Peter R Killeen

Peter R Killeen
Arizona State University Tempe · Psychology

Ph.Done
perception of sequentially presented stimuli. Time perception. Stroop and Garner effects. Delay discounting.

About

249
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Introduction
Additional affiliations
June 1968 - present
Arizona State University
Position
  • Recumbent

Publications

Publications (249)
Article
Science evolves from prior approximations of its current form. Interest in changes in species over time was not a new concept when Darwin made his famous voyage to the Galapagos Islands; concern with speciation stretches back throughout the history of modern thought. Behavioral science also does and must evolve. Such change can be difficult, but it...
Chapter
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In this article I examine Skinner's objections to mentalism. I conclude that his only valid objections concern the "specious explanations" that mentalism might afford — explanations that are incomplete, circular, or faulty in other ways. Unfortunately, the mere adoption of behavioristic terminology does not solve that problem. It camouflages the na...
Article
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Bright light was an effective aversive stimulus for Wistar rats in punishment, escape, and avoidance paradigms. Contingent punishment of lever pressing maintained by concurrent schedules of food delivery shifted presses to an alternate lever, and depressed overall response rates. Periodic non-contingent presentation of the light prompted escape res...
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As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a tri...
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A scientific framework is described in which scientists are cast as problem-solvers, and problems as solved when data are mapped to models. This endeavor is limited by finite attentional capacity which keeps depth of understanding complementary to breadth of vision; and which distinguishes the process of science from its products, scientists from s...
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Many comparisons involve sequentially presented stimuli, as perforce the case in comparisons of temporal intervals. Interactions of such stimuli are as inevitable as the spatial interactions that yield color and brightness contrast. A memory-trace theory of perception (TToP) is developed and applied to time perception. Duration is estimated based o...
Preprint
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Many comparisons involve sequentially presented stimuli, as perforce the case in comparisons of temporal intervals. Interactions of such stimuli are as inevitable as the spatial interactions that yield color and brightness contrast. A memory-trace theory of perception (TToP) is developed and applied to time perception. Duration is estimated based o...
Article
Commentary on CP Shimp's Molecular (moment-to-moment) and molar (aggregate) analyses of behavior
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Killeen (2019) portrayed an intimate relation between diverse economic indices, in particular compensation functions, discount functions, and demand functions. The article bemused some experts, however, by its counterintuitive prediction of an increase in the amount bid as the delay increased. Furthermore, the article failed to provide an explicit...
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This year marks a half century since William Timberlake earned his doctorate (Timberlake, 1969) and joined the Department of Psychology faculty at Indiana University, where he remained for the rest of his career. Over these fifty years, Timberlake has been an innovator and a leader, whose influence extends throughout the sciences of behaviour. With...
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The contributions of William Timberlake to the sciences of animal behaviour have been many and varied. These include important theoretical, empirical and institutional advances. One secret to Timberlake's success has been his focus on understanding the animals, rather than following conventional thinking. Work contributed to a Festschrift for Willi...
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In the accumulation paradigm animals press one manipulandum to accumulate pellets or seconds of access to food, and then press another manipulandum, or run some distance, to collect it. The accumulation may be interpreted as delay discounting, with the animals adjusting the distal amount to compensate for its distance or delay. The amount accumulat...
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Two of Timberlake's major contributions, amongst numerous other good notes, are Behavior Regulation Theory (BRT), and Behavior Systems Theory (BST). BRT was a refinement of the Premack Principle. What both got right was that reinforcers are responses, not stimuli. For BRT, they were responses that were occurring below the rate at which they otherwi...
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This is a commentary on Edwards, T. L., Lotfizadeh, A. D., & Poling, A. (2019). Motivating operations and stimulus control (in JEAB). It applauds the progress, but suggests we could hop over decades of further slogging by paying attention to what has been written on motivation elsewhere. Put wheels under the venture.
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One of the most notable aspects of the behavior of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is increased variability in many aspects of their behavior, including response times and attentional focus. Among the many theories of ADHD is one that identifies its material cause as phasic malnutrition of the neurons required to ma...
Chapter
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Review of the behavioral approach to psychophysics of SS Stevens, and comparison of his operational analysis with Skinner's.
