Peter Mackelworth

Peter Mackelworth
Blue World Institute of Marine Research and Conservation · Conservation

Ph.D.

About

71
Publications
46,245
Reads
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1,338
Citations
Introduction
I work in two main fields. The first is looking at the development of marine conservation within Croatia, specifically the application of the international conventions and agreements. The second field is broader, looking at the development of trans-boundary marine conservation in the Adriatic, Mediterranean and globally.
Additional affiliations
May 2013 - present
University of Primorska
Position
  • Adjunct Lecturer
Description
  • I teach two modules on the masters course 'nature conservation'. Human Dimensions of Conservation and Marine Protected Area
December 1999 - present
Blue World Institute of Marine Research and Conservation
Position
  • Conservation Director

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Full-text available
By definition, marine protected areas (MPAs) and other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) address spatial aspects of the ecological processes and marine features. Such a requirement is especially challenging in areas where there is no clearly defined jurisdiction. However, in these areas, assigning sovereignty and rights can be achi...
Article
Full-text available
Like most ocean regions today, the European and contiguous seas experience cumulative impacts from local human activities and global pressures. They are largely in poor environmental condition with deteriorating trends. Despite several success stories, European policies for marine conservation fall short of being effective. Acknowledging the challe...
Article
Full-text available
Marine litter is a significant and growing pollutant in the oceans. In recent years, the number of studies and initiatives trying to assess and tackle the global threat of marine litter has grown exponentially. Most of these studies, when considering macro-litter, focus on floating or stranded litter, whereas there is less information available abo...
Article
Dolphin watching is growing fast along the Mediterranean coasts, without an equivalent effort for its management. Whale and dolphin watching has been promoted as ecotourism with conservation benefits. However, only a few studies have investigated the potential of these tours to change the awareness of the participants and improve their pro-conserva...
Article
Full-text available
Transboundary conservation has an important, yet often undervalued, role in the international conservation regime. When applied to the legally ambiguous and interconnected marine environment this is magnified. The lack of clear guidance for transboundary marine conservation from the international conservation community exacerbates this problem, lea...
Article
1. Previous studies suggest that the common bottlenose dolphin population in the Croatian Adriatic Sea is structured into distinct local communities. However, their home ranges and levels of interaction remain unknown. 2. Dedicated boat-based surveys were conducted seasonally, in three adjacent study sites from 2013 to 2017. Photo-identification da...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Mediterranean is the world’s leading destination for coastal and maritime tourism, attracting about one third of all global visitors. [1] Within this, the cruise sector is particularly fast-growing: in 2007 there were 8.7 million cruise passengers in the Mediterranean, by 2018 there were more than 25 million. Cruise tourism is also rapidly chan...
Research
Full-text available
The aim of this document is to provide as many sources of information in the available international instruments that may apply to marine conservation in the region. While this is not comprehensive it is extensive and provides an entry point for marine researchers to engage with legal instruments that may affect their work. This continues to be a...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to increasing human pressures on marine ecosystems, the legislation aimed at improving the conservation and management of marine coastal areas in European and Contiguous Seas (ECS) underwent crucial advances. ECS, however, still remain largely affected by increasing threats leading to biodiversity loss. Here, by using emblematic case...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to increasing human pressures on marine ecosystems, the legislation aimed at improving the conservation and management of marine coastal areas in European and Contiguous Seas (ECS) underwent crucial advances. ECS, however, still remain largely affected by increasing threats leading to biodiversity loss. Here, by using emblematic case...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to increasing human pressures on marine ecosystems, the legislation aimed at improving the conservation and management of marine coastal areas in European and Contiguous Seas (ECS) underwent crucial advances. ECS, however, still remain largely affected by increasing threats leading to biodiversity loss. Here, by using emblematic case...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of this document is to provide a resource to researchers in marine conservation by giving summaries of the international instruments that may have implications for marine conservation in the MarCons region. These instruments include international agreements and conventions, regional agreements and intergovernmental sectoral agreements, and...
Article
Full-text available
The Natura 2000 (N2k) network is an important site-based protection tool for the protection of biodiversity in Europe. However, for highly mobile and adaptable marine species, such a tool might not be the most effective way to achieve conservation objectives, unless this includes a broader consideration of the direct threats to these species throug...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Adriatic and Ionian Region (AIR) is an important area for both strategic maritime development and biodiversity conservation in the European Union (EU). However, given that both EU and non‐EU countries border the sea, multiple legal and regulatory frameworks operate at different scales which can hinder the coordinated long‐term sustainable devel...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs) form the cornerstone of marine conservation. Identifying which factors contribute to their success or failure is crucial considering the international conservation targets for 2020 and the limited funds generally available for marine conservation. We identified common factors of success and/or failure of MPA effectiven...
Article
Full-text available
The Islands of the Croatian Adriatic Sea have been confronted with an increasing problem of depopulation in the last century. There are many reasons for this. One of the most important is the limited economic development which is today almost exclusively based on tourism. The Adriatic Sea offers a great opportunity for the development of fisheries...
Article
Full-text available
U promjenama modela zaštite područja uočava se postupno udaljavanje od primarnih ciljeva očuvanja prirode u korist održivog razvoja. " Top-down" imenovanje zaštićenog područja mora u cresko-lošinjskom akvatoriju i nedostatak komunikacije s lokalnom zajed-nicom uzrokovali su otpor prema primarnim ciljevima očuvanja dobrih dupina, kao vrste s međunar...
Article
The Adriatic and Ionian Region (AIR) is an important area for both strategic maritime development and biodiversity conservation in the European Union (EU). However, given that both EU and non-EU countries border the sea, multiple legal and regulatory frameworks operate at different scales which can hinder the coordinated long-term sustainable devel...
Article
Full-text available
Cumulative effects assessments (CEAs) are inherently complex and seldom linked to real-world management processes • A risk-based CEA contains risk identification , risk analysis and risk evaluation, revealing the risk of exceeding thresholds • Embedding CEAs in a risk management process reduces complexity, streamlines scientific products, and incre...
Article
Full-text available
Cumulative human impacts have led to the degradation of marine ecosystems and the decline of biodiversity in the European and contiguous seas. Effective conservation measures are urgently needed to reverse these trends. Conservation must entail societal choices, underpinned by human values and worldviews that differ between the countries bordering...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the methods for the development and management of large, often transboundary, marine areas. Large marine areas, based partly or wholly on biogeographic and ecological criteria, are widely held to be the preferred way to define areas for ecosystem-based management (EBM). Large areas of marine management (LAMMs) provide a framew...
Chapter
Environmental governance is a complex undertaking and as such focusing solely on the role of the state fails to capture the complexity of actor and network interactions that make up ‘governance’ (O’Neill, 2009). Since the late 1980s the development of international environmental agreements has been supplemented by the emergence of the international...
Chapter
This chapter explores the ecological and political situation in the Northern Adriatic Sea with regards to the development of a transboundary marine protected area to resolve an ongoing border dispute between Croatia and Slovenia.
Chapter
There are a growing number of users and uses competing for marine space. In particular, in the near shore area freeranging species are being crowded out and habitats are being degraded. Compounding this are the assumed rights of access and use from state to individual level as the principle of the ‘freedom of the seas’ is applied in all its forms....
Conference Paper
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), formally adopted by the European Union in July 2008, outlines 11 high level descriptors of Good Environmental Status (GES); descriptor 11 requires "monitoring the introduction of energy, including underwater noise” into the marine environment. A 3-year study monitoring sea ambient noise (SAN) (2007–20...
Book
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The marine environment does not naturally respect arbitrary international boundaries. The establishment and management of transboundary marine protected areas therefore presents major governance challenges. This book analyses a series of marine transboundary conservation initiatives embedded in varying contextual situations to examine the underlyin...
Article
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1. Habitat diversity plays a significant role in shaping the genetic structure of cetacean populations. However, the processes involved in defining the genetic differentiation of these highly mobile marine mammals are still largely unknown. 2. Levels of genetic differentiation and dispersal patterns of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus...
Article
There is a resident common bottlenose dolphin population inhabiting the Kvarnerić area of the northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia. The observed decline in population size between 1995 and 2003 led to the declaration of a part of the Kvarnerić as the Cres-Lošinj Special Marine Reserve (CLSMR) in 2006. Protection lasted 3 years, before lapsing.A boat base...
Article
In the Mediterranean Sea, socio-economic drivers may accelerate the process of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declarations. Despite the challenges, the EEZ declarations may provide important opportunities for leveraging change to national policy towards the development of large-scale conservation of marine ecosystems and biodiversity in this zone. U...
Article
Full-text available
Cruise tourism is a growing sector of the travel and recreation industry. Due to it mobility it is often one of the first forms of tourism to relocate to new host environments and it is encouraged by transition economies looking to increase foreign revenue. Yet the environmental impacts of cruise vessels on the host environment can be significant,...
Article
Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated bip...
Article
Full-text available
The giant devil ray (Mobula mobular) is a poorly understood protected endemic species of the eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean region. However, to date there are no range-wide management actions in place. This paper provides the first overview of the summer distribution and abundance of this species and other Myliobatiformes within the Adriatic Sea ba...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been develo...
Data
Existing conservation areas and proposed priority areas for conservation in the Mediterranean Sea. (DOCX)
Article
The presence of the giant devil ray (Mobula mobular) in the Adriatic Sea was evaluated based on new records collected through field research, information from interviews with fish-erman and marine biology experts, and a review of existing data from the literature and Internet sources. Presented are 14 new records of 20 individual giant devil rays c...
Article
We analyzed 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blubber, liver, muscle, lung, heart and kidney of an adult male short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) found dead stranded on the island of Cres (Croatia) in 2004. The PCB profile was dominated by hexachlorobiphenyls (39.4 – 63.2% of SPCB), with PCB-1...
Article
Increasing use of the marine environment makes the development of spatial planning desirable. However, ambiguity and connectivity in the marine system has the potential to create conflict between neighboring States, particularly in contested border regions with overlapping ecosystems and migratory species. Interest in the concept of transboundary c...
Article
The Cres-Lošinj archipelago represents an important nursing and feeding ground for the resident Tursiops truncatus (bottlenose dolphin) population. Scientific research on Tursiops truncatus in this area has been conducted since 1987, and the population abundance is currently estimated to be 113 individuals (95% CI = 107–121; SE = 6.967), showing a...
Article
The presence of the giant devil ray (Mobula mobular) in the Adriatic Sea was evaluated based on new records collected through field research, information from interviews with fisherman and marine biology experts, and a review of existing data from the literature and Internet sources. Presented are 14 new records of 20 individual giant devil rays co...
Article
Full-text available
Changes to the protected area paradigm have seen the dilution of biological conservation aims towards the development of sustainable resource use. The top-down designation of the Cres-Lošinj marine protected area, and a lack of communication with the local community, has created conservation resistance in the region. This has led the State Institut...
Article
The presence of a solitary striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) was recorded in September 2008 in the harbour of Mali Lošinj, Croatia. This species is considered to be a visitor to the Adriatic Sea, and is even more rarely seen in the northern, shallow part of this region. Whilst the animal was resident in the harbour, photo-identification and b...
Article
As regions and countries become more interdependent and environmental problems become more global, conservation on a unilateral basis is no longer a viable option for the maintenance of large ecological systems (Thorsell and Harrison, 1990). This presents a challenge for the development of strategies for the coordination of transboundary conservati...
Article
The proposed area, South Adriatic, covers a domain including parts of the central Croatian and Montenegro coasts, and northern Albanian shore on the Eastern Adriatic (Figure1). On the Western side of the Adriatic it extends from Manfredonia to Brindisi in Italy. The onshore area is geologically quite homogeneous, dominated by limestone outcrops tha...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly, protected areas are being developed not only for biological diversity, but with social, economic and political objectives. Provided these alternative inter-disciplinary objectives do not undermine biological aims, conservation professionals should support their development. Trans-boundary conservation areas (TBCAs) are normally implem...
Article
Full-text available
The overwhelming demographic trend of the Croatian islands in the last 60 years, with only few exceptions, was depopulation. The destiny of the fish processing plants on the Croatian islands is undoubtedly related to this demographic trend. Today, most of these plants are closed. The reasons for their closure are in various, but correlates with the...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable development (SD) is generally recognised as having three dimensions, ecological, economic and social. Yet, its implementation is burdened with resistance and conflict rooted in the short-term 'business as usual' development model, opposed to the long-term sustainable benefit of local communities. Hence, the development of strategies to...
Article
The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In O...
Article
Full-text available
The Islands of the Croatian Adriatic Sea have been confronted with an increasing problem of depopulation in the last century. There are many reasons for this. One of the most important is the limited economic development which is today almost exclusively based on tourism. The Adriatic Sea offers a great opportunity for the development of fisheries...
Article
Full-text available
"Since the 1970s conservation generally has become more participatory, particularly with regards to local communities. The new paradigm of inclusivity in protected areas calls for the devolution of power, the embracement of uncertainty, and the legitimization of local knowledge and values, many of the principles of successful commons management. In...
Article
Full-text available
The thesis analyses the development of negotiations for the management of the Lošinj Dolphin Reserve in Croatia. Interviews, meetings and observations were undertaken at all levels and stages of the negotiation process in order to provide a clear narrative of the development of the process. An actor orientated approach was taken to provide empirica...
Article
Full-text available
A dedicated survey on presence and distribution of cetaceans off north-western Sardinia was held between 1994 and 1996 summer periods. A total of 120 sightings of five cetacean species have been recorded. Fin whale was the most abundant species. Both Striped and Bottlenose dolphins were regularly sighted on the study area. The waters around the Asi...
Article
Full-text available
In 2001 a dedicated survey was conducted in the Asinara Island National Park in order to estimate Tursiops truncatus (Cetacea: Odontoceti) population density and abundance. Photo-identification data were used for capture-recapture method in CATURE software.

Projects

Projects (7)
Archived project
BLUE ECONOMY AND MARINE CONSERVATION: SAFEGUARDING MEDITERRANEAN MPAS TO ACHIEVE GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS