Peter M. Macharia

Peter M. Macharia
Lancaster University | LU · Lancaster Medical School

Doctor of Philosophy
Spatial health metrics & Disease mapping

About

79
Publications
54,093
Reads
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779
Citations
Introduction
Disease mapping: Child mortality, malaria epidemiology, spatial access and utilization to healthcare
Additional affiliations
March 2021 - present
KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme
Position
  • Visiting reseacher
Description
  • Computing spatial health metrics
March 2021 - present
Lancaster University
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • Disease mapping
October 2020 - March 2021
KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • Disease mapping
Education
March 2017 - September 2020
The Open University (UK)
Field of study
  • Spatial epidemiology
May 2015 - December 2016
January 2015 - September 2015
Pwani University
Field of study
  • Spatial Research Methods

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
Full-text available
Geographic access to family planning (FP) services has been characterised through a variety of proximity metrics. However, there is little evidence on the validity of women’s self-reported compared with modelled travel time to an FP outlet, or between different distance measures. Methods We used data from four urban sites in Kenya. A longitudinal...
Article
Full-text available
School-based sampling has been used to inform targeted responses for malaria and neglected tropical diseases. Standard geostatistical methods for mapping disease prevalence use the school location to model spatial correlation, which is questionable since exposure to the disease is more likely to occur in the residential location. In this paper, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experience the highest levels of maternal mortality and stillbirths due to predominantly avoidable causes. Antenatal care (ANC) can prevent, detect, alleviate, or manage these causes. While eight ANC contacts are now recommended, coverage of the previous minimum of four visits (ANC4+) remains l...
Preprint
Full-text available
Access to health care is imperative to health equity and well-being. Geographic access to health care can be modelled by combining different spatial datasets, among others, on the distribution of existing health facilities and populations. Several population datasets are currently available, but their impact on accessibility analyses is unknown. In...
Preprint
Full-text available
Access to health care is imperative to health equity and well-being. Geographic access to health care can be modelled by combining different spatial datasets, among others, on the distribution of existing health facilities and populations. Several population datasets are currently available, but their impact on accessibility analyses is unknown. In...
Article
Full-text available
Background Model-based geostatistical (MBG) methods have been extensively used to map malaria risk using community survey data in low-resource settings where disease registries are incomplete or non-existent. However, the wider adoption of MBG methods by national control programmes to inform health policy decisions is hindered by the lack of advanc...
Article
Full-text available
The High Burden High Impact (HBHI) strategy for malaria encourages countries to use multiple sources of available data to define the sub-national vulnerabilities to malaria risk, including parasite prevalence. Here, a modelled estimate of Plasmodium falciparum from an updated assembly of community parasite survey data in Kenya, mainland Tanzania, a...
Article
Full-text available
Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 is important for understanding both the evolution and the patterns of local and global transmission. Here, we generated 311 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from samples collected in coastal Kenya between 17th March and 31st July 2020. We estimated multiple independent SARS-CoV-2 introductions into the region were primarily of...
Article
Full-text available
Defining an accurate, representative service catchment area is important for computing population denominators for disease mapping and efficient public planning, including health, education and social care. The growth in population settlement modelling techniques and provision of geocoded service databases has fuelled an increase in local and regi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides statistical guidance on the development and application of model-based geostatistical methods for disease prevalence mapping. We illustrate the different stages of the analysis, from exploratory analysis to spatial prediction of prevalence, through a case study on malaria mapping in Tanzania. Throughout the paper, we distinguish...
Article
Full-text available
Background Access to major services, often located in urban centres, is key to the realisation of numerous Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In Kenya, there are no up-to-date and localised estimates of spatial access to urban centres. We estimate the travel time to urban centres and identify marginalised populations for prioritisation and targe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: During the millennium development goals period, reduction in under-five mortality (U5M) and increases in child health intervention coverage were characterised by sub-national disparities and inequities across Kenya. The contribution of changing risk factors and intervention coverage on the sub-national changes in U5M remains poorly defi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ensuring everyone has access to health care regardless of demographic, geographic and social economic status is a key component of universal health coverage. In sub-Saharan Africa, where populations are often sparsely distributed and services scarcely available, reducing distances or travel time to facilities is key in ensuring access to health car...
Article
Full-text available
Background To improve child survival, it is necessary to describe and understand the spatial and temporal variation of factors associated with child survival beyond national aggregates, anchored at decentralised health planning units. Therefore, we aimed to provide subnational estimates of factors associated with child survival while elucidating ar...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Open data on the locations and services provided by health facilities have, in some countries, allowed the development of software tools contributing to COVID-19 response. The UN and WHO encourage countries to make health facility location data open, to encourage use and improvement. We provide a summary of open access health facility l...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is an increasing need for finer spatial resolution data on malaria risk to provide micro-stratification to guide sub-national strategic plans. Here, spatial-statistical techniques are used to exploit routine data to depict sub-national heterogeneities in test positivity rate (TPR) for malaria among patients attending health facilit...
Article
Full-text available
Background Health workers' compliance with outpatient malaria case-management guidelines has been improving, specifically regarding the universal testing of suspected cases and the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) only for positive results (i.e., ‘test and treat’). Whether the improvements in compliance with ‘test and treat’ guide...
