Peter Macintyre

Peter Macintyre
Cape Breton University | CBU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

169
Publications
184,744
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
19,770
Citations
Citations since 2016
85 Research Items
12594 Citations
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,500

Publications

Publications (169)
Article
Language teaching has been described as a “profession in crisis”; a situation likely worsened by the effects of an emergency conversion to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study examines two waves of data (from April and November 2020) on stress, coping, and well-being during those eight months. Results show increase in tea...
Article
Full-text available
The present study adopted a mixed-methods approach using a convergent parallel design to focus on the role that positive and negative emotions have in the Foreign Language (FL) classroom on the ontogenesis of positive flow. Participants were 1,044 FL learners from around the world. They provided quantitative and qualitative data on FL enjoyment (FL...
Article
Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a popular construct in applied linguistics research, traditionally measured with the 33-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). However, recent studies have started utilizing the eight-item Short-Form FLCAS (S-FLCAS). There is therefore a need, which this study addressed in five sequential...
Article
Full-text available
The present study focused on differences in intensity of Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE), Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA), and proportion of time in a state of flow among 761 English FL learners and 825 FL learners of Languages Other Than English (LOTE). Participants in the LOTE group reported significantly higher levels of FLE and a hig...
Chapter
Considering the multiplicity of factors that can affect language learning and communication processes, it is possible to affirm that the role of emotions has been underestimated. In fact, although they play a prominent role in most motivational processes, it has only been recently that researchers have begun to study how they operate in second lang...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion in second language acquisition (SLA) has recently received greater attention because it is largely implicated in daily conversations, which may affect second or foreign language (L2) use including listening comprehension. Most research into emotion and L2 listening comprehension is focused exclusively on anxiety, with an attempt to reduce i...
Article
Full-text available
This brief, introductory paper contextualizes the special issue in relevant literatures in psychology, education, and SLA. In addition to describing the rationale for the special issue and providing a preview of the papers included, we identify the major themes and questions raised by the authors. Balanced against the conceptual, measurement, and p...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to better understand the role of students’ living arrangements (on campus, off campus, with and without their parents) on their health self-efficacy. Participants A sample of undergraduate students (n = 216) were recruited by using word of mouth and visiting classrooms in a small Atlantic Canadian university. M...
Preprint
Full-text available
Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a popular construct in applied linguistics research, traditionally measured with the 33-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). However, recent studies have started utilising the 8-item Short-Form Foreign Language Anxiety Scale (S-FLCAS). There is therefore a need, which this study address...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on a study that took a positive psychology approach to foreign language anxiety reduction. More specifically, it investigated whether reminiscing about language achievements could effectively diminish the learners’ foreign language classroom anxiety. It also explored the patterns nested in the reminiscing process. To this end, 88...
Article
Full-text available
Positive psychology has been introduced to the applied linguistics literature with the broad goal of improving the experience of language learners and teachers through a variety of interventions (MacIntyre & Mercer, 2014; Gabryś-Barker & Gałajda, 2016). “The aim of positive psychology is to catalyze a change in psychology from preoccupation only wi...
Article
Full-text available
In many contexts of multilingualism, language learners can initiate communication in the target language (TL), or a contact language (such as English). Patterns of use emerging from these choices affect TL development. They also vary between individuals. Willingness to communicate (WTC) needs to be investigated in ways that capture these variations...
Article
Full-text available
In many contexts of multilingualism, language learners can initiate communication in the target language (TL), or a contact language (such as English). Patterns of use emerging from these choices vary between individuals and affect TL development. Willingness to communicate (WTC) needs to be investigated in ways that capture these variations. So fa...
Article
Every person's response to adversity is unique. Whereas some come out stronger as a result of responding to a challenge, others find their fundamental assumptions about themselves and their lives severely challenged. In education, while some teachers might burn out and leave the profession precipitously, many survive the challenges and transform te...
Article
Full-text available
Willingness to communicate (WTC) reflects an intersection between instructed second language acquisition and learner psychology. WTC results from the coordinated interaction among complex processes that prepare second language (L2) learners to choose to use their L2 for authentic communication. Prior research has revealed considerable complexity in...
Chapter
The aim of the present study was to examine the dynamic relationship between willingness to communicate, foreign language anxiety, and foreign language enjoyment using experience sampling method. To this end, a total number of 38 freshman Iranian university students who were studying Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) as an academic majo...