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hypotheses from observations of the world, which they then deploy to test their reliability. The best way to test reliability is to predict an effect before it occurs. If we can manipulate the independent variables (the efficient causes) that make it occur, then ability to predict makes it possible to control. Such control helps to isolate the rele...
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We can imagine many of our emotions in our family pet: hunger, fear, anger, lust, and even the bonding that we call love. But not the appreciation of a sunset, sonnet, musical passage, or good joke. Mechner takes on the gamut of such aesthetic appreciations, removed from the urgency of the primal ones, and gives us the first thorough attempt at a b...
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The antimentalists’ war against mentalism has not vanquished it. To examine why, we focus on two theses—mind as causal and internal—and three standard attacks against mentalism as defined by both theses: 1) mentalism implies dualism; 2) mind is unobservable, which hinders its scientific study; and 3) mentalism is impractical. These salients fail be...
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The present experiments studied impulsivity by manipulating the delay between target responses and presentation of a reinforcer. Food-deprived SHR, WKY, and Wistar rats were exposed to a fixed-time 30-s schedule of food pellet presentation until they developed stable patterns of water spout-licking and magazine-entering. In successive phases of the...
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For 50 years experimental analysts of behavior have been riding the crests of waves raised by B. F. Skinner. His technical innovations and conceptual simplifications were a powerful breath of fresh air, and the large effect sizes engineered with contingencies of reinforcement gave its practitioners confidence in their methods. The goals of experime...
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The persistence of operant responding in the context of distractors and opposing forces is of central importance to the success of behavioral interventions. It has been successfully analyzed with Behavioral Momentum Theory. Key data from the research inspired by that theory are reanalyzed in terms of more molecular behavioral mechanisms: the demoti...
Article
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The optimal strategy in detection theory is to partition the decision axis at a criterion C, labeling all events that score above C “Signal”, and all those that fall below “Noise.” The optimal position of C, C*, depends on signal probability and payoffs. If observers place their criterion at some place other than C*, they suffer a loss in the Expec...
Research
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Timing, operant behavior, motivation, choice, SDT
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Many readers of this journal have been schooled in both Darwinian evolution and Skinnerian psychology, which have in common the vision of powerful control of their subjects by their sequalae. Individuals of species that generate more successful offspring come to dominate their habitat; responses of those individuals that generate more reinforcers c...
Data
Science is the construction and testing of systems that bind symbols to sensations according to rules. Material implication is the primary rule, providing the structure of definition, elaboration, delimitation, prediction, explanation, and control. The goal of science is not to secure truth—a binary function on accuracy—but rather to increase the i...
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Reinforcers comprise sequences of actions in context. Just as the white of snow and black of coal depend on the interaction of an organism’s visual system and the reflectances in its surrounds, reinforcers depend on an organism’s motivational state and the affordances—possibilities for perception and action—in its surrounds. Reinforcers are not int...
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I answer the question "Is vaping safe?"-- From WalletHub conversation: https://is.gd/FiKHvX
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Read here: http://rdcu.be/njQd
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Background It has been 10 years since Terje Sagvolden founded Behavioral and Brain Functions. Body After setting the context, this paper reviews some of the contributions of articles in the journal to the literature on ADHD over that decade. Those articles provide a cross section of some of the most important ongoing themes in ADHD research. Conc...
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The brain uses 20% of the body’s energy. The processes delivering that energy to neurons can fail in numerous ways. The neuroenergetics theory draws out the implications of failure in the supply chain between blood capillaries and neurons. The theory is implemented as a diffusion model that yields response-latency distributions, error rates, and ot...
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The special issue of the Psychonomic Bulletin and Review empaneling " Arguments about the nature of concepts " embodies much that is salutary about our field—vigorous, sometimes heated, criticism of recent creative attempts to ground cognition. How symbols are grounded to their worldly referents has long been recognized as a central problem for psy...
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When people seek explanations about behavior (especially when behavior changes suddenly), there is a distinction between “what” is happening, “why” it is happening, and “how” it is happening. Behavior is often mischaracterized because it is in the normal range of actions. If behavior is categorizable, all three categories above must be considered t...
