Peter Krøjgaard

Peter Krøjgaard
Aarhus University | AU · Centre on Autobiographical Memory Research CON AMORE, Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences

PhD

About

69
Publications
7,945
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
454
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - present
Aarhus University
Position
  • Professor
January 2000 - present
Aarhus University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence shows that returning to the same distinct lab setting after 1 week triggers spontaneous memories in 35- and 46-month-old children. However, it remains unclarified which specific cues are triggering spontaneous recall. We report two experiments in which distinct contextual cues were altered between encoding and test. In Experiment 1...
Article
Verbally reported long-term memory for past events typically improves with age. However, such findings are based exclusively on studies, where children are directly asked to recall. The present study showed that when 3- (n = 113, 59 girls) and 4-year-olds (n = 113, 62 girls), predominantly White, were brought back to a distinct lab-setting after ei...
Article
Emotional reminiscing is a context where children learn culture-specific ways of understanding past emotional experiences through parentally scaffolded conversations, and learn how to connect these disparate experiences into their developing autobiographical memory. The goal of the present investigation was to explore possible gender differences in...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the memory of 18-, 33-, and 39-month-olds (N = 120) for dynamic stimulus material (simple cartoons) after 6 months in a visual paired comparison (VPC) task. We also tested the explicit recognition memory (ERM) for the same material. Only the oldest age group (39-month-olds) showed a significant visual (familiarity) preference at the test....
Article
Full-text available
An experimental paradigm has shown that it is possible to activate spontaneous memories in children by having them re-visit the setting in which they were introduced to a memorable event. Nevertheless, the most important cues for spontaneous recall remain undetermined. In response, we investigated the importance of the experimenter by introducing 3...
Article
Evidence supporting the assumption that spontaneous recall of previously experienced events is triggered by distinct, environmental cues has hitherto exclusively been based on post-hoc reasoning and not on direct, in vivo examination. Using a novel experimental paradigm, we present the first real-time analyses of 35-month-old’s looking time as spon...
Article
The reminiscing literature has for decades highlighted the positive effect of the high elaborative reminiscing style on children’s autobiographical memory. However, very little is known about the direct, reciprocal influences of parents’ and children’s utterances on each other. Using a micro-analytic approach, the current study aimed to investigate...
Article
The trip task has been used as a verbal test for examining preschool children’s episodic future thinking. However, the only existing study using the trip task merely examined 3-year-olds. In order to investigate how future projections develop, we examined a total of 241 preschool children in three age groups (35-, 47-, and 55-month-olds). As expect...
Article
The reminiscing literature has for decades highlighted the positive effect of the high elaborative reminiscing style on children’s autobiographical memory. However, very little is known about the direct, reciprocal influences of parents’ and children’s utterances on each other. Using a micro-analytic approach, the current study aimed to investigate...
Article
Evidence supporting the assumption that spontaneous recall of previously experienced events is triggered by distinct, environmental cues has hitherto exclusively been based on post-hoc reasoning and not on direct, in vivo examination. Using a novel experimental paradigm, we present the first real-time analyses of 35-month-old’s looking time as spon...
Article
Despite the extensive bulk of literature on maternal reminiscing style, only a handful of reminiscing studies have investigated gender differences in parental reminiscing style, with none of these studies having explored the possible relationship between parental involvement level and parental reminiscing style. The current study investigated gende...
Article
It is well documented that young children have difficulties with strategically remembering past events. Recent evidence on event memory in 35- and 46-month-old children suggests that strategic retrieval (yes/no questions) improves with age, whereas spontaneous retrieval is relatively unaffected by age. We here replicate and extend those findings (N...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the role of parents’ reminiscing style in preschoolers’ memory-related functioning and general emotion regulation. In 87 families, each parent rated their child’s (Mage = 4.07 years, SD = 0.80) emotion regulation and discussed a positive and a negative memory with their child (resulting in 275 conversations). Multilevel analyses...
Article
Full-text available
Anecdotal reports suggest that children often outperform adults when playing Concentration. This is surprising as cognitive processes tend to develop progressively throughout childhood. To date, very few studies have examined this apparent paradox, and with mixed results. In the present study, the ability of 6-year-olds (n=34), 8-year-olds (n=48),...
Article
Full-text available
In two studies we investigated the importance of a storyline for remembering cartoons across a delay of 2 weeks in 18-month-old infants by means of the visual paired-comparison (VPC) paradigm. In Study 1 seventy-one 18-month-olds were tested using similar cartoons as in a recent study from our lab while varying the richness of the storyline informa...