Article
The idiodynamic method is a relatively new mixed-method approach to studying in real time the complex dynamics of integrated affective and cognitive states that interact continuously with human communication. The method requires video recording a sample of communication from a research participant and then using specialized software to play the vid...
Article
Full-text available
How does a person decide whether she or he is willing to communicate? Dual-process theories have been influential in the literature on the psychology of making judgments and decisions. Dual-process theories make a distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious (also called ‘experiential’ thinking) and those that a...
Article
Full-text available
Learning a second/foreign language (L2) is a long process and L2 learners certainly will encounter setbacks and discouragements during this process. However, their reactions to these failures might be different based on their perceptions of L2 learning ability and their subsequent effort in L2 learning. Based on this, the present study aimed at exp...
Article
This study focuses on understanding language teachers’ lived experiences of their stressors and positive uplifts from a holistic perspective covering their professional lives in school, their personal lives beyond, and the connection between the two. The aim was to explore the nature of teachers’ experiences of stress and how they spilled over from...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on understanding language teachers’ lived experiences of their stressors and positive uplifts from a holistic perspective covering their professional lives in school, their personal lives beyond, and the connection between the two. The aim was to explore the nature of teachers’ experiences of stress and how they spilled over from...
Article
Teaching often is listed as one of the most stressful professions and being a language teacher triggers its own unique challenges. Response to the Covid-19 pandemic have created a long list of new stressors for teachers to deal with, including problems caused by the emergency conversion to online language teaching. This article examines the stress...
Article
Full-text available
The quasi-experimental study reported in this paper investigated whether contracting students' speaking in the foreign language (FL) classroom could effectively mitigate their FL classroom anxiety. It also explored the working mechanisms of this approach to the reduction of classroom anxiety and examined the attitudes FL students had toward it. To...
Article
The realisation of the linguistic rights of Deaf individuals is, to a considerable extent, dependent upon whether there are majority language speakers who acquire a sign language as an L2 and use their L2 skills. Still, the motivation of hearing persons in learning sign languages as L2s is a largely unmapped area. This study seeks to capture the mo...
Data
Instrument used to collect data on FL enjoyment, anxiety and flow
Book
Full-text available
This book brings together contributions from the leaders of the language learning motivation field. The varied chapters demonstrate how Gardner's work remains integral to a diverse range of contemporary theoretical issues underlying the psychology of language, even today, 60 years after the publication of Gardner and Lambert's seminal 1959 paper. T...
Chapter
Full-text available
Some 60 years ago, Gardner and Lambert’s (1959) seminal paper, ‘Motivational variables in second language acquisition’, was published in the Canadian Journal of Psychology. The paper totaled seven pages with 20 references, yet its impact on the study of motivation in second language learning has been immeasurable. The 1959 paper represents the begi...
Article
Full-text available
Willingness to communicate (WTC) has been considered an important part of the language learning and communication process, playing a pivotal role in the development of language learners’ communicative competence. Many studies have been conducted on the relationship between WTC and related variables in learning English as a foreign language. However...
Chapter
Throughout this text are research findings that address specific questions teachers likely will face from time to time as they teach language day- today – reading, writing, vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, nonverbal communication, and so on. The information presented by the chapter authors was systematically collected, analyzed, and reviewed. As...
Article
Background Communication in general, and public speaking in particular, are important means to exert influence over other people; control is an enduring motive for communication. People differ substantially in the amount of control they typically want; some seek control and others tend to avoid it. But is the desire for control (DC) redundant with...
Chapter
We approach this volume with the core belief that the importance of research lies in its impact on improving the lives of people. Research on second language acquisition (L2A), development, and curriculum and instruction shares this fundamental purpose. Simply put, as researchers, we study learning and teaching-related phenomena to understand how p...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter considers the affective dimension of Gardner’s socio-educational model and its associated Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB). Like many psychometrically sound instruments, the AMTB uses balanced item keying, which requires reversing scores on negatively worded items. Recent work on emotions, however, suggests that positive and neg...
Article
This brief report examines correlations between intense, highly motivating flow experiences, perceptions of competence, and willingness to communicate in both language and music, in the context of Scottish Gaelic and traditional music. The sample of 54 persons, mostly from Canada and Scotland, was contacted via Facebook groups. The frequency of flo...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses a combination of anxiety/uncertainty management theory and communication accommodation theory perspective to examine differences in the ways women converse with men or with other women. The study uses an innovative approach, the idiodynamic method, to gather detailed data on a per-second timescale. Participants ( n = 24) were random...