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Boakes, Patterson, Kendig, and Harris (2015) showed that schedule-induced drinking (SID), typically concentrated in the first half of the interpellet interval, is not moved there exclusively by competition from magazine entries, and that not all arbitrary responses can be maintained by adventitious reinforcement. They attribute such inferences to K...
Article
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The generalized matching law (GML) is reconstructed as a logistic regression equation that privileges no particular value of the sensitivity parameter, a. That value will often approach 1 due to the feedback that drives switching that is intrinsic to most concurrent schedules. A model of that feedback reproduced some features of concurrent data. Th...
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Lecoutre and Poitevineau's helpful cheat-sheet for using prep: en English, no tables.
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Prep, gives the probability that an equally powered replication attempt will provide supportive evidence—an effect of the same sign as the original, or, if preferred, the probability of a significant effect in replication. Prep is based on a standard Bayesian construct, the posterior predictive distribution. It may be used in three modes: to evalua...
Article
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In the delay discounting paradigm choices are made between a good of small utility available soon (SS) vs. a good of greater utility available later (LL). Versions of the task may be used with human and non-human subjects, they generate characteristic data, and are of relevance the topic of this special issue, the imputed impulsivity of organisms c...
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A tutorial on SDT
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A true life story illustrating the following thesis: Most claims that nicotine is addictive, or that nicotine use is followed by withdrawal, are referring to tobacco addiction and tobacco withdrawal. Nicotine is implicated in the addictive process, but is not itself addictive. Instead, it works in concert with other components of tobacco to cause a...
Article
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Most current models of delay discounting multiply the nominal value of a good whose receipt is delayed, by a discount factor that is some function of that delay. This article reviews the logic of a theory that discounts the utility of delayed goods by adding the utility of the good to the disutility of the delay. In limiting cases it approaches oth...
Article
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The reinforcers that maintain target instrumental responses also reinforce other responses that compete with them for expression. This competition, and its imbalance at points of transition between different schedules of reinforcement, causes behavioral contrast. A model for this theory of behavioral contrast is constructed by expanding the couplin...
Thesis
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There is nothing quite like time—except a yo-yo. A yo-yo's spin, and its yo-yoing up and down, are called "recurrent" motion, because they occur again and again. All measurements of time use recurrent motion. The day is one rotation of the earth on its axis, a blue yo-yo spinning on its axle-loop. Each turn gives a new date on the calendar—until we...
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There exists a species of nonlinear system of exceptional relevance to behavioral scientists. It is the embodiment of a locally stable basin of attraction atop an unstable potential gradient. The universal importance of such para-stable entities was first identified by James Clerk Maxwell. This review characterizes the structures and the forces tha...
Article
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Behavior is a sequence of actions. Premackian conditioning occurs when one of those actions permits an animal to engage in more biologically potent positive responses—reinforcement—or forces them to engage in less positive (or negative) responses —punishment. Signals of the transition from one class of actions to another focus the instrumental resp...
Article
Full-text available
There exists a species of nonlinear system of exceptional relevance to behavioral scientists. It is the embodiment of a locally stable basin of attraction atop an unstable potential gradient. The universal importance of such para-stable entities was first identified by James Clerk Maxwell. This review characterizes the structures and the forces tha...
Article
Full-text available
In the first experiment, pigeons were given a choice between two fixed-interval 40-sec schedules. Varying the pause length by introducing stimulus changes at various times in the intervals had no effect on choice behavior. In the second experiment, pigeons were given a choice between two delays of reinforcement, and preference for the shorter delay...
Article
Full-text available
Science is the construction and testing of systems that bind symbols to sensations according to rules. Material implication is the primary rule, providing the structure of definition, elaboration, delimitation, prediction, explanation, and control. The goal of science is not to secure truth—a binary function on accuracy—but rather to increase the i...
Article
Full-text available
Pacemaker-accumulator (PA) systems have been the most popular kind of timing model in the half-century since their introduction by Treisman (1963). Many alternative timing models have been designed predicated on different assumptions, though the dominant PA model during this period –Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET; Church, Meck, & Gibbon, 1984) – inv...
Article
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We understand time through our models of it. These are typically models of our physical chronometers, which we then project into our subjects. A few of these models of the nature of time its effects on the behavior of organisms are reviewed. New models, such as thermodynamics and spectral decomposition, are recommended for the potential insights th...