Article
Full-text available
Most parents have experienced their preschool child having spontaneous episodic memories, that is, verbally reported memories of past events that come to the child almost out of the blue. Until recently such memories had only been observed outside the lab. By means of a new paradigm we report experimentally induced spontaneous memories of a unique...
Article
Full-text available
Many parents have experienced incidents in which their preschool child spontaneously (i.e., without prompting of any kind) recall a previously experienced event. Until recently, such spontaneous memories had only been examined in non-controlled settings (e.g., diary studies). Using a novel experimental paradigm, a previous study has shown that when...
Article
Full-text available
Children learn new words and word forms with ease, often acquiring a new word after very few repetitions. Recent neurophysiological research on word form acquisition in adults indicates that novel words can be acquired within minutes of repetitive exposure to them, regardless of the individual's focused attention on the speech input. Although it is...
Article
Full-text available
Following Event Segmentation Theory (EST) adult memory is enhanced at event boundaries (EB). The present study set out to explore this in infancy. Sixty-eight 21-month-olds watched a cartoon with one of two objects (counterbalanced) inserted for 3s either at EB or between EB. Ten minutes later they watched both objects (familiar and novel) in a 10s...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4-6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both syntax and morphology, and vocabulary measures, with s...
Article
In a recent paper, Mammen (Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 50, 196–233, 2016a) brought novel arguments into the discussion concerning the importance of being able to single out and track objects through space and time. Mammen offered a formal account of two basic, yet distinct, ways in which we as human beings encounter objects in...
Article
Very little is known regarding whether scripted knowledge affects memory in infancy. By means of the elicited imitation paradigm we examined whether 24-month-olds' (N = 112) differentially re-enacted expected and unexpected 4th steps of two highly familiar and of two less familiar 5-step events immediately as well as across a two-week retention int...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there has been an increased interest in the relationship between looking time during encoding and subsequent memory performance in imitation tasks. Hitherto, the results have been inconclusive: one line of research supporting the link between looking time and performance and another line finding no relation. The existing studies may, howe...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the importance of Event Boundaries for 16- and 20-month-olds' (n=80) memory for cartoons. The infants watched one out of two cartoons with ellipses inserted covering the screen for 3s either at Event Boundaries or at Non-Boundaries. After a two-week delay both cartoons (one familiar and one novel) were presented simul...
Article
Most parents sing to their children. Yet, little is known regarding how early musical experiences are retained later in life. This study is a first attempt to fill this gap in the literature. Based on the stratified sample, we asked 973 adults about their first memories of a song or melody. The results revealed that adults’ earliest memories of a s...
Article
Full-text available
According to Mammen and Mironenko (2015) our sensitivity to objects' history (i.e., objects' whereabouts across space and time) has been neglected in much of contemporary psychology. In this paper I present evidence from a developmental psychological perspective indicating that although the terminology is different, some research concerning these i...
Article
In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing 33-and 39-mon...
Article
This paper takes a critical look at two assumptions about communication and language in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which seem to exist in Denmark and to influence clinical practice. The two assumptions are: (1) pragmatic language abilities are more or less absent in ASD, and (2) other aspects of language are more or less intact in...
Article
This study investigated twenty four 18-month-olds' memory for dynamic visual stimuli. During the first visit participants saw one of two brief movies (30 seconds) with a simple storyline displayed in four iterations. After 2 weeks, memory was tested in the visual paired comparison paradigm in which the familiar and the novel movie were contrasted s...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined three-year-olds' verbal and non-verbal memory for a person met only once after a 28month interval. Children in the Test group (N=50) had participated in an earlier experiment at our lab at the age of 12months where they met one of two possible experimenters. At this past event half of the children were tested by one, the other h...
Article
Full-text available
In this focused study, we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?” and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of ep...
Article
Full-text available
This article serves as an introduction to this volume's Nordic Psychology Special Issue on autobiographical memory. We were given the opportunity to present examples from the ‘growth layer’ from the Center on Autobiographical Memory Research (CON AMORE), located at Aarhus University. This is displayed by the fact that all six articles in the presen...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood amnesia (i.e., a marked paucity of memories from the first 3-4 years of life) has often been examined by asking people for their earliest memory. Such studies have generally been conducted with college students, and thus been unable to examine possible effects of education and current age. We here report the first study on adults' earlies...