Preprint
Full-text available
We generated 274 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from samples collected during the early phase of the Kenyan pandemic. Phylogenetic analysis identified 8 global lineages and at least 76 independent SARS-CoV-2 introductions into Kenyan coast. The dominant B.1 lineage (European origin) accounted for 82.1% of the cases. Lineages A, B and B.4 were detected from scr...
Preprint
Full-text available
We generated 274 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from samples collected during the early phase of the Kenyan pandemic. Phylogenetic analysis identified 8 global lineages and at least 76 independent SARS-CoV-2 introductions into Kenyan coast. The dominant B.1 lineage (European origin) accounted for 82.1% of the cases. Lineages A, B and B.4 were detected from scr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Approaches in malaria risk mapping continue to advance in scope with the advent of geostatistical techniques spanning both the spatial and temporal domains. A substantive review of the merits of the methods and covariates used to map malaria risk has not been undertaken. Therefore, this review aimed to systematically retrieve, summarise...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Poor access to immunisation services remains a major barrier to achieving equity and expanding vaccination coverage in many sub-Saharan African countries. In Kenya, the extent to which spatial access affects immunisation coverage is not well understood. The aim of this study was to quantify spatial accessibility to immunising health fac...
Article
Full-text available
Background Response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for precision public health reflecting our improved understanding of who is the most vulnerable and their geographical location. We created three vulnerability indices to identify areas and people who require greater support while elucidating health inequities to inform e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: There is an increasing need for finer spatial resolution data on malaria risk to provide micro-stratification to guide sub-national strategic plans. Here, spatial-statistical techniques are used to exploit routine data to depict sub-national heterogeneities in test positivity rate (TPR) for malaria among patients attending health facili...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: There is an increasing need for finer spatial resolution data on malaria risk to provide micro-stratification to guide sub-national strategic plans. Here, spatial-statistical techniques are used to exploit routine data to depict sub-national heterogeneities in test positivity rate (TPR) for malaria among patients attending health facili...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There is an increasing need for finer spatial resolution data on malaria risk to provide micro-stratification to guide sub-national strategic plans. Here, spatial-statistical techniques are used to exploit routine data to depict sub-national heterogeneities in test positivity rate (TPR) for malaria among patients attending health facilit...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The spatial variation in antenatal care (ANC) utilisation is likely associated with disparities observed in maternal and neonatal deaths. Most maternal deaths are preventable through services offered during ANC; however, estimates of ANC coverage at lower decision-making units (sub-county) is mostly lacking. In this study, we aimed to...
Method
Full-text available
Open data on the locations and services provided by health Background: facilities in some countries have allowed the development of software tools contributing to COVID-19 response. The UN and WHO encourage countries to make health facility location data open, to encourage use and improvement. We provide a summary of open access health facility loc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Open data on the locations and services provided by health facilities in some countries have allowed the development of software tools contributing to COVID-19 response. The UN and WHO encourage countries to make health facility location data open, to encourage use and improvement. We provide a summary of open access health facility loc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Response to the COVID-19 pandemic calls for precision public health reflecting our improved understanding of who is the most vulnerable and their geographical location. We created three vulnerability indices to identify areas and people who require greater support while elucidating health inequities to inform emergency response in Keny...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The decision-making process for malaria control and elimination strategies has become more challenging. Interventions need to be targeted at council level to allow for changing malaria epidemiology and an increase in the number of possible interventions. Models of malaria dynamics can support this process by simulating potential impact...
Article
Full-text available
Health facilities form a central component of health systems, providing curative and preventative services and structured to allow referral through a pyramid of increasingly complex service provision. Access to health care is a complex and multidimensional concept, however, in its most narrow sense, it refers to geographic availability. Linking hea...
Data
The first spatial inventory of public health facilities in sub Saharan Africa covering 49 countries assembled from multiple sources
Article
Full-text available
Background: The prevalence of malaria infection in time and space provides important information on the likely sub-national epidemiology of malaria burdens and how this has changed following intervention. Model-based geostatitics (MBG) allow national malaria control programmes to leverage multiple data sources to provide predictions of malaria prev...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The prevalence of malaria infection in time and space provides important information on the likely sub-national epidemiology of malaria burdens and how this has changed following intervention. Model-based geostatitics (MBG) allow national malaria control programmes to leverage multiple data sources to provide predictions of malaria prev...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite significant declines in under five mortality (U5M) over the last 3 decades, Kenya did not achieve Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) by 2015. To better understand trends and inequalities in child mortality, analysis of U5M variation at subnational decision making units is required. Here the comprehensive compilation and analys...
Article
Full-text available
Given national healthcare coverage gaps, understanding treatment-seeking behaviour for fever is crucial for the management of childhood illness and to reduce deaths. Here, we conduct a modelling study triangulating household survey data for fever in children under the age of five years with georeferenced public health facility databases (n = 86,442...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Spatial and temporal malaria risk maps are essential tools to monitor the impact of control, evaluate priority areas to reorient intervention approaches and investments in malaria endemic countries. Here, the analysis of 36 years data on Plasmodium falciparum prevalence is used to understand the past and chart a future for malaria cont...