Peter W R Lemon

Peter W R Lemon
The University of Western Ontario | UWO · Faculty of Health Sciences

PhD

About

142
Publications
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Publications

Publications (142)
Chapter
Full-text available
Huge amounts of energy are expended by athletes both in training and competition. Often energy and macronutrient intake are insufficient to compensate. As a result, exercise performance can be affected adversely. It is recommended that those involved in regular exercise training consume 6-10 g•kg-1 •d-1 of carbohydrate, ~2 g•kg-1 •d-1 of protein, a...
Article
Full-text available
Coingestion of ketone salts, caffeine and the amino acids, taurine, and leucine improves endurance exercise performance. However, there is no study comparing this coingestion to the same nutrients without caffeine. We assessed whether ketone salts–caffeine–taurine–leucine (KCT) supplementation was superior to caffeine-free ketone salts–taurine–leuc...
Article
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Background Phytoglycogen (PHY; PhytoSpherix; Mirexus Biotechnologies), a highly branched polysaccharide extracted from sweet corn, has considerable potential for exercise oxidation due to its low viscosity in water, high water retention, and exceptional stability. Objectives Using gas chromatography–isotope ratio mass spectrometry, we investigated...
Article
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Often cognitive function is affected adversely during prolonged, high intensity exercise. We assessed whether hydrothermally modified corn starch (HMS) ingestion minimizes cognitive decline with soccer play. 11 men (177.7 ± 6.8 cm, 77.3 ± 7.9 kg, 22 ± 3 y, 12.8 ± 4.9% body fat, [Formula: see text]O 2 max = 57.1 ± 3.9 ml•kg BM ⁻¹ •min ⁻¹ ; mean ± SD...
Article
Insulin modulates vasomotor tone through vasodilator and vasoconstrictor signaling pathways. The purpose of the present work was to determine whether insulin-stimulated vasoconstriction is a pathophysiological phenomenon that can result from a combination of persistent insulin signaling, suppressed PI3K activation and an ensuing relative increase i...
Article
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Hydrothermally modified non-genetically modified organisms corn starch (HMS) ingestion may enhance endurance exercise performance via sparing carbohydrate oxidation. To determine whether similar effects occur with high-intensity intermittent exercise, we investigated the effects of HMS ingestion prior to and at halftime on soccer skill performance...
Article
Background: There is a growing interest in intermittent fasting as a method of body fat loss. However, research on time-restricted eating, a type of intermittent fasting, is more limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of time-restricted eating on fat mass in women. Methods: 20 healthy, young (21.3 years ± 1.2 years), body mass...
Article
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Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise."...
Article
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Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces br...
Conference Paper
Nutrition is a fundamental component influencing athletic performance. To date, the majority of research has focused on the ergogenic effects of carbohydrate, fluid or electrolyte supplementation. In contrast, products such as BioSteel High Performance Sports Drink (BioSteel; a low carbohydrate, branched chain amino acid supplement [BCAA]) are avai...
Article
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Post exercise chocolate milk ingestion has been shown to enhance both glycogen resynthesis and subsequent exercise performance. To assess whether non-dairy chocolate beverage ingestion post glycogen-lowering exercise can enhance 20km cycling time trial performance 4h later. Eight healthy trained male cyclists (21.8 ± 2.3y, VO2max = 61.2 ± 1.4 ml·kg...
Article
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Aim: We investigated the cardiorespiratory response during acute sprint interval exercise (SIE; 4 x 30 sec maximal efforts, each separated by 4 min recovery) vs. continuous endurance exercise (CEE; 30 min) at 70% VO2max. Methods: Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate were measured in 8 males (age: 23±2.3 y, height: 181±6.4 cm, body mass: 78±8....
Article
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A cumulative effect of reduced energy intake, increased oxygen consumption, and/or increased lipid oxidation could explain the fat loss associated with sprint interval exercise training (SIT). This study assessed the effects of acute sprint interval exercise (SIE) on energy intake, subjective appetite, appetite-related peptides, oxygen consumption,...
Article