Article
Full-text available
We report a replication experiment of a mechanized version of the seminal wide-screen/narrow-screen design of Wilcox and Baillargeon (1998) with 9.5-month-old infants (). Two different methodologies were employed simultaneously: (a) the standard looking time paradigm and (b) eye tracking. Across conditions with three different screen sizes, the res...
Article
Full-text available
We report a generalization experiment in which 72 18-month-old infants were tested in the elicited imitation paradigm. Two questions were addressed: (1) whether infants' were able to generalize to differently looking (shape and color changes) but functionally equivalent props and (2) whether narrative support at both encoding and retrieval would fa...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have recently used warm-up questions concerning childhood memories at specific early ages (e.g. 3 years of age) in an attempt to facilitate the retrieval process on the subsequent question regarding the earliest memory. Although this methodology may indeed facilitate the retrieval process by conducting the test in a manner resembling or...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the importance of object function (action-object-outcome relations) on object individuation in infancy. Five experiments examined the ability of 9½- and 12-month-old infants to individuate simple geometric objects in a manual search design. Experiments 1-4 (12-month-olds, N = 128) provided several combinations of simple appe...
Article
Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were abl...
Article
Full-text available
A central issue within the field of object individuation concerns the kind of information that infants rely on when they succeed in individuating objects. By means of the violation-of-expectation strategy, the present study reports a comparison of 8.0- and 6.5-month-old infants' use of featural and spatiotemporal information in a new non-occlusion...
Article
Discussions have recently taken place on whether spatiotemporal information is more important than featural information when infants attempt to individuate objects. Hitherto, spatiotemporal and featural information have only been compared directly by using cognitively demanding 'event-mapping designs' (e.g. Xu & Carey, 1996), whereas the simpler ev...
Article
Full-text available
The present article is a review of infants’ search for hidden persons. Studies investigating the presence of the so-called positive decalage—the claim, originating from Piaget, that person permanence precedes object permanence—are presented and discussed. Attempts are made to pinpoint, clarify, and summarise the potential confounding variables that...
Article
The present review of object individuation in infancy is divided into five sections. The first section is a brief history of the field and an outline of the development of efficient methods for studying object individuation among infants. Sections 2 and 3 are structured around the empirical evidence obtained by using two different kinds of basic an...
Article
The role of habituation/introduction as a possible confounder in the so-called violation-of-expectation method has been discussed recently among infancy researchers. This study reports two experiments on object individuation in 10-month-old infants using the occlusion design employed by Xu and Carey (1996, Experiment 2). The first experiment replic...
Article
Object individuation in 10-month-old infants is investigated in an experiment using a violation-of-expectation paradigm. Two variables are manipulated experimentally. The first variable is test condition (property/kind vs. spatiotemporal) analogous to the study by Xu and Carey [Cognitive Psychology 30 (1996) 111.]. The second variable is object typ...
Article
Object individuation in 10-month-old infants is investigated in an experiment using a violation-of-expectation paradigm. Two variables are manipulated experimentally. The first variable is test condition (property/kind vs. spatiotemporal) analogous to the study by Xu and Carey [Cognitive Psychology 30 (1996) 111.]. The second variable is object typ...
Article
This is the second of two articles on infants' cognition of objects' numerical identity. This article deals extensively with the work of E.S. Spelke. After a presentation of one of Spelke's experiments, some of her thoughts concerning their probable consequences for the understanding of infants' reasoning on objects' numerical identity are discusse...
Article
This article is the first in a series of two articles on infants' cognition of objects' numerical identity. The present article begins with an argument for the importance of the subject, that might seem rather abstract at first sight. Second, the background for the current interest in the numerical identity within experimental infancy research is b...
Article
The purpose of this article is twofold. First, the article is a selective review of the literature on object permanence. Second, the author seeks to illustrate that even though many investigations have been carried out in this field of research, certain important dimensions have been neglected. Piaget's theory of object permanence is briefly outlin...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
To explore strategic recall in 3-year-olds by asking open-ended questions about previous experienced events that the child has recently talked about spontaneously.
Project
We explore spontaneous memories in 3-year-olds by means of a diary study where parents report their child's spontaneous recall. Specifically, we examine 1) cues triggering spontaneous recall; 2) memory valence; 3) mood at the time of retrieval; 4) memory significance; 5) memory rehearsal; and 6) recency effect.
Project
In a series of studies we have looked into how the ability to segment streams of activity develop early in life