Data
Final treatment of Progressive Ratio schedule performance
Data
Errata for: Bizo, L.A., Chu, J.Y., Sanabria, F. and Killeen, P.R. 2006. The failure of Weber's law in time perception and production. Behav. Processes, 71: 201-210. The parameters of Eqs. 16-17 reported on p. 206 for the categorization task are wrong. The median values over the 12 subjects are m = 2.8, A = 0.31, B = 0.12, with semi-interquartile r...
Article
Full-text available
Absent minded people are not under the control of task-relevant stimuli. According to the Neuroenergetics Theory of attention (NeT), this lack of control is often due to fatigue of the relevant processing units in the brain caused by insufficient resupply of the neuron's preferred fuel, lactate, from nearby astrocytes. A simple drift model of infor...
Data
Full-text available
This paper considers properties of a Markov chain on the natural numbers which models a binary adding machine in which there is a non-zero probability of failure each time a register attempts to increment the succeeding register and resets. This chain has a family of natural quotient Markov chains, and extends naturally to a chain on the 2-adic int...
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Rationale Mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR) provide the theoretical basis for a family of models of schedule-controlled behaviour. A model of fixed-ratio schedule performance that was applied to behaviour on progressive ratio (PR) schedules showed systematic departures from the data. Objective This study aims to derive a new model from...
Article
Full-text available
KILLEEN, P.R., V.A. Russell and J.A. Sergeant. A behavioral neuroenergetics theory of ADHD. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 37(4) XXX_XXX 2013- Energetic insufficiency in neurons due to inadequate lactate supply is implicated in several neuropathologies, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By formalizing the mechanism and implications...
Article
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Adjunctive behaviors such as schedule-induced polydipsia are said to be induced by periodic delivery of incentives, but not reinforced by them. That standard treatment assumes that contingency is necessary for conditioning and that delay of reinforcement gradients are very steep. The arguments and evidence for this position are reviewed and rejecte...
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The aim of this study was to compare the demand for food under concurrent progressive- and fixed-ratio schedules. Twelve brushtail possums participated in 16 conditions where schedule, progression and food type were varied. An incrementing schedule increased the fixed-ratio requirement within and across sessions and was arranged as either a geometr...
Data
Full-text available
Absent minded people are not under the control of task-relevant stimuli. According to the Neuroenergetics Theory of attention (NeT), this lack of control is often due to fatigue of the relevant processing units in the brain caused by insufficient resupply of the neuron's preferred fuel, lactate, from nearby astrocytes. A simple drift model of infor...
Article
Full-text available
Mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR) provide the theoretical basis for a family of models of schedule-controlled behaviour. A model of fixed-ratio schedule performance that was applied to behaviour on progressive ratio (PR) schedules showed systematic departures from the data. This study aims to derive a new model from MPR that will accou...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to the symptoms singled out by the diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a comprehensive definition should inform us of the events that trigger ADHD in both its acute and chronic manifestations; the neurobiology that underlies it; and the evolutionary forces that have kept it in the germ line of our sp...
Article
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Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after 3 flashes of the houselight, to a second key after 6, and to a third key after 12. The flashes were arranged according to variable-interval schedules. Response allocation among the keys was a function of the number of flashes. When flashes were omitted, transitions oc...
Article
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Behavior such as depression of a lever or perception of a stimulus may be strengthened by consequent behaviorally significant events (BSEs), such as reinforcers. This is the Law of Effect. As time passes since its emission, the ability for the behavior to be reinforced decreases. This is trace decay. It is upon decayed traces that subsequent BSEs o...
Article
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Survival functions from smoking cessation interventions are described by a three-state Markov model. On quitting, smokers transit through a state of withdrawal characterized by a high rate of relapse, and then into a more secure state of long-term abstinence. The Markov model embodies the dynamic nature of the cessation/relapse process; it permits...
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Lecoutre, Lecoutre, and Poitevineau (2010) have provided sophisticated grounding for prep. Computing it precisely appears, fortunately, no more difficult than doing so approximately. Their analysis will help move predictive inference into the mainstream. Iverson, Wagenmakers, and Lee (2010) have also validated prep as a boundary condition in a mode...