmental conditions, substrate quantity, and quality as well as microbial community abundance and composition. In particular, the effects of climate and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on litter decomposition and its...
Article
Megaherbivore grazing (e.g. by turtles, and sirenians) plays a major and well-documented role in structuring seagrass meadows around the world; however, we know little about local-scale (intra- and inter-meadow) variability in megaherbivore grazing. This is surprising given that megaherbivores are highly selective eaters who may feed by targeting c...
Article
Eutrophication (excessive plant/algal growth caused by nutrient pollution) of coastal waters has increased globally and is associated with many ecological and environmental problems. In China, eutrophication is recognized as a key threat to sustainable economic development and human wellbeing. To address the eutrophication problem, the first step i...
Article
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Seagrass meadows rank among the most significant organic carbon (Corg) sinks on earth. We examined the variability in seagrass soil Corg stocks and composition across Australia and identified the main drivers of variability, applying a spatially hierarchical approach that incorporates bioregions and geomorphic settings. Top 30 cm soil Corg stocks w...
Article
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Food sources and food web structure in seagrass meadows are important determinants of ecosystem functions and services. However, there is little information on the effect of eutrophication on food source contributions and food web structure in seagrass meadows. Here we used stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) to investigate how d...
Article
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Shoreline erosion and storm tide inundation increasingly threaten coastal populations, infrastructure and economies. Hard infrastructure, known as gray infrastructure (e.g. concrete seawalls), has commonly been used to protect coastal communities but is expensive to build, maintain, and deteriorates coastal vegetation. Green infrastructure (e.g. re...
Article
Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchments include some of the world’s most intact coastal wetlands comprising diverse mangrove, seagrass and tidal marsh ecosystems. Although these ecosystems are highly efficient at storing carbon in marine sediments, their soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and the potential changes resulting from climate impac...
Article
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Coastal wetland ecosystems, such as saltmarsh and mangroves, provide a wide range of important ecological and socio-economic services. A good understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of these ecosystems is critical to maximising the benefits from restoration and conservation projects. We mapped mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystem transit...
Article
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Freshwater wetlands are important carbon sinks with an estimated ~ 450 gigatons of carbon stored in their sediments. However, when disturbed they can become significant sources of carbon emissions. Understanding carbon dynamics in freshwater wetlands is a research priority to maximise carbon drawdown opportunities through effective management. Graz...
Article
Coastal ecosystems are under increasing pressure from land-derived eutrophication in most developed coastlines worldwide. Here, we tested for 277 days the effects of a nutrient pulse on blue carbon retention and cycling within an Australian temperate coastal system. After 56 days of exposure, saltmarsh and mangrove plots subject to a high-nutrient...
Article
Wetland ecosystems are critical to the regulation of the global carbon cycle, and there is a high demand for data to improve carbon sequestration and emission models and predictions. Decomposition of plant litter is an important component of ecosystem carbon cycling, yet a lack of knowledge on decay rates in wetlands is an impediment to predicting...
Article
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Offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) infrastructure affords structurally complex hard substrata in otherwise featurless areas of the seafloor. Opportunistically collected industrial ROV imagery was used to investigate the colonization of a petroleum platform in the North Sea 1–2 years following installation. Compared to pre-construction communities and pione...
Article
Wetlands have a major influence on the global carbon cycle, with capacity to act as carbon 'sinks' or 'sources'. The source-sink capacity of wetlands is governed by microbially-mediated biogeochemical processes, which are furthermore regulated by environmental conditions. With growing interest in nature-based climate solutions, policymakers and res...
Article
Restoring and protecting “blue carbon” ecosystems - mangrove forests, tidal marshes, and seagrass meadows - are proposed actions for increasing global carbon sequestration. To improve understanding of which management actions produce the greatest gains in sequestration, we used a spatially explicit model to compare carbon sequestration and its econ...
Article
Wetlands are among the earth's most efficient ecosystems for carbon sequestration, but can also emit potent greenhouse gases (GHGs) depending on how they are managed. Global management strategies have sought to maximize carbon drawdown by wetlands by manipulating wetland hydrology to inhibit bacterially-mediated emissions. However, it has recently...
Article
Full-text available
Farm dams are a ubiquitous limnological feature of agricultural landscapes worldwide. While their primary function is to capture and store water, they also have disproportionally large effects on biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling, with important relevance to several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, the abundance and distribution...
Article
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For millennia, coastal and marine ecosystems have adapted and flourished in the Red Sea’s unique environment. Surrounded by deserts on all sides, the Red Sea is subjected to high dust inputs and receives very little freshwater input, and so harbors a high salinity. Coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangroves flourish in this environment and provid...
Article
An assessment to remove, partially remove, leave in situ or repurpose oil and gas infrastructure at end of field life can be more robust if it uses rigorous, relevant and accurate data. We used industry remotely operated vehicle (ROV) video, specialised high-definition stereo-video systems and partnered with industry to enhance future ROV campaigns...
Article
In 2018, Australian oil and gas (O&G) operators committed funds to a collaborative approach to research to improve the evidence base for O&G decommissioning decisions. This followed an unsuccessful bid to establish a cooperative research centre for decommissioning. Modelled on the INSITE North Sea program, the National Decommissioning Research Init...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrass ecosystems are globally-significant ‘blue carbon’ sinks; however, there is concern that this capacity will decline if rising ocean temperatures accelerate microbial decomposition. Decomposition of plant litter is a key process in the global carbon cycle—it influences how much carbon is available for sequestration. Therefore, understanding...