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2000 m time-trail performance, aerobic capacity, and anaerobic capacity were assessed in 16 trained oarsmen after sprint interval training (SIT) replaced a portion of an endurance-based training program (EBTSIT) vs an endurance-based program alone (EBTAlone). EBTSIT involved 10 SIT sessions over 4 weeks, in addition to 12 continuous exercise sessio...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of sprint interval exercise (SIE) on the time course of cardio-autonomic recovery and vagal activity over a 24 h period. Eight healthy males (age=24.1±2.3 y) performed a single bout of SIE that included 4 x 30 s all out sprints interspersed by 4 min of recovery, performed on a manual treadmill. Fo...
Article
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Data on whether sprint interval training (SIT) (repeated supermaximal intensity, short-duration exercise) affects body composition are limited, and the data that are available suggest that men respond more favourably than do women. Moreover, most SIT data involve cycling exercise, and running may differ because of the larger muscle mass involved. F...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if a moderate intensity whole-body vibration (WBV) body mass resistive exercise session causes additional muscle damage, soreness and inflammation compared to the same exercise session without vibration (NoV). Ten recreationally active male university students completed two separate 24 h study periods inco...
Article
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Six weeks (3 times/wk) of sprint-interval training (SIT) or continuous endurance training (CET) promote body-fat losses despite a substantially lower training volume with SIT. In an attempt to explain these findings, the authors quantified VO2 during and after (24 h) sprint-interval exercise (SIE; 2 min exercise) vs. continuous endurance exercise (...
Article
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This study was designed to test the hypothesis that glucose ingestion following an overnight fast increases leg vascular conductance (LVCd) and superficial femoral artery (SFA) vasodilation in lean but not obese young women. Obese (23.5 ± 4.0 years, 84.7 ± 14.7 kg, 37.2% ± 6.4% fat; mean ± SD, n = 8) and lean (23.8 ± 2.4 years, 60.6 ± 4.0 kg, 22.3%...
Chapter
IntroductionComplete protein foodsDietary requirements versus dietary recommendationsProtein needs for athletesDietary protein timingDietary protein typeSummaryReferencesFurther reading
Article
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Single bout whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been shown to produce small but significant increases in oxygen consumption (VO(2)). How much more a complete whole-body exercise session (multiple dynamic exercises targeting both upper and lower body muscles) can increase VO(2) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify VO(2) during a...
Article
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Repeated maximal-intensity short-duration exercise (sprint interval training, SIT) can produce muscle adaptations similar to endurance training (ET) despite a much reduced training volume. However, most SIT data use cycling, and little is known about its effects on body composition or maximal cardiac output (Qmax). The purpose of this study was to...
Article
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We assessed whether 10-s sprint interval training (SIT) bouts with 2 or 4 min recovery periods can improve aerobic and anaerobic performance. Subjects (n = 48) were assigned to one of four groups [exercise time (s):recovery time (min)]: (1) 30:4, (2) 10:4, (3) 10:2 or (4) control (no training). Training was cycling 3 week(-1) for 2 weeks (starting...
Chapter
Interest in determining the protein need for physically active individuals from a scientific standpoint has waxed and waned over the years, yet from the point of view of athletes it has remained consistently high. Although the placebo effect is often significant, this discrepancy in thinking is reason enough to investigate why opinions differ so mu...
Article
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In this study we assessed whether a liquid carbohydrate-protein (C+P) supplement (0.8 g/kg C; 0.4 g/kg P) ingested early during recovery from a cycling time trial could enhance a subsequent 60 min effort on the same day vs. an isoenergetic liquid carbohydrate (CHO) supplement (1.2 g/kg). Two hours after a standardized breakfast, 15 trained male cyc...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of vertical whole-body vibration (WBV) on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), femoral artery blood flow (FBF), and leg skin temperature (LSk(temp)) during static exercise. These parameters were examined: seated next to the WBV device (passive, unloaded), with feet secured onto the WBV...
Chapter
IntroductionProtein metabolism simplifiedEvidence that protein needs are increased with physical exerciseAre these moderately high protein recommendations healthy?Protein supplementation:is it necessary?Conclusion AcknowledgementsReferences
Article
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Several studies have assessed the validity of air displacement plethysmography (ADP), but few have assessed the reliability of ADP using a large, heterogeneous sample. This study was conducted to determine the reliability of ADP using the Bod Pod in a large, heterogeneous sample. A total of 980 healthy men and women (30 +/- 15 yr, mean +/- SD) comp...