Article
Full-text available
In bilingual settings, the communication between majority and minority language speakers usually takes place in the majority language. This paper examines whether majority language speakers, who receive positive feedback from minority language speakers when accommodating to them, use the minority language more frequently for authentic purposes. We...
Book
The volume offers critical reviews of the most relevant, current SLA theory and research about receptive (reading and listening), productive (speaking and writing), complementary (grammar and pronunciation) and nonverbal communication skills, as well as willingness to communicate. Each chapter is formatted to include five major topics about each la...
Chapter
Full-text available
Background and purpose: Previous research showed that Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE) and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) were negatively correlated but essentially independent dimensions. The current study confirms this finding with new additional empirical evidence. Methods: This mixed-methods study is based on feedback from 750 FL lea...
Presentation
Full-text available
R. C. Gardner’s work continues to exert an influence on applied linguistics. It was never just about integrative vs instrumental motives. Gardner’s socio-educational model is context sensitive, social-psychological approach to dealing with the social, political, and psychological dimensions of language learning. In this presentation, we review 3 st...
Preprint
Full-text available
The present study further explores inter-individual variation in the occurrence of emotions in the Foreign Language (FL) classroom (Dewaele et al 2017). It focuses on the frequency of experiencing positive flow and anti-flow in Spanish FL classrooms (Csíkszentmihályi, 2003. A total of 232 current Spanish FL learners from around the world provided f...
Article
Teaching is widely recognized as one of the most stressful professions (Johnson et al., 2005; McIntyre, McIntyre, & Francis, 2017) with high burnout rates across the globe (Byrne,1999; Farber,1991; Unterbrink et al., 2007). It is reported that up to 40% of teachers leave the profession within their first five years (Borman & Dowling, 2008). Languag...
Article
In this article we introduce Positive Psychology (PP), a relatively new subfield of psychology, and outline its development since the year 2000. We describe ways in which PP represents an exciting addition to the Second Language Acquisition (SLA) literature and the ways it is already influencing trends in education generally, thus creating promisin...
Article
Full-text available
This annotated bibliography was compiled to provide researchers and second-language (L2) instructors a brief outline of the progression in language-learning research, specifically of measures developed to quantify learners' willingness to communicate (WTC). Although this is not an exhaustive list of all possible current measures of L2 WTC, the meas...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we discuss the notion of Positive Language Education (PLE), which stems from a combination of Positive Education and Language Education. We suggest that there are good reasons for language educators to engage in enhancing 21st-century skills alongside the promotion of linguistic skills. One key set of 21st-century competences that wo...
Article
Following terror management theory (TMT), we hypothesized that listening to a disaster song could increase cultural worldview defenses in a manner similar to the mortality stimulating essay typically used in TMT research. Participants were divided into four groups. Two of the groups received death-related themes, one wrote an essay about dying and...
Presentation
Full-text available
In Gardner’s Socio-Educational Model, motivation for language learning is supported by attitudes toward the language, the learning situation, and joining a valued community. Gardner used the term ‘affective’ factors to describe the interrelations among the multiple interacting motivational processes involved, with particular emphasis on attitudes a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This symposium celebrates the legacy and continuing influence of Robert C. Gardner, the father of the second language (L2) motivation field, at the 60th anniversary of the seminal paper by Gardner and Lambert (1959). Gardner's contributions go beyond the one-dimensional integrative-instrumental dichotomy. A group of distinguished scholars were invi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gardner’s work continues to exert an influence on applied linguistics It was never just about integrative vs instrumental motives Gardner’s socio-educational model was context sensitive, social-psychological approach to dealing with the social, political, and psychological dimensions of language learning. We review 3 studies that link to currents o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This symposium celebrates the legacy and continuing influence of Robert C. Gardner, the father of the L2 motivation field, at the 60th anniversary of the seminal paper by Gardner and Lambert (1959). Gardner's contributions go beyond the one-dimensional integrative-instrumental dichotomy. A group of distinguished scholars were invited to contribute...
Article
Flow is a desirable state of consciousness and absorption in an optimally challenging activity. Prior research has investigated individual differences in flow. The present study investigates flow by contrasting physical versus mental activities, using a mixed-methods, sequential explanatory design. The sample from the quantitative phase included 20...
Article
Full-text available
Emotions are a fleeting experience, sometimes lasting only moments before dissipating. Prior research in SLA has either ignored emotions, underestimated their relevance, or has studied them as a relatively stable individual difference variable. In contrast, the present study takes an idiodynamic approach to examine the rapidly changing relationship...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This symposium celebrates the legacy and continuing influence of Robert C. Gardner, the father of the L2 motivation field, at the 60th anniversary of the seminal paper by Gardner and Lambert (1959). Gardner’s contributions go beyond the one-dimensional integrative–instrumental dichotomy. A group of distinguished scholars were invited to contribute...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations between emotions, classroom environment, and willingness to communicate using the advanced quantitative methodological procedure of doubly latent multilevel analysis. To this end, 1528 secondary school students from 65 different classrooms in Iran participated in the study. Results of th...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations between emotions, classroom environment, and willingness to communicate (WTC) using the advanced quantitative methodological procedure of doubly latent multilevel analysis. To this end, 1528 secondary school students from 65 different classrooms in Iran participated in the study. Results...
Chapter
There is a pressing need to develop methodology to study complex dynamic systems. In this chapter we review 12 specific methods that offer solutions to the methodological challenges presented by a dynamic approach. Specific methods include several qualitative interview designs, longitudinal cluster analysis, Q methodology, the trajectory equifinali...
Article
Full-text available
Learning the skills to be a musician requires an enormous amount of effort and dedication, a long-term process that requires sustained motivation. Motivation for music is complex, blending relatively intrinsic and extrinsic motives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the motivation of musicians by considering how different aspects of motiv...
Article
The present research examines the role of music and dance in motivating Gaelic language learning on Cape Breton Island (Canada). The Gaelic language, once thriving in this context, has declined in use but flourishes in both music and dance. This article presents the results of in-depth interviews (60–90 minutes) with 10 accomplished adult musicians...
Article
Full-text available
The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love) and 9 negative emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, guilt, hate, sadness, feeling scared, and being stressed...
Chapter
This chapter unveils the idiodynamic method as an innovative language teacher education tool, which focuses on moment-to-moment self-reflection. The method requires watching a video recording of a practice teaching event, pre-service teacher ratings of efficacy at each moment using specialized software, and a review of both the ratings and video wi...
Book
This volume addresses innovations in language teacher education, offering a diversity of personal/psychological perspectives and topics in the theory and/or practice in language teacher education. The text deals with innovations in teaching for learning, teacher autonomy, dynamic self-reflection, peace education, professionalism, action research, s...
Article
Full-text available
The present study focuses on gender differences in Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE) and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) among 1746 FL learners (1287 females, 449 males) from around the world. We used 21 items Likert scale ratings reflecting various aspects of FLE (AUTHORS), and 8 items extracted from the FLCAS (Horwitz et al., 1986). An o...
Article
Recently, situated willingness to communicate (WTC) has received increasing research attention in addition to traditional quantitative studies of trait-like WTC. This article is an addition to the former but unique in two ways. First, it investigates both trait and state WTC in a classroom context and explores ways to combine the two to reach a ful...
Chapter
Positive psychology has the potential to become a prominent research area in SLA. The field is focused on positive emotion, positive character traits, and institutions that enable individuals to flourish, all of which are major concerns in language learning. The present chapter identifies key trends, such as the move toward studying positive emotio...
Chapter
Full-text available
From the introduction: "In a mixed-methods study, Jean-Marc Dewaele and Peter MacIntyre associated enjoyment and anxiety in the foreign language classroom with the left foot and the right foot of the language learner. Their results from a principal components analysis of 29 items given to over 1700 learners from around the world revealed three dim...
Article
By integrating the social context model of L2 acquisition with the pyramid model of willingness to communicate in L2, this study examined aspects of the psychological process underlying willingness to communicate (WTC) in Slovak among young Hungarian speakers in Southern Slovakia. The data was collected among Hungarian-speaking secondary school stu...
Book
Positive psychology is the scientific study of how human beings prosper and thrive. This is the first book in SLA dedicated to theories in positive psychology and their implications for language teaching, learning and communication. Chapters examine the characteristics of individuals, contexts and relationships that facilitate learning: Positive em...