Article
Intensive macroalgal blooms, a source of labile organic carbon (LOC) induced by coastal nutrient loading in some seagrass ecosystems, create ideal conditions for enhanced recalcitrant organic carbon (ROC) loss via the cometabolism effect. Here, we carried out a 62-day laboratory experiment to see if density-dependent addition of macroalgal biomass...
Article
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Seagrasses are among the Earth’s most efficient ecosystems for sequestering carbon, but are also in global decline, risking carbon they have accumulated over geological timescales. One contributor to this global decline is seagrass overgrazing by sea urchins; however, it is unknown how this may affect stocks of “blue carbon” by damaging the seagras...
Article
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The global distribution of primary production and consumption by humans (fisheries) is well-documented, but we have no map linking the central ecological process of consumption within food webs to temperature and other ecological drivers. Using standardized assays that span 105° of latitude on four continents, we show that rates of bait consumption...
Preprint
Australia is the second driest continent on Earth and freshwater is, therefore, a critical policy concern. Farm dams are ubiquitous and drive AU$17.7 billion of agricultural value, yet there has never been a formal census of Australian dams. In this study, we present a continental-scale assessment on density, distribution, and historical trends of...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrasses are important marine ecosystems situated throughout the world’s coastlines. They are facing declines around the world due to global and local threats such as rising ocean temperatures, coastal development and pollution from sewage outfalls and agriculture. Efforts have been made to reduce seagrass loss through reducing local and regional...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in protecting, restoring and creating ‘blue carbon’ ecosystems (BCE; mangroves, tidal marshes and seagrasses) to sequester atmospheric CO2-C and thereby contribute to climate change mitigation. While a growing number of countries aspire to report greenhouse gas emission and carbon sequestration changes from these ecosys...
Article
Mangrove ecosystems are targeted for many conservation and rehabilitation efforts due to their ability to store large amounts of carbon in their living biomass and soil. Traditional methods to monitor above-ground biomass (AGB) rely on on-ground measurements, which are expensive, labour intensive and cover small spatial scales. Structure from Motio...
Article
Coastal ecosystems are estimated to support 95% of the world’s commercially-important fish, owing largely to their provision of nursery habitat for juveniles; however, systematic databases with such data are scarce. By systematically reviewing the literature across Australia, we quantified fisheries enhancement from three key coastal vegetated habi...
Article
Seawater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in seagrass meadows is gaining attention for its role in carbon sequestration. Abundant refractory compounds in DOC are exported by seagrass meadows to the deep sea, thereby contributing to long-term carbon drawdown. DOC lability and bacterioplankton communities are key determining factors in this carbon sequ...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, coastal “blue carbon” ecosystems (tidal marshes, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows) have been impacted and degraded by human intervention, mainly in the form of land acquisition. With increasing recognition of the role of blue carbon ecosystems in climate mitigation, protecting and rehabilitating these ecosystems becomes increasingly...
Article
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Tidal marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows are important global carbon (C) sinks, commonly referred to as coastal “blue carbon”. However, these ecosystems are rapidly declining with little understanding of what drives the magnitude and variability of C associated with them, making strategic and effective management of blue C stocks chall...
Article
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Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are used extensively by the offshore oil and gas and renewables industries for inspection, maintenance, and repair of their infrastructure. With thousands of subsea structures monitored across the world’s oceans from the shallows to depths greater than 1,000 m, there is a great and underutilized opportunity for the...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrass meadows are considered important natural carbon sinks due to their capacity to store organic carbon (Corg) in sediments. However, the spatial heterogeneity of carbon storage in seagrass sediments needs to be better understood to improve accuracy of Blue Carbon assessments, particularly when strong gradients are present. We performed an int...
Article
Tidal wetlands are experiencing climate change driven shifts in their community composition, distribution, and functions. Mangroves have expanded into saltmarshes where their ranges overlap on five continents. Yet questions remain about the spatial variability of climate change drivers and subsequent local ecological feedbacks on these distribution...
Article
Full-text available
In oceans and seas worldwide, an increasing number of end-of-life anthropogenic offshore structures (e.g. platforms, pipelines, manifolds, windfarms, etc.) are facing full or partial removal. As part of the decommissioning process, studies on potential importance of subsea infrastructure to marine megafauna (defined as: cetaceans, pinnipeds, sireni...
Article
The health of seagrass plants, and thereby the ecosystems they form, is linked to their associated microbial communities. However, the role of the microbiome in holobiont function and health remains poorly understood for most seagrass species and environmental pressures, and there is, therefore, a need to better understand the drivers behind the fo...
Article
Full-text available
New technology reveals the value of the coast like never before
Article
Wetland ecosystems have a disproportionally large influence on the global carbon cycle. They can act as carbon sinks or sources depending upon their location, type, and condition. Rehabilitation of wetlands is gaining popularity as a nature-based approach to helping mitigate climate change; however, few studies have empirically tested the carbon be...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, freshwater wetlands are significant carbon sinks; however, altering a wetland’s hydrology can reduce its ability to sequester carbon and may lead to the release of previously stored soil carbon. Rehabilitating a wetland’s water table has the potential to restore the natural process of wetland soil carbon sequestration and storage. Further...
Article
Seagrass biomass represents an important source of organic carbon that can contribute to long-term sediment carbon stocks in coastal ecosystems. There is little empirical data on the long-term microbial decomposition of seagrass detritus, despite this process being one of the key drivers of carbon-cycling in coastal ecosystems, that is, it influenc...