Article
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This study assessed whether liquid carbohydrate-protein (C+P) supplements, ingested early during recovery, enhance muscle glycogen resynthesis versus isoenergetic liquid carbohydrate (CHO) supplements, given early or an isoenergetic solid meal given later during recovery (PLB). Two hours after breakfast (7.0 kcal.kg; 0.3 g.kg P, 1.2 g.kg C, 0.1 g.k...
Article
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Over the past few years there has been considerable interest in both the use of creatine (Cr) supplementation by athletes and the documentation of its effects by scientists. Some believe that this nitrogen-containing compound found in meat and fish has a performance-enhancing capability as important for brief intense exercise efforts as dietary car...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past few years there has been considerable interest in both the use of creatine (Cr) supplementation by athletes and the documentation of its effects by scientists. Some believe that this nitrogen-containing compound found in meat and fish has a performance-enhancing capability as important for brief intense exercise efforts as dietary car...
Article
Full-text available
Rather than the age-old debate regarding overall protein and amino acid needs of athletes, this paper focuses on the importance of timing and type of protein and amino acid ingestion relative to both muscle growth and exercise performance. Evidence discussed comes from definitive measurement techniques including net protein balance determinations (...
Article
Full-text available
Rather than the age-old debate regarding overall protein and amino acid needs of athletes, this paper focuses on the importance of timing and type of protein and amino acid ingestion relative to both muscle growth and exercise performance. Evidence discussed comes from definitive measurement techniques including net protein balance determinations (...
Article
Full-text available
We measured the effect of 3 d of creatine (Cr) supplementation on repeated sprint performance and thigh muscle volume in elite power athletes. Ten male (mean +/- standard deviation of body mass and percentage of fat (81.1 +/- 10.5 kg and 9.8 +/- 3.5) and ten female (58.4 +/- 5.3 kg and 15.0 +/- 3.4) athletes were matched for sex and 10-s cycle spri...
Article
Full-text available
There has been debate among athletes and nutritionists regarding dietary protein needs for centuries. Although contrary to traditional belief, recent scientific information collected on physically active individuals tends to indicate that regular exercise increases daily protein requirements; however, the precise details remain to be worked out. Ba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There has been debate among athletes and nutritionists regarding dietary protein needs for centuries. Although contrary to traditional belief, recent scientific information collected on physically active individuals tends to indicate that regular exercise increases daily protein requirements; however, the precise details remain to be worked out. Ba...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the factors (exercise intensity, carbohydrate availability, exercise type, energy balance, gender, exercise training, age, and timing of nutrient intake or subsequent exercise sessions) thought to influence protein need. Although there remains some debate, recent evidence suggests that dietary protein need increases with rigorous...
Article
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Six healthy men completed three 1-hr bouts of treadmill walk-jogging at low (L; 42 +/- 3.9% VO2max), moderate (M; 55 +/- 5.6%), and high (H; 67 +/- 4.5%) exercise intensity in order to determine whether moderate physical activity affects dietary protein needs. Both sweat rate and sweat urea N loss were greater (p < .10) with increasing exercise int...
Article
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Cortright, R. N., M. P. Chandler, P. W. R. Lemon and S. E. Dicarlo. Daily exercise reduces fat, protein and body mass in male but not female rats. Physiol Behav 62(1): 105–111, 1997.—This study was designed to compare the estimated energy balance, linear growth (body and bone lengths) and body composition (all components including body mass, total...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of type of preexercise sugar feedings (glucose [GLU] or fructose [FRU]) on muscle glycogen and protein catabolism during prolonged exercise in fed men. Seven men cycled to exhaustion on three different occasions at 70% VO2max, 45 min after ingestion (700 ml) of either a 0.476 mol.L.1 carbohydra...
Article
Full-text available
Current dietary protein requirements were determined using essentially sedentary individuals and, therefore, are designed for the general population. Unfortunately, the recommendations from these studies have been applied to athletes as well. Because of the vast differences in daily energy expenditure alone this would seem to be a naive approach